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A Valuable, Concise 

^Guide to Massachusetts, 

its History and its 

k. Attractions, a 


The Commemorative Guide 



The Official Publication of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Bicentennial Commission 






Dear Visitor: 

During this Bicentennial period, it is my special 
pleasure to welcome you to Massachusetts. For during this 
time, we are celebrating more than just a series of 
historic events. We are commemorating a revolution in 
the hearts and minds of people — the birth of American 
freedom and democracy. 

Massachusetts has the oldest constitution now in 
effect anywhere in the world. In fact, the Constitution 
of the United States and those of many other states and 
nations were modeled after the ideals set down by the 
people of this state. 

During the Bicentennial celebration, each of us 
should examine those ideals, rededicate ourselves to them, 
and seek ways to make them work. 

The people of this Commonwealth have contributed 
a great deal to America, and we welcome visitors who 
seek to share in our heritage. But at the same time, 
we want to learn from you what we can do to broaden our 
contributions and to share what we have with others. 

To be in Massachusetts during our Bicentennial 
celebration is a vibrant and exciting experience. On 
behalf of the people of this Commonwealth, I welcome you 
and extend to you my very best wishes for an enjoyable 
and stimulating visit. 

Dear Friends: 

The Massachusetts Bicentennial 
Commission came into being to help 
the cities and towns of the Com- 
monwealth commemorate the Na- 
tion's 200th Birthday. As such, the 
Commission is both an extension 
of the towns' Bicentennial Com- 
mittees and a coordinator and stim- 
ulator of their efforts. Together, we 
have been working towards the 
same goals: to honor the past, cele- 
brate the present, and endow a 
permanent gift for the future. 

The response throughout the 
state has been enthusiastic — from 
the smallest rural towns to the 
largest areas participating in our 
"Visible Cities" program. Wherever 
you go in Massachusetts during 
1975 and 1976, you will find people 
working to improve their communi- 
ties in preparation for the 200th 
Anniversary of America's Indepen- 
dence. And you'll be invited to join 
in the celebration. 

We are proud that the Bicenten- 
nial starts in Massachusetts and 
eager to be the first to welcome 
visitors from across the nation 
and around the world who come 
to wish America a personal happy 
birthday. The Massachusetts Bicen- 
tennial Commission extends warm 
greetings to its many old friends 
who are making return visits to the 
Commonwealth during these special 
years. We also welcome many new 
friends who will be exploring our 
unique past and present vitality for 
the first time. 

Enjoy Massachusetts during the 
Bicentennial. And come back again 
and again. 



Edward A. McColgan i 
Executive Director 
Massachusetts Bicentennial 

Dear Visitors: 

Like many people in the Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts, I grew 
up with history. What was my back 
yard was also the tourist attraction 
which people came from all around 
the country — in fact from all around 
the world — to see. 

The Old North Bridge in Concord, 
where it all began, was part of my 
life. For others, in Boston, Lexing- 
ton, Saugus or Deerfield, sites such 
as Fanueil Hall, the Battle Green, 
the country's first iron works, or 
the Old Indian House have been in- 
tegral parts of their lives in these 
communities. As you will see, all 
the communities of the Common- 
wealth are rich in historical signifi- 

Thus it is fitting that the Bicen- 
tennial will be celebrated at the 
community level. The 200th anni- 
versary of our independence as a 
nation is properly a time to renew 
the spirit and realize the aspira- 
tions of the cities and towns of the 

During this Bicentennial celebra- 
tion, here in Massachusetts we have 
sounded a new alarm. Not one 
which says "The British are com- 
ing!" Rather one which calls each 
of us, in every community, to reflect 
upon where we came from, who we 
are, and where we are going. It has 
not been a call to arms. It has been 
a call to conscience. Each com- 
munity has undertaken projects and 
programs which reflect this think- 

We welcome you to Massachu- 
setts and hope you will enjoy shar- 
ing with us both our historical past 
and our aspirations for the future. 


Chester G. Atkins 
Senate Chairman 
Massachusetts Bicentennial 

Dear Friends: 

Because of its unique position in 
American history, Massachusetts is 
playing a special role in the cele- 
bration of the American Revolution 
Bicentennial. There have been no 
special fairgrounds built because 
the entire state is the celebration. 

The Massachusetts environment 
encompasses a rich variety of indi- 
viduals, resources, and institutions 
which have grown through history 
and continue to survive because of 
our New England heritage. Massa- 
chusetts has more landmarks of his- 
torical merit than any other state, 
permitting our own residents to be 
tourists as well. 

Because the Bicentennial should 
offer the chance for every American 
to participate in the celebration, it 
was decided not to focus the com- 
memoration in one city only, but to 
give every city and town the free- 
dom to plan for the Bicentennial 
separately. To fulfill this function 
statewide, the Massachusetts Bi- 
centennial Commission was estab- 

The Massachusetts Bicentennial 
Commission has given maximum 
support services to all individuals, 
agencies, and institutions in their 
Bicentennial efforts. Its primary 
function has been to develop and 
coordinate diverse Bicentennial ac- 
tivities. With the research and co- 
operation of state, local and private 
agencies completed, we of the Bi- 
centennial Commission take this 
opportunity to welcome you to our 
Commonwealth, birthplace of our 
Revolutionary heritage. 


Vincent J. Piro£/ 
House Chairman 
Massachusetts Bicentennial 


This book's objective is to help residents and visitors celebrate 
the Massachusetts Bicentennial and the 200th anniversary of the 
American Revolution. It attempts to do so by guiding readers 
through two centuries of life in Massachusetts, beginning with 
several significant events of the Revolution and ending with sug- 
gestions for places to visit throughout the state during 1975. 

We have tried to make this book not only a commemorative 
souvenir of lasting value, but also a functional, up-to-date visitors' 
guide including a calendar of events, transportation information, 
and listings of things to see and do. 

With it all, we have tried to create a book that is basically about 
liberty and the pursuit and protection of it during the last 200 years 
by the people of Massachusetts. The Bicentennial is a most appro- 
priate occasion to consider where we have come since our inde- 
pendence, how we arrived here, and what measures we must take 
to preserve our freedom in the years to come. 

In one sense, an appreciation of the legacy of liberty given to us 
by our country's founders is tribute enough to their memory. In 
another sense, we best honor those who came before us by con- 
stantly renewing and reaffirming their guiding principles. 

The Bicentennial seems to be a fitting occasion to review our 
past by considering the quality of life in America and in Massa- 
chusetts then and now. And, a time to recognize anew the meaning 
and substance of the bonds that hold us together as something 
more than a collection of people — as a nation and a state of free 
men and women. 

We hope our guide helps to encourage this important perspec- 
tive and an understanding of the people and politics that have 
made Massachusetts unique throughout history. 




1975 Edition 

2 Bicentennial Messages 
4 Introduction 


7 Directory 

8 Calendar of Events 


1 8 The Regulars are Coming! 

by Robert A. Gross 

28 The Battle for Boston 

by William J. Loughran 

36 Washington Takes Command 

by Thomas Fleming 

44 A New Sense of Property 

by Jack Larkin 

51 Old Sturbridge Village: A Look Into Our Past 

by Marcia Burick Goldstein 


54 A State of Mind 

by Jon Kathe 

66 Utopians and Dreamers 

by Stephen Nissenbaum 

72 Hancock Shaker Village: Keeping the Spirit Alive 

by Marcia Burick Goldstein 

73 Fruitlands: Earthly Paradise 

by Marcia Burick Goldstein 

75 Ethnic Massachusetts 

by Peter R. Knights 

78 Ethnic Celebrations 

Continued on next page 

The Commemorative Guide to the Massachusetts 
Bicentennial copyright © 1975 by Yankee, Inc. 
All rights reserved. Reproduction or use in whole 
or any part of the contents, without permission of 
the copyright owners is prohibited. 


by Marcia Burick Goldstein 
Photos by Chris Maynard 

79 Introduction to Visible Cities 

80 Pittsfield 86 Lowell 

82 Springfield 88 Salem 

84 Worcester 90 New Bedford 

92 The Knox Trail 


by Marcia Burick Goldstein 

96 Massachusetts: From the Berkshires to Cape Cod 

97 Into the Wilderness 

100 Deerfield: Where the Whigs and Tories Drank on Opposite Sides of the Street 

102 Hitting the Trails in Western Massachusetts 

106 Chesterwood: The Studio and Estate of Daniel Chester French 

107 Hoosuck Community Resources Corporation: Turning North Adams Around 

108 Stockbridge: Name-dropping in the Berkshires 

109 Crossroads of Ideas: Education in Hampshire County 


1 1 1 Greener Pastures 

1 13 Through Every Middlesex Village and Farm 

115 Mountain Greenery: Wandering Tours of Village Greens 


118 From Cod to Colonization 

120 Side Trips to Northeastern Massachusetts 

122 Danvers: Historical Revival in Old Salem Village 

123 Ipswich: A "Museum" Found in a City's Streets 

124 Gloucester: Down to the Sea in Ships 

126 Newburyport: Restoring the Past with the Future in Mind 

Metropolitan Boston 

128 The Hub of Independence 

131 Boston: A Birthday Party that Never Ends 

133 Historic Spokes Around Boston's Hub 

137 Paul Revere's Route and the Path of the British Retreat 

141 Quincy: Still Making Merry on Merry Mount 


142 New England's Roots 

144 Fall River: "Is there anybody wants to come ashore?" 

146 Art, Architecture and Americana 

147 Take a Ride on the Cranberry Line 

148 Plymouth: Where It All Began 

Cape Cod and the Islands 

150 The Cape Wasn't For Myles 

by John Ackerman 
152 Cape Towns 


1 55 Park and Ride to Boston 

156 Massachusetts Bikeways 
1 58 Knowing Where You Are 

Cover: The Battle of Lexington, painted by Alonzo 
Chappel and engraved by James Smillie. The 
original print is hanging in the post office of 
Buckman Tavern in Lexington, Massachusetts. 
Courtesy of Lexington Historical Society. 

Front end paper: The Boston Massacre 

Back end paper: The retreat of the British from 
Concord. Painted by Alonzo Chappel and en- 
graved by James Smillie. 




This guidebook spans the past and the present. As you look through it, 
you'll see that some pages talk about what once happened in Massachusetts 
and other pages discuss what is happening today. The directory below has 
been designed to help readers find places of immediate Bicentennial interest. 

Acton, 15, 113 
Adams, 14, 104 
Amesbury, 9, 10, 12, 13, 

14, 120 
Amherst, 11, 110 
Andover, 120 
Arlington, 17, 138 
Ashburnham, 1 17 
Ashley Falls, 105 
Barnstable, 10, 152 
Barre, 16 
Becket, 13, 104 
Bedford, 10, 113 
Beverly, 13, 120 
Blandford, 14, 15,95 
Boylston, 1 1 
Boston, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15 

16, 17,78, 131-132, 156 
Bourne, 157 
Braintree, 135 
Brewster, 152, 157 
Brockton, 14, 146, 157 
Brookline, 133 
Burlington, 8, 9, 17 
Cambridge, 11, 13, 15,95, 

139-140, 156 
Carlisle, 15 
Chappaquiddick, 154 
Charlemont, 103 
Charlestown, 11, 12, 137 
Charlton, 15, 117 
Chatham, 152 
Chelmsford, 9, 13 
Cheshire, 104 
Chesterfield, 1 1 
Cohasset, 135 
Concord, 12, 13, 17, 113 
Cummington, 102 
Dalton, 102, 104 
Danvers, 122 
Dartmouth, 11, 14 
Dedham, 9, 134 
Deerfield, 100-101, 102 
Dennis, 152 
Dover, 1 1 

East Bridgewater, 9, 12, 14 
East Longmeadow, 13, 17 
Eastham, 153, 157 
Easthampton, 10 

Easton, 12, 146 
Edgartown, 154 
Egremont, 95, 105 
Fairhaven, 11,15 
Fall River, 12, 78, 

144-145, 157 
Falmouth, 153, 157 
Florida, 103 
Framingham, 12, 17, 94 
Gardner, 15 
Gay Head, 154 
Gloucester, 13, 14,78, 

Great Barrington, 8, 13, 95, 

104, 105 
Greenfield, 9, 103 
Halifax, 12 
Hancock, 14, 72 
Hanson, 9, 11, 12, 15 
Harvard, 73 
Harwich, 153 
Haverhill, 120 
Haydenville, 102 
Hingham, 13,17, 134,156 
Holden, 10 
Holyoke, 17 
Hopkinton, 11 
Hubbardston, 10, 12, 14 
Hull, 15 
Ipswich, 123 
Lawrence, 120 
Lee, 105 
Leicester, 95 
Lenox, 104, 105 
Leominster, 14 
Lexington, 138-139 
Lincoln, 113, 156 
Littleton, 113 
Lowell, 11, 13, 15,86-87 
Lynn, 14 
Lynnfield, 17 
Maiden, 10, 16 
Mansfield, 11, 15, 17 
Marion, 13 
Marlborough, 94 
Mashpee, 157 
Mattapoisett, 15 
Medford, 17,137-138 
Methuen, 10 

Middleborough, 10, 13, 14 
Millis, 10, 13, 156 
Milton, 136 
Monson, 95 
Monterey, 14, 104 
Nantucket, 154, 158 
Natick, 9 
Needham, 10, 11 
New Bedford, 13,78, 

90-91, 157 
New Boston, 105 
New Braintree, 8 
New Marlborough, 104, 105 
New Salem, 14 
Newbury, 127 
Newburyport, 14, 126-127 
Newton, 1 1 
North Adams, 13, 15, 103, 

104, 107 
North Egremont, 94 
North Reading, 10, 11, 13 
Northampton, 9, 10, 11, 13, 

15, 17, 110 
Northborough, 14, 15, 17,95 
Norton, 157 
Oak Bluffs, 1 54 
Orleans, 154 
Otis, 95 
Palmer, 11,94 
Peabody, 10 
Pelham, 115 
Pembroke, 11,14 
Petersham, 115, 116 
Phillipston, 1 1 7 
Pittsfield, 8, 10, 12, 17,78, 

80-81, 102, 104 
Plymouth, 16, 148-149 
Plympton, 14, 17 
Princeton, 15, 117 
Provincetown, 153, 157 
Quincy, 16, 141 
Reading, 8, 9, 1 1 
Rockport, 120-121 
Royalston, 1 17 
Rutland, 117 
Sagamore, 78 
Salem, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 

15, 16,88-89 
Salisbury, 12 

Sandisfield, 104, 105 

Sandwich, 154 

Saugus, 121 

Savoy, 103 

Scituate, 12, 13, 14, 136 

Segreganset, 16 

Sheffield, 14, 105 

Shelburne, 102 

Shrewsbury, 95 

Somerville, 13 

South Carver, 16, 147, 157 

South Dartmouth, 12 

South Hadley, 110 

Southborough, 15 

Southbridge, 117 

Spencer, 94 

Springfield, 9, 16,82-83 

Stow, 17 

Stockbridge, 15, 104, 105, 

106, 108, 158 
Sturbridge, 16,51-53, 117 
Sudbury, 10, 17, 113-114 
Taunton, 146 
Tewksbury, 13, 17 
Tolland, 105 
Truro, 157 
Uxbridge, 12 
Vineyard Haven, 154 
Waltham, 133 
Wareham, 12,78 
Warren, 95 
Watertown, 133 
Wellesley, 134, 135, 156 
Wellfleet, 154 
West Brookfield, 94 
West Chicopee, 158 
West Springfield, 8 
Westboro, 13, 15 
Westfield, 95 
Westford, 14 
Weston, 15, 134 
Whitinsville, 16 
Wilbraham, 95 
Williamstown, 13, 17, 

103, 104 
Wilmington, 1 1 
Windsor, 102 

Worcester, 8, 16,84-85,95 
Yarmouth, 154 





h I ^KBj^^ ^^1 i I ^H^^L ' ^^^^^ through Tues- 

^^l^^H^^^^^^^^^ I ^B I ^^^^^^^M ^K^^^^^^L I da V Sunday 

^^ ^F^W WkH ^B ^^ ^^ B vBB . VI to For reserva- 
tions, call (413) 736-7092. 
Jan. Pittsfield 8 Reading 9 New Braintree 

Winter Carnival, Pittsfield. Art Demonstration Meeting, Re-enactment of the First All Year Salem 
Week-long festivities some- Community Center, 52 San- Town Meeting, Town Hall. New Photo Exhibit, Essex Institute, 
time in January include ski born Street. Tad Klodnicki Braintree has held town meet- 132-134 Essex Street. The ex- 
events, ice skating and other demonstrates watercolor tech- ings every year for more than hibit j s entitled "Salem Streets 
winter recreational activities, nique at 8 p.m. for members 200 years. For starting time, anc | People, 1860 to 1930." 
To obtain exact dates, call of the Reading Art Associa- call (617) 867-3928. Tuesday through Saturday, 
(413)448-8274. tion. Guest admission $1.50. 9 am . to 4:30 p.m.; Sunday! 

11-May24 West Springfield 2 to 5 p.m. Admission free. 
1-31 Great Barrington 8-11 Worcester Theater, Stage West, Eastern 
100th Anniversary of the Birth Craft and Sculpture Show, States Exposition Grounds. 

of Albert Schweitzer, Albert Worcester Center Mall. An as- Performances by the profes- 22-25 Burlington 

Schweitzer Friendship House, sortment of hand-crafted items sional resident company in- Professional Craft and Sculp- 

Special exhibits, movies, con- are offered for sale; demon- elude Paul Foster's Marcus ture Show, Burlington Mall. 

certs and other commemora- strations of skills are given. Brutus in January; Promenade Exhibits of works by profes- 

tive activities are scheduled 9:30 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. Admis- All by David Robinson from sionals are displayed for sale; 

throughout the month. For a sion free. mid-February into March; and craftsmen are on hand to dem- 

complete schedule, call (413) One Flew Over the Cuckoo's onstrate skills. 9:30 a.m. to 

528-3124. Nest by Dale Wasserman from 9:30 p.m. Admission free. 



Early Feb. East Bridgewater 

Pageant and Tableau, East 
Bridgewater Junior High 
School, Central Street. The 
title of the pageant is "A por- 
trayal of the Revolution." For 
curtain time and ticket infor- 
mation, call (617) 583-5842. 

2 Boston 

Cyclorama Flea Market, 539 
Tremont Street. More than 
100 exhibitors display mer- 
chandise indoors; refreshments 
are available. 1 to 7 p.m. Ad- 
mission $1. 

15-22 Northampton 

Northampton Winter Festival. 
Activities include snow sculp- 
ture contest, ice fishing derby, 
ice figure-skating contest and 
much more. Contact the 

Northampton Chamber of Com- 
merce for a schedule. 

Feb. & March Sturbridge 

Crafts at Close Range, Old 
Sturbridge Village. An in-depth 
study of particular New Eng- 
land crafts examines the back- 
ground, purpose and impor- 
tance of one or more crafts. 
Direct participation in the craft 
under discussion is planned 
using traditional tools, meth- 
ods and materials. Advance 
reservation required; write the 
Secretary for Special Events. 

12 Reading 

Art Demonstration Meeting, 
Community Center, 52 San- 
born Street. Alan Davidson 
demonstrates sculpture tech- 
nique at 8 p.m. for members 

of the Reading Art Associa- 
tion. Guest admission $1.50. 

17 Hanson 

Crafts That Matter, Maquan 
School. Demonstrations are 
given of crafts such as bread- 
making, rug-braiding and can- 
dle-making with an emphasis 
on those skills that were a 
necessary part of life many 
years ago. 10 a.m. Admission 

22 Chelmsford 

Colonial Costume Ball, 
Chelmsford Elks Hall. The sit- 
down dinner is accompanied 
by an orchestra. Demonstra- 
tions of the minuet and other 
colonial dances are given. For 
reservation information, call 
John Alden, (617) 357-5787. 

28 Salem 

Grand Bicentennial Ball, Salem 
Armory. Gala event commem- 
orates "Leslie's Retreat: Con- 
frontation at North Bridge 
(1775)." Glenn Miller orches- 
tra performs from 9 p.m. to 
1 a.m. Tickets $7.50 per per- 
son; contact Robert Murray, 
(617) 744-4580. 

Late Feb. Sturbridge 

Maple Sugaring Demonstra- 
tions, Old Sturbridge Village. 
Visitors can watch tapping of 
trees and boiling of sap by 
costumed villagers. The proc- 
ess is carried on just as it 
would have been in the early 
19th century. 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
Adults $4; children under 14, 
$1.25. To obtain dates, call 
(617) 347-3362. 


1-30 Springfield 

"Black Presence in the Amer- 
ican Revolution," Museum of 
Fine Arts. Tuesday through 
Saturday, 1 to 5 p.m.; Sunday, 
2 to 5 p.m. and Thursday eve- 
ning, 7 to 9 p.m. Admission 

13-16 Natick 

Arts and Crafts Festival, Na- 
tick Mall. Professional artists 
and craftsmen exhibit works 
for sale. 9:30 a.m. to 9:30 
p.m.; Sunday, 11 a.m. to 5 
p.m. Admission free. 

14-15 Amesbury 

Commemorative Pageant, 
Amesbury High School Audi- 
torium. The pageant cele- 
brates the town's renuncia- 
tion of King George III which 
endorsed their independence 
from England. A re-enactment 
of a colonial town meeting will 
be part of the festivities. 8 
p.m. Admission charge. 

15-23 Boston 

Spring Garden and Flower 
Show, Commonwealth Armory. 
The Massachusetts Horticul- 
tural Society presents one 
of their biggest shows. Beau- 
tiful spring flowers are dis- 
played for awards and public 
viewing in both garden and 
cut flower arrangements. A 
section of the show offers in- 
formation about lawn care, 
tips on landscaping and ad- 
vice about gardens. Opening 
Saturday, noon to 10 p.m.; both 
Sundays, 1 to 8 p.m.; other 
days, 10 a.m. to 10 p.m. Ad- 
mission $3. 

19-22 Dedham 

Professional Craft and Sculp- 
ture Show, Dedham Mall. An 
assortment of craft items and 
sculpted works are exhib- 
ited for sale; demonstrations 
of specific skills are given fre- 
quently. 9:30 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. 
Admission free. 

20 Deerfield 

"Rural Society in the Revolu- 
tionary Era," White Church. 
Lecture by Jackson Turner 
Main, Professor of History, 
State University of New York 
at Stony Brook, at 8 p.m. Ad- 
mission free. 

20-21 Quincy 

"American Primitive," Broad 
Meadows Junior High School. 
Play by William Gibson is 
based on the letters of John 
and Abigail Adams. Tickets $2. 

20-23 Burlington 

Art Show, Burlington Mall. Art 
and sculpture by professional 
artists are displayed for sale; 
the artists are on hand to 
answer questions about their 
works. 9:30 a.m. to 9:30 p.m.; 
Sunday, 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. Ad- 
mission free. 

21-23 Greenfield 

Quota Antiques Show, Ston- 
leigh-Burnham School. Dealers 
display antique merchandise 
for sale. Friday, 6 to 10 p.m.; 
Saturday, noon to 10 p.m.; 
Sunday, noon to 6 p.m. Ad- 
mission $1.50. 

23-May 18 Lincoln 

"The British Are Coming," De- 
Cordova Museum. Survey of 
British painting and sculpture 
of the past decade. Tuesday 
through Saturday, 10 a.m. to 
5 p.m.; Sunday from 1:30 p.m. 

29 Springfield 

Antique Show and Flea Mar- 
ket, Springfield College Field 
House, 263 Alden Street. The 
' show is sponsored by the Fac- 
ulty Women's Club for the 
Scholarship Fund. 10 a.m. to 
5 p.m. Admission 750. 


All month Boston 

"Two Hundred Years of Yan- 
kee Ingenuity," Boston Mu- 
seum of Science, Science 
Park. The special exhibit 
shows how inventions have 
been intertwined with changes 
in society, life styles and in- 
dustry. Monday through Sat- 
urday, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Fri- 
day until 10 p.m. and Sunday, 
11 a.m. to 5 p.m. Adults $2; 
children under 16, $1. 

5-6 Lawrence 

Homelands Festival, Lawrence 
YWCA. A multi-ethnic exhibi- 
tion and show of crafts and 
foods of about 40 different na- 
tionalities. Adults $1.50; chil- 
dren 750. 

5-8 Boston 

Women's City Club Antique 
Show, 39-40 Beacon Street. 
Dealers from all over the East 
Coast display antiques for 
sale; lunch and dinner are 
available. Noon to 9 p.m. Ad- 
mission charge. 

6 Melrose 

Boston Ballet Repertory Per- 
formance, Memorial Hall. Spon- 
sored by the Melrose Chapter 
for Children with Learning Dis- 
abilities. Curtain time 8 p.m. 

6-13 Springfield 

Citizenship Week. Week-long 
program includes Student 
Award Presentations on the 
7th; "I Am An American Day" 
the 10th; and "Clean Up Parks 
Day" the 12th. 

8 Boston 

Berkley College of Music An- 
nual Concert, John Hancock 
Hall. A variety of music is per- 
formed by students at the 
school beginning at 8 p.m. For 
ticket information, call (617) 

11-13 Bedford 

Pole Capping Festivities, Bed- 
ford Center. Pole capping is 
the symbolic placement of a 
red cap on the community 

flagpole commemorating the 
colonists' defiance of the Brit- 
ish. Weekend events also in- 
clude a theater presentation 
Friday and Saturday nights. 

12-21 Pittsfield 

Patriot's Day Celebration Week. 
Activities include an art ex- 
hibit, chamber music and "An 
Evening of Americana" at the 
Berkshire Museum; pantomime 
sponsored by High School 
Theater Arts Program; and a 
photo exhibit "Pittsfield Then 
and Now."- For details call 
Pittsfield Bicentennial Commis- 
sion, (413) 499-1976. 

17-Sept. 22 Cambridge 

Benjamin Franklin Exhibit, Fogg 
Art Museum. Monday through 
Saturday, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; 
Sunday, 2 to 5 p.m. Closed 
weekends in July and August. 
Admission free. 

18 Amesbury 

Fashions from 1775 to 1975, 
Whittier Home. Models dis- 
play period costumes in the 
afternoon. For further infor- 
mation, call (617) 388-0622. 

18-20 Boylston 

Colonial Weekend. A gala 
Colonial Military Ball is held 
Friday evening; Saturday the 
town re-enacts the original 
muster of the town's Minute- 
men who answered the alarm 
of 1771 which includes a Lib- 
erty Pole raising and roll call- 
ing of original Minutemen. 

18-Sept. 5 Worcester 

"The Colonial Period through 
the Revolution," Bicentennial 
Exhibit 1, Worcester Art Mu- 
seum. Tuesday through Sat- 
urday, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Sun- 
day, 2 to 6 p.m. Admission 

19 Holden 

Johnny Tremaine Week, 
throughout the town. Special 
activities include craft demon- 
strations, displays of historic 

artifacts and a musical cre- 
ated and performed by local 

19 Northampton 

Raising of the Liberty Pole, 
Memorial Hall. This significant 
act proclaiming freedom for 
the colonies is performed by 
Minutemen at 1 p.m. 

19 North Reading 

Opening of the Daniel Putnam 
House, Town Common. To 
celebrate the opening of this 
historic house to the public, 
demonstrations which high- 
light the house's herb garden 
are scheduled; other early 
skills and crafts are shown. 
Admission charge. 

Patriot's Day 



Patriot's Day Re-enactment, at 
the statue of Josiah Bartlett. 
(Bartlett was a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence.) 
Costumed Minutemen rally be- 
fore leaving for Cambridge 
where they joined the army 
many years ago. Afternoon 


Patriot's Day Re-enactment, 
Town Common. Relays of 
couriers bring word of the 
shooting at Lexington and 
Concord; Barnstable recruits 
drill at the training field and 
prepare to march to Boston. 


Re-Enactment of the March to 
Concord and Lexington begins 
at 5:30 a.m. 


Patriot's Day Re-enactment, 
Town Common. Methuen's mi- 
litia turn out in costume to re- 
create their historic march to 


Patriot's Day Re-enactment, 
Town Common. A man on 
horseback rides down Route 
409 through Medfield, West- 
wood, Dedham and into Millis 
sounding the alarm and the 
call to arms exactly as it hap- 
pened 200 years ago. The 
rider should arrive in Millis at 
1:30 p.m. 


Bicentennial Celebration, Co- 
lonial Green. The Needham 
Militia in Revolutionary War 
costume perform an authentic 
drill and raise the town's Bi- 
centennial flag. Excerpts from 
the play "1776" add to the 
afternoon festivities. 

North Reading 

Patriot's Day Re-enactment, 
Town Common. The town's 
Minutemen sponsor a re-crea- 
tion of the ride accomplished 
200 years ago by North Read- 
ing's local "Paul Revere," 
Ephraim Pratt. 


Patriot's Day Re-enactment, 
Town Common. The town's 
Minutemen gather in full uni- 
form to relive their role in the 
historic events of April, 1775. 


Patriot's Day Re-enactment, 
Town Common. Day's events 
include alarming of the militia, 
their gathering on the common 
and marching exercises. 


Patriot's Day Re-enactment, 
Sudbury Common. Six com- 
panies of Minutemen, including 
one mounted company, muster 
before the march to Concord 
to aid their fellow patriots. 


Re-enactment of Paul Revere's 
and William Dawes' Ride, Fri- 
day at 8 p.m. On Saturday, the 
town re-enacts the original 
Minutemen muster with a lib- 
erty pole raising and roll call. 


19-20 Boston 

Bicentennial Weekend, John 
Hynes Auditorium. Saturday: 
musical presentations ranging 
from fife and drum to modern 
jazz and craftsmen demon- 
strating how early musical in- 
struments such as the harpsi- 
chord were made, 10 a.m. to 
5 p.m.; classical music pro- 
gram featuring American com- 
posers at 8:30 p.m. Sunday: 
"Pops in the Park" features 
the music of John Philip 
Sousa, Scott Joplin and Glenn 
Miller from 1 to 5 p.m. Admis- 
sion charge for some events. 

20 Middleborough 

Ecumenical Worship Service, 
First Congregational Church, 
on the green. The service be- 
gins at 10 a.m. in what Daniel 
Webster said was the most 
beautiful church in New Eng- 
land. Historic artifacts are ex- 
hibited from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
Admission free. 

21 Hopkinton/Boston 

The Boston Marathon. The 
famous 26-mile marathon 
which has hundreds of en- 
trants every year begins in 
Hopkinton at noon; the first 
to finish usually collapse at 
the Prudential Center shortly 
after 2 p.m. 

21 Boston 

Flag Raising Ceremonies, City 
Hall Plaza. The event will in- 
clude a re-enactment of the 
Paul Revere/William Dawes 
ride to Concord and Lexington 
beginning at 9 a.m. The An- 
cient and Honorable parade 
begins at 10 a.m. 

22 Pembroke 

Flag Display, Pembroke Ameri- 
can Legion Auxiliary Building. 
Dozens of authentic flags from 
all over New England and from 
different periods in its history 
are displayed in the building. 

Late April-May Sturbridge 

Demonstrations of sheep shear- 
ing and maple sugaring, Old 
Sturbridge Village. Adults $4; 
children $1.25. For hours, call 
(617) 347-3362. 


Ail month Boston 

The Great Subway Race. Ride 
the MBTA all around the Bos- 
ton area in time trials and 
scavenger hunts. Discover cul- 
tural and historic sites. Watch 
for posted information at 
MBTA stations. 

1-10 Boston 

Jazz Week, City Hall Plaza. A 
variety of performers rotate all 
week and usually are playing 
during the lunch hours. Jazz 
musicians also perform at the 
bandstand in the Common, 
and in Copley Square. Admis- 
sion free. 

4-June 1 Needham 

Revolutionary Days, Bradley 
Estate, Ridge Hill Reservation. 
Programs scheduled for five 
consecutive Sundays are as 
follows, in order, one each 
Sunday: a Revolutionary War 
era country fair; a fashion 
show of period costumes; rec- 
reation day with 18th century 
games; arts and crafts from 
200 years ago; and a Revolu- 
tionary War period cooking 
contest with plenty of food for 
the public. 

10 Mansfield 

Bicentennial Celebration Day, 
Mansfield High School. Day- 
long activities include a pa- 
rade, boating races, horseback 
riding, an antique auto show, 
art exhibits and a barbecue. 

10 Northampton 

Walking Tour of Northampton. 
The city has prepared a spe- 
cial tour of historic sites and 
interesting architecture. Stop 
by the City Hall for further 

11-13 Dartmouth 

Spring Concert, Dartmouth 
High School. The concert 
highlights the Bicentennial by 
featuring colonial music. For 
ticket information, call the 
high school, (617) 992-7765. 

11-18 Lowell 

Lowell Festival Days, through- 
out the town. The main event 
of the festival is a regatta; 
other events include an arts 
and crafts show, spaghetti 
feasts, helicopter tours and a 

14-16 Chesterfield 

Bicentennial Weekend, 
throughout the town. Activi- 
ties planned to commemorate 
the nation's Bicentennial in- 
clude a costume ball Friday 
night at the Town Hall, a pa- 
rade on Saturday and a colo- 
nial church service at the Con- 
gregational Church on Sunday 

17 Fairhaven 

Re-enactment of the First Na- 
val Battle of the Revolutionary 
War, Fort Phoenix. The re- 
enactment is staged by the 
4th Old Dartmouth Militia; two 
ships with cannon carry both 
Redcoats and colonists. For 
details, call Rita Steele (617) 

17 Dover 

Dover Days Fair, throughout 
the town. A colonial theme is 
featured in games, contests, 
crafts and a muster. 

17 Boston 

Kite Festival, Franklin Park. 
Bring your kite and fly it for 
fun and awards. Festivities 
include music, refreshments 
and a visit by a parachutist. 
Noon to dusk. Admission free. 

17 Wilbraham 

Apple Blossom Festival, Green 
Acres. Blessing of the Blos- 
soms, family picnic, games. 
11 a.m. to 3 p.m. 

17 North Reading 

Arts Festival, Town Common. 
The art show for all media in- 
cludes photography and a 
painting contest. Also fea- 
tured are photos of historic 
town buildings, an exhibit of 
local antiques and a band con- 

cert. 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Rain 
date: May 24. Admission free. 

17 Wilmington 

Colonial Arts and Life Festival, 
Wilmington High School. Games 
and demonstrations encourage 
visitor participation. Admis- 
sion free. 

18 Newton 

People's Fair, Newton City 
Hall". Day-long event includes 
dancing, booths, refreshments 
and local theater presenta- 

21-26 Palmer 

Country Fair, Sanderson-Mc- 
Leod Field. A midway and a 
concert are featured but many 
other activities are scheduled 
for both day and evening en- 

23-26 Amherst 

Gear-75, throughout the town. 
Nearly 2,000 cyclists from all 
over the Eastern United States 
rally for workshops and tour- 
ing rides which emphasize the 
historic aspects of the Pioneer 
Valley. The event is sponsored 
by the League of American 
Wheelmen. For information, 
contact Roger Desrosier, Glen- 
dale Avenue, Hampden. 

24-25 Salem 

Old Salem Market Days, Derby 
Square. Fine craftsmen sell 
their wares and the famous 
"Green Grocers" of Salem 
offer fresh vegetables and 
flowers. For further informa- 
tion call Salem Bicentennial 
Commission, (617) 744-4581. 

25-31 Acushnet 

Art Show. Work by local crafts- 
men and artists is displayed 
from 2 to 7 p.m. For informa- 
tion call (617) 995-0976. 

31 Reading 

Founders Day, Birch Memorial 
Park. Day-long field day in- 
cludes a parachuting exhibi- 
tion, a flea market and a mid- 
way with rides and booths. 
Admission free. 



7 Boston 

June Art in the Park, Boston 
Common. Nearly 500 artists 
accompanied by music deco- 
rate the trees and grass on the 

7-8 Concord 

Old-Fashioned Street Fair, Mill 
Dam. The fair features colo- 
nial foods, crafts and booths 
with emphasis on shoeing 
horses, spinning and weaving. 
For further information, call 
(617) 369-1333. 

7-Oct. Pittsfield 

South Mountain Concerts, on 
South Mountain. Outdoor con- 
certs feature classical music on 
weekends at 8 p.m. Tickets 
$3 to $5. 

8 Halifax 

Halifest, Town Hall. The town 
festival includes a greased pig 
contest, an auction, box 
lunches, arts and crafts and 
sack races. 

8-Sept. Scituate 

Historic Tours of Scituate. Spe- 
cial guided tours of the old 
lighthouse, Lawson's tower, the 
Cudworth House and the old 
grist mill are also scheduled 
for July 13, August 23 and 
September 14. For details, call 
the Historical Society, (617) 

10 South Dartmouth 

Bicentennial Day, Andrew B. 
Cushman High School. The 
day-long fair includes booths, 
refreshments and other special 

12 Framingham 

Senior Spectacular, Keefe Vo- 
cational School. Framing- 
ham's senior citizens are fea- 
tured on an hour-long film 
which relates the history and 
their reminiscences of Fra- 
mingham many years ago. For 
further information, call Mr. 
Murtagh, (617) 873-8504. 

13 Hanson 

Garden and Kitchen Tours. 
Residents open their gardens 
and kitchens to visitors from 1 
to 5 p.m. The tour features 
old-fashioned herb gardens. 
Tickets $3. For more informa- 
tion, call (617) 826-6440. 

13 Wareham 

Nimrod Day, Town Hall. The 
main event of the day is the 
dedication of the Captain John 
Kendrick House and Museum. 

13-14 Framingham 

Country Fair, Framingham 
State College. Booths, rides, 
contests, games and refresh- 
ments are all part of this two- 
day event. 

14 Amesbury 

Flag Day Patriot Tea, Mary 
Colby House. The local chap- 
ter of the DAR serves tea be- 
ginning at 2:30 p.m. 

14 Fall River 

Re-enactment of the Battle of 
Fall River, Battleship Pier. The 
Redcoats fight the colonists 
and burn a simulated colonial 
village. For details, call (617) 

14 East Bridgewater 

Clambake and Old Home Day. 
Festivities are tentatively set 
to begin at 1 p.m. For details, 
call Tom Reynolds, (617) 583- 

Mid-June Framingham 

Home Town Day, throughout 
the town. Highlights of the 
day's activities include a drum 
and bugle contest, marching 
bands and floats. To obtain 
date, call Mr. Murtagh, (617) 

14-15 Salisbury 

Town Fair, Salisbury Memorial 
School. Activities planned in- 
clude a flea market and a dis- 
play of historic artifacts; see 
artisans work on handicrafts 
such as rug-braiding, pottery, 
pewter and weaving. 

14-15 Salem 

House Tours, throughout the 
town. Many of Salem's historic 
houses such as the Mall Street 
House where Hawthorne wrote 
The Scarlet Letter are included 
in the tour. Stop by the City 
HaJI for further information. 

15-16 Charlestown 

Bunker Hill Parade and Re- 
enactment. Following Sun- 
day's traditional parade, the 
Battle of Bunker Hill is staged 
on Monday. 

21 Hubbardston 

Town Fair, On the Common. 
A flea market including booths 
of antiques, plants and home- 
baked foods is the highlight of 
the fair. 

21-30 Easton 

250th Anniversary Celebration, 
throughout the town. A flea 
market is scheduled at the Old 
Railroad Station in North 
Easton. Other events include 
a horse and wagon show, a 
house tour and garden show, 
four band concerts, an art 
show and a musical variety 
show, plus a Revolutionary 
War battle re-enactment at 
Stonehill College. Stop by the 
Easton Town Hall for a sched- 
ule of events. 

23 Boston 

Opening of Summerthing. The 
Boston neighborhood festival 
for the arts offers more than 
1,000 free performances 
throughout the city from now 
until Labor Day. Such events 
include puppet shows, theater, 
outdoor movies and perform- 
ances by the Boston Ballet. 
For daily information, call 
(617) 261-1660. 

27-28 Uxbridge 

Town Fair, on the Common. 
With an emphasis on the Bi- 
centennial, the fair includes 
activities such as horseshoe- 
ing contests, and exhibitions 
of candlemaking. 

28-July 4 Pittsfield 

Pittsfield Firemen's Muster, 
Waconah Park. The Pittsfield 
firemen sponsor one of the 
oldest carnivals in New Eng- 
land. Special features include 
a muster, fire-fighting compe- 
tition, fireworks and a raffle. 


Courtesy of 
John M. Bresnahan Jr. 

It is an interesting fact that 
Boston 's first Independence 
Day celebration was not held 
on the Fourth of July. 

The first preliminary vote 
on independence mas taken in 
the Continental Congress at 
Philadelphia on the evening of 
July 1, 1776. Edward Rutledge 
of South Carolina requested 
that the final vote be post- 
poned until Tuesday, July 2, 
and on this day, independence 
became a fact. 

Congress began revising the 
original draft of the Declara- 
tion which was to be published 
to support their vote. 

On the evening of July 4, 
the Declaration was adopted 
unanimously. But it was not 
signed that night. The copy 
they had been using was al- 
most illegible because of the 
additions and deletions. The 
signing would not take place 
until August, 1776. 

In spite of the enthusiasm 
of the delegates, it was de- 
cided not to release the Declar- 
ation until a large number of 
copies could be printed and a 
proper celebration planned. 

July 8th saw the first Inde- 
pendence Day celebration in 
Philadelphia. But news travel- 
ed slowly in the 18th century. 
Word did not reach Boston 
until July 18. Spontaneously, 
that day became a holiday. 

Excitement was the watch- 
word of the day. Infantry was 
lined up at attention along the 
streets and artillery companies 
were stationed in front of the 
jail. Tom Crafts, a local house 
painter, read the Declaration 
of Independence to the throng. 

At the finish, loud cheers 
swept across the square and 
down the side streets. The 
forts in Boston Harbor loosed 
a deafening barrage. That 
evening, the King's Arms and 
and insignia of the Crown were 
torn down. A huge bonfire 
was built on King Street and 
Bostonians consumed kegs of 
rum and wine. 

It was a great day for New 
England—a day of indepen- 
dence—even if it was July 18 
and not July 2 or July 4. 



All month Lowell 

Lowell Summer Festival, 
throughout the town. A variety 
of programs and special 
events including cultural and 
recreational activities is 
planned for the month-long 
festival. Pick up a schedule 
at the City Hall. 

July & Aug. Becket 

Jacobs Pillow Dance Festival, 
Route 20. The oldest dance 
festival in America presents 
different companies and per- 
formances every week. Tues- 
day, 7:30 p.m.; Wednesday, 
Friday and Saturday, 8:40 
p.m.; Thursday and Saturday 
matinee, 3 p.m. Tickets $5 to 
$7. For further information, 
call (413) 243-0745. 

1-6 New Bedford 

Whaling City Festival. Events 
scheduled throughout the 
week include air show, flea 
market, colonial ball, art ex- 
hibits and much more. For 
further information, call (617) 

1-Sept. Great Barrington 

Carillon Concert, the Bells of 
St. James Church. The bell 
concert is performed every 
Saturday at 8 p.m. and can be 
heard from nearly everywhere 
in town. 

3 Gloucester 

Horribles Parade. Children 
dress up in weird costumes 
and parade through town be- 
ginning at 6:30 p.m. Fireworks 
precede at 6 p.m. 

4 Cambridge 

Commemorative Celebration, 
Cambridge Common. The town 
celebrates the 200th anniver- 
sary of Washington taking com- 
mand of the Continental Army 
on Cambridge Common. Cele- 
brations include a mid-day 
parade and afternoon pageant. 

3 East Longmeadow 

Independence Day Celebra- 

tion, High School. Day-long 
event includes drum and bugle 
corps competition, booths, re- 
freshments and culminates 
with fireworks. 

4 Middleborough 

Independence Day Celebra- 
tion, Thomas S. Pierce Play- 
ground. The event includes a 
watermelon-eating contest, 
greasy pole and swimming 
compet ; tions and fireworks. 

4 Concord 

Festival on the River, Con- 
cord River. Contests and 
games, decorated canoes and 
a band concert are all part of 
the event. 

4 Salem 

International Festival, Salem 
Common. Guests can watch a 
military drill, band concert, 
ethnic dancing and the unveil- 
ing of a replica of an arch 
built by Samuel Mclntyre. 

4 Amesbury 

Old-Fashioned Picnic, Bartlett 
Museum Grounds, 270 Main 
Street. Picnic and band con- 
cert last from 10 a.m. to dusk. 
For further information, call 
Margaret Rice, (617) 388-1420. 

4 Marion 

Marion Horse Show, Washburn 
Memorial Park. The two-ring 
horse show is preceded by a 
parade which begins at 9 a.m. 

4 Somerville 

Blessing of the Bay, Governor 
Winthrop Estate, Shore Drive. 
The first ship in America was 
built here along the Mystic 
River and an historic re-enact- 
ment commemorates this 
event. For information, call 
(617) 625-6600 extension 142. 

4 Westboro 

Town Picnic, High School 
grounds. The picnic features 
old-time box lunches and af- 
ternoon games. For further in- 
formation, call (617) 366-8359. 

4 Northampton 

Country Fair, Look Park. Peo- 
ple planning to attend should 
bring a box lunch and dress in 
patriotic costumes; prizes 
awarded for costumes. A high- 
light is the pie-eating contest. 

4 Chelmsford 

Independence Day Celebra- 
tion. The town honors the 
Fouth with a parade, country 
fair, art exhibit and a holiday 

4 Tewksbury 

Field Day. Scheduled events 
include foot races, pie-eating 
contest, decorated doll car- 
riage parade, Softball game 
and relay and sack races. 

4 Hingham 

A Very New England Parade. 
The parade features antique 
autos, railroad cars and the 
famous Hingham bucket which 
is nearly 12 feet tall. 

4-6 Millis 

Colonial Field Day, School 
Grounds. Daytime activities 
include displays and demon- 
strations of colonial crafts, and 
a fireman's muster. A country 
square dance and an old- 
fashioned bonfire are planned 
for the evening. 

4-6 Williamstown 

Williamstown Weekend Festi- 
val. The program for the week- 
end includes a Bavarian beer 
fest, a quilting exhibit, clam- 
bakes, bike races, professional 
ballooning exhibitions, contra- 
dancing, puppet shows, fire- 
works, a square dance, and 
the opening of the Williams- 
town Theatre. For further in- 
formation, call (413) 458-4808. 

5 South Boston 

Sandcastle Competition, Car- 
son Beach. All day fun with 
awards for the best architects. 

5 North Reading 

Country Fair, Town Center. 
Highlights of the day include 
a fireman's muster, an antique 
auto show, colonial games, 
food, a juried craft exhibit and 
a horse show. This is also the 
opening day for the town's 
mapped historic tour. 10 a.m. 
to 4 p.m. At 8 p.m. is a square 

dance; participants are en- 
couraged to wear colonial 

12 Great Barrington 

Rotary Club Flea Market, 
Berkshire Chalet Grounds. 
Thirty antique dealers gather 
to exhibit merchandise for 
sale. For further information, 
call (413) 528-1510. 

15 North Adams 

Tours of the Windsor Mill, 121 
Union Street. The new Visitors 
Center is opened featuring a 
variety of craft displays includ- 
ing pottery, glass-blowing, 
papermaking and bookbind- 
ing. For further information, 
call (413) 664-6382. 

17 Gloucester 

Fish Fry, Gorton's Wharf. To 
celebrate the American 
schooners' participation in the 
Nova Scotia races, fish and 
chips are available for 500 be- 
ginning at 4 p.m. Afterwards, 
dancing lasts until 11:30 p.m. 

18-27 Beverly 

Art Festival of Beverly Artists, 
High School. The art exhibit 
is sponsored by the town's Bi- 
centennial Committee. 

19 Northampton 

New England Morgan Horse 
Show, Three County Fair- 
grounds. The show includes 
breed classes, pleasure rid- 
ing, driving, dressage and 
others beginning at 8 a.m. 
Admission charge. 

22-26 Scituate 

Scituate Art Festival, under 
Lawson Tower on the elemen- 
tary school grounds. The festi- 
val includes craft demonstra- 
tions during the day and 
drama and music during the 

31 -Aug. 3 Salem 

Salem Chronicles, Custom 
House, Derby Wharf. A dra- 
matic version of Salem's his- 
tory beginning in 1626 is pre- 
sented each evening at 9 p.m. 
The play includes the era of 
witchcraft hysteria, the Revo- 
lutionary War, the China Trade 
years and such well-known 
figures as Nathaniel Haw- 
thorne. Admission free. 



Early Aug. Adams 

Sun-fest. The festival includes 
an auction, fireworks, flea mar- 
ket, craft show, golf tourna- 
ment, picnic, Softball game and 
parade. To obtain date and 
details, call (413) 743-0007. 

1-3 Brockton 

Summerfest, Brockton High 
School. Day-long event fea- 
tures a carnival, arts and 
crafts, antiques, ethnic danc- 
ing and foods representative 
of many nationalities. 

2 Hubbardston 

Flea Market, Town Common. A 
variety of merchandise offered 
for sale including foods and 
plants. An auction and supper 
are planned for late in the day. 

2 Middleboro 

Flea Market, Middleboro His- 
torical Museum grounds. Many 
dealers display assorted items 
for sale. The museum has a 
collection of Tom Thumb 
memorabilia and was once the 
home of his wife. 9 a.m. to 4 
p.m. Admission free. 

2-10 Newburyport 

Yankee Homecoming. The an- 
nual festival features a muster 
and historical pageant, a jazz 
concert, a chicken barbecue, 
and a Greek Festival. 

4-9 Hancock 

Shaker Kitchen Festival, 
Shaker Village. The restored 
18th century Shaker commun- 
ity offers sampling of different 
foods from the Great Kitchen 
in the Brick Dwelling; a World 
People's Dinner is served by 
reservation. 9:30 a.m. to 5 
p.m. For reservations or fur- 
ther information, write Shaker 
Community, P.O. Box 898, 
Pittsfield 01201. 

8-10 Scituate 

Heritage Days, Cole Parkway, 
in the harbor. Some of the ac- 
tivities planned are athletic 
events, craft shows, booths, a 
pancake breakfast, a clambake 

and, on Sunday, a yacht pa- 
rade and the blessing of the 

8-10 Sheffield 

Sheffield Antiques Show, Old 
Parish Church. Antiques are 
displayed for show and sale 
in a historic setting. 11 a.m. 
to 6 p.m. Admission charge. 

9 New Salem 

Old Home Day. The day-long 
event features a bicycle pa- 
rade, exhibits of handicrafts 
for sale, booths of home-baked 
foods and games of chance. 

9 Gloucester 

The Great Schooner Race, In- 
ner Harbor. Traditionally- 
rigged schooners race over a 
15-mile course which offers 
many good spectator sports. 
8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Admission 

9-10, 16-17 Monterey 

Monterey Festival of the Arts, 
throughout the town. Presen- 
tations of music and art, and 
house tours emphasizing the 
historic and the architectural, 
are scheduled on both week- 
ends. For further information, 
call (413) 528-1510. 

10 Plympton 

Old Home Day, Town Green. 
A bicycle and doll carriage 
parade, chicken barbecue, 
booths selling items such as 
homemade jams and jellies 
are featured during the day; a 
square dance is held in the 

15-17 Pembroke 

Pembroke Arts Festival, 
throughout the town. The 
weekend program includes 
craft shows and demonstra- 
tions, musical programs such 
as an outdoor jazz perform- 
ance, and a juried art show. 
For further information, call 
(617) 293-3551. 

16 Dartmouth 

Professional Arts and Crafts 
Show, Southern Massachusetts 
University. The day-long event 


Courtesy of Benjamin M. Rice 

It's apple-picking time again 
in Massachusetts and what 
could be more fitting than to 
speak of a favorite native son, 
Johnny Appleseed? Although 
he didn't actually write the 
following, it is by way of an 
introduction to the man who 
"planted seeds that others 
might enjoy fruit. " 

"I was Johnny Appleseed, 
but before that and always, I 
was John Chapman. You 
made me a legend, all of you, 
and I don't rightly know why. 
At any rate I am the only man 
who knew the real me, so I am 
going to tell you how I under- 
stand myself. 

"I was born in Leominster, 
Mass., Worcester County on 
September 26, 1774. This was 
apple picking time, and, of 
course refutes the pretty leg- 
end that I was born in May 
under a blossoming orchard. I 
have no reason to believe that 
I was born elsewhere as was 
natural than within the four 
walls of my father's house, the 

second child and the first son 
of Nathaniel and Elizabeth. 

"I was born even as our free 
nation was being born. And 
Father though a successful 
wheelwright and a fond family 
man carried his patriotism 
with the Worcester County 
Minute Men first to Concord 
and then to Bunker Hill in 
1775 (it was that year that my 
sister and I were baptized). 
The following year, as Captain 
of Wheelwrights, Father was at 
the Occupation of Dorchester 
Heights. As he fought, my 
mother was dying of consump- 
tion. She was only 26. 

"I had the schooling of an 
ordinary boy, and there were 
books in my father's house. 
I learned to write what I con- 
sidered a fair hand. Before my 
20th year I had already left 
Longmeadow where my father 
and his second wife and family 
that would not stop increasing 
left me no other course but to 
leave on my own. I had no set 
end for my journeying, only 
that it should be west as far as 
I cared to go, or where chance 
should halt me. " 

features extensive displays of 
arts and crafts for show and 
for sale. 

16-18 Amesbury 

Old Home Tour. The Eliza- 
beth Whittier Club sponsors a 
tour of all the old and historic 
homes in Amesbury. For fur- 
ther information, call (617) 

16-22 East Bridgewater 

Country Fair, East Bridgewater 
High School, Plymouth Road. 
This old-fashioned fair fea- 
tures arts and crafts and fun 
for the whole family during the 

17 Northborough 

Liberty Pole Day, Town Com- 
mon. Costumed Minutemen 
raise the Liberty Pole, a tra- 
dition that has been practiced 

for decades. Afterwards, there 
is a town picnic with many 
contests and games. 

17-23 Lynn 

Lynn Arts Festival, Pennybrook 
Road. Featured events of the 
festival are a play and an arts 
and crafts show. 

22-24 Westford 

4-H Country Fair, Westford 
Fairgrounds. Day-long fair fea- 
tures livestock exhibits, horse 
shows, food and canning dem- 
onstrations and much more. 

30-Sept.1 Blandford 

Country Fair, Fairgrounds. 
Events include a large horse 
show, horse pulling and ox 
drawing, 4-H exhibits, displays 
of home arts and games of 



Early Sept. Cambridge 

Benedict Arnold's Expedition 
to Quebec. A re-enactment of 
Arnold's long and arduous trek 
begins in Cambridge and goes 
through Maine by way of New- 
buryport. For further informa- 
tion, call (617) 876-4100. 

1 Northborough 

Square Dance. Sponsored by 
the young people of North- 
borough, the dance is open 
to the public free of charge. 

1 Charlton 

Old Home Day. Featured 
events include a soap box 
derby, an arts and crafts fair, 
a 12-mile road race, a noon- 
time turkey dinner followed by 
a bike race and an evening 
block dance. 

1 Hull 

Sports Re-enactment. The first 
nighttime baseball game 
played under the lights hap- 
pened in 1880; this event is 
being recreated here. For fur- 
ther information, call (617) 

1-6 Northampton 

Country Fair, Three County 
Fairgrounds. The fair features 
4-H agricultural exhibits, arts 
and crafts, quilting exhibits, 
horse drawing, horticultural 
displays and a midway. 

2 Mattapoisett 

Bicentennial Festival Clam- 
bake, Holy Ghost Grounds, off 
Route 6. The clambake begins 
at 1 p.m.; $6 per person. 

6 Stockbridge 

Berkshire Garden Festival, 
Berkshire Garden Center. 
Day-long event includes a 
white elephant sale and a book 
sale; Alice Brock closes her 
restaurant and makes home- 
made soups for guests at the 

6-7 Fairhaven 

Re-enactment of the Attack on 
Bedford Harbor. The re-enact- 
ment is staged by the 4th Old 
Dartmouth Militia on Saturday; 
a parade and colonial muster 
are scheduled on Sunday. Ad- 
mission free. 

12-14 Mansfield 

Bicentennial County Fair. 
Things to be seen at the fair 
include quilting and home arts 
exhibits, livestock, booths with 
a variety of items for sale and 

13 Westboro 

Old Time Family Fair, Fisher 
Street Junior High School. A 
food tent, games and a visit 
by a parachutist highlight the 
all-day affair. 

13-14 Weston 

The 1747 Horse Show, Regis 
College, Wellesley Street. The 
Weston Pony Club sponsors 
this family horse show which 
features lead lines, pair 
classes, costumes, a gym- 
khana and all country pleasure 
classes. Bring a picnic lunch. 
Admission charge. 

19-21 Gardner 

190th Anniversary Celebration. 
A country fair and flea market, 
and a German beer test with 
the Budweiser Clydesdales are 
part of the fun. Country and 

western music is featured Sat- 
urday night and a pancake 
breakfast is served on Sunday. 

25-27 Westboro 

Antique Show and Sale. The 
show is sponsored by the 
Westboro Historical Society 
and features fine antiques 
such as furniture and acces- 
sories. For further informa- 
tion, call (617) 366-8359. 

Late Sept. North Adams 

Northern Berkshire Fall Fo- 
liage Festival. Activities in- 
clude a flea market, concerts, 
contests and a last-day pa- 
rade. For further information, 
call the Northern Berkshire 
Chamber of Commerce, (413) 

28 Acton 

Crown Resistance Day, Acton- 
Boxborough Junior High 
School, Charter Road. Nearly 
50 colonial militia units in full 
regalia muster and parade. 
Foods and crafts highlight the 
accompanying colonial fair. 1 
to 5 p.m. Admission free. 


Early Oct. Princeton 

Heyday, Wachusett Meadows 
Wildlife Sanctuary. Nature ex- 
hibits and walking trails, craft 
demonstrations, pony rides, 
homemade goodies and a 
chicken barbecue are included 
in the day's events. To obtain 
date, call (617) 464-2390. 

6 Hanson 

Indian Summer Gallery Pro- 
fessional Crafts Show, Ma- 
quan School. Exhibits and 
demonstrations of crafts such 
as scrimshaw, tinsmithing, 
glass etching and pottery com- 
pose the show. 

11 Blandford 

Craft Fair, Agricultural Hall, 
Blandford Fairgrounds. The 
fair features hand-made goods 
produced as they would have 
been 200 years ago; wood- 
working, needlework, chil- 
dren's toys, antiques and pot- 
tery are included. 

11-18 Lowell 

Lowell Festival Days, through- 
out the town. The main event 
of the festival is a regatta; 
other events include an arts 
and crafts show, spaghetti 
feasts, helicopter tours and a 

11-12 Salem 

Literary Salem, Old Town Hall, 
Derby Square. Actors present 
a theatrical production based 
on Hawthorne's Salem Biog- 
raphy. For further information, 
call (617) 744-4581. 

12 Carlisle 

Thunder Bridge Muster, Foss 
Farm, Bedford Road. The re- 
enactment of an 18th century 
muster includes period cannon 
competitions, tomahawk throw- 
ing and musket shooting con- 
tests, colonial dress and co- 
lonial crafts. 10 a.m. to dusk. 

13 Southborough 

Heritage Day, Town Common. 
Beginning at 10 a.m. with a 
colonial parade, the day also 
includes craft exhibits, a foot- 
ball game and an evening ham 
and bean supper. 

27-31 Boston 

Haunted House at the Chil- 
dren's Museum, Jamaicaway. 
Costumed youngsters are in- 
vited to celebrate Halloween 
at the museum's special, and 
scary, exhibit. 2:30 to 7:30 
p.m. Adults $1.60; children, 



1 Springfield 

Springfield Guild of Craftsmen 
Christmas Show and Sale, 
Trinity Methodist Church, Sum- 
ner Avenue. Fifty booths of 
crafts are offered for sale. 10 
a.m. to 4 p.m. Admission free. 
To confirm date, call (413) 

Early Nov. Worcester 

Holiday Season Show, Worces- 
ter County Horticultural Soci- 
ety, 30 Elm Street. Beautiful 
garden and flower displays 
feature chrysanthemums. Ad- 
mission free. To confirm date 
and obtain hours, call (617) 

7-9 Maiden 

Middlesex Council of Minute- 
men Muster. Nearly 3,000 
members of militia companies 

gather for various competitive 
events such as skeet shooting 
and Indian wrestling. 

8-9 Segreganset 

Fall Chrysanthemum Show, 
Bristol County Agricultural 
High School, Center Street. 
The show is planned and ar- 
ranged by students. Displays 
feature many varieties of chrys- 
anthemums, a popular winter 
flower. Noon to 8 p.m. Admis- 
sion free. Date is tentative; to 
confirm, call (617) 669-6744. 

Mid-Nov. Barre 

Twelfth Annual Antique Show, 
Town Hall. More than 10 
dealers display antiques; re- 
freshments are available. To 
confirm date, call Mrs. Gari- 
epy, (617) 355-2248. 

26 Whitinsville 

Thanksgiving Ecumenical Co- 
lonial Service, St. Patrick's 
Church. The service begins 
at 7:30 p.m. 

27 Sturbridge 

Thanksgiving Day Festivities, 
Old Sturbridge Village. An au- 
thentic 18th century Thanks- 
giving dinner is prepared at 
the Pliny Freeman Farm begin- 
ning at 9:30 a.m. Special ac- 
tivities are held at the Village 
all day: a demonstration of an- 
tique firearms, 10 a.m. to 1 
p.m.; a non-sectarian vesper 
worship at 3:45 p.m. Adults 
$4; children under 14, $1.25. 
Dinner is served by reserva- 
tion only and is usually sold 
out by the summer. For res- 
ervations, write the Secretary 
for Special Events. 

27 Plymouth 

Thanksgiving Day Festivities, 
throughout the town. Special 
activities include craft demon- 
strations at Jenny Grist Vil- 
lage, church services, an In- 
dian observance and an art 
show. A public buffet supper 
is served in Memorial Hall at 
Plimoth Plantation from noon 
to 5 p.m.; adults, $5 to $6; 
children under 12, $4. Reser- 
vations are not taken. A 
square dance follows dinner. 

Late Nov.-Jan. South Carver 

Festival of Lights, Edaville 
Railroad, Route 58. Heated 
steam trains offer rides past a 
spectacular display of Christ- 
mas lights. Weekdays, 4 to 9 
p.m.; weekends, 2 to 9 p.m. To 
obtain date and ticket prices, 
call (617) 866-4526. 


1-Jan. 1 Quincy 

South Shore Christmas Festi- 
val. A parade beginning at 
1:30 p.m. is the start of a fes- 
tival which includes lighting 
of homes, concerts and other 
seasonal activities. 

Early Dec. Salem 

Second Shepherd's Play, First 
Universalis! Church. The play 
is a 15th century English com- 
edy. For further information, 
call (617) 744-4580. 

4-6 Boston 

Christmas Fair, Horticultural 
Hall, 300 Massachusetts Av- 
enue. Christmas craft items 
such as hand-made, pots for 
hanging plants, tree orna- 
ments and decorations, and 
fresh greens are sold. Admis- 
sion $1. To confirm date, call 
(617) 536-9280. 

5-7 Boston 

Christmas Antiques and Crafts 
Show, Hynes Auditorium, Pru- 
dential Center. More than 300 
exhibitors display unique an- 
tiques and collectables, and 
quality craft items. Admission 
charge. To confirm date and 
hours, call (617) 523-2062. 

Mid-Dec. Salem 

An Old-Fashioned Christmas 
Market, Derby Square. The 
market resembles a scene 
from Currier and Ives. For 
further information, call (617) 

Late-Dec. Boston 

Messiah, Symphony Hall. Per- 
formances of Handel's Messiah 
by the Handel and Haydn So- 
ciety have been a tradition 
since 1815. Call for dates and 
ticket information, (617) 423- 


Three ships, the Dartmouth, 
the Beaver and the Eleanor, 
sat outside Boston harbor full 
of tea that was reduced in 
price but was also subject to 
tax. Although the import duty 
was only a few pennies per 
pound, patriotic Bostonians 
would not allow any goods 
into the harbor for which they 
were forced to remit a tax di- 
rectly to England. But neither 
would they permit customs 
officials to confiscate the tea. 
There was nothing for it, then, 
but to save the public from the 
temptation of buying cheap 
tea by preventing its landing at 
all costs. 

The morning of Thursday, 
December 16, 1773, saw the 
greatest mass meeting in Bos- 
ton's history. In a city of some 
18,000 inhabitants, more than 
7,000 people jammed Old 

Courtesy of Daniel A. Shepard 

South Meeting House and the 
streets outside. When it was 
determined at the end of the 
day that the Governor would 
not issue a pass permitting the 
ships to leave the harbor with- 
out proof of having paid the 
customs, Sam Adams rose to 
his feet and gave the fateful 
signal: "This meeting can do 
nothing more to save the 
country. " 

A shout rose from within the 
meeting house, followed by a 
warwhoop. Another shout, 
"To the docks!" Suddenly the 
streets were full of "Indians" 
streaming toward Griffin's 
Wharf. The paint, soot and 
coal dust with which they had 
streaked their faces concealed 
their identities from unfriendly 
eyes. In due course the tea 
was disposed of and thus, the 
Boston 'Tea Party. " 


everyone loves a parade 

The St. Patrick's Day Parade has become a tradition in Boston. 

And 1975 is a big year for pa- 
rades in Massachusetts. Nearly 
every town in the state gathers 
its high school marching band 
and gleaming fire engines to pa- 
rade down Main Street at least 
once a year. The following is a 
list of only a few. 

March 16 

St. Patrick's Day, Boston 

and Northampton 
April 19 

Patriot's Day, Concord 
April 21 

Patriot's Day, Arlington 
May 10 

Mansfield Parade 
May 25 

Stow Bicentennial Day 
May 27 

Maiden Parade 
May 31 

Memorial Day, Medford, 

Lynnfield, Pittsfield and 

June 2 

Ancient and Honorables 

Day, Boston 
June 8 

Dorchester Day Parade 
June 7-8 

Northborough Indepen- 
dence Parade 
June 15 

Bunker Hill Day Parade, 
Charlestown, 275th Anniver- 
sary Day, Framingham 

July 4 

Independence Day, Plymp- 
ton-Carver, Hingham, North- 
ampton, East Longmeadow, 
Williamstown, Tewksbury, 
Boston, Pittsfield and many 
other towns. 

October 4 

Roxbury Day Parade 

October 13 

Columbus Day, Boston 

November 11 

Veteran's Day, Boston, Lynn- 
field and Pittsfield 




It began in Lexington and Concord with this cry from Paul Revere and the 
shots that were to be heard around the world. It was the beginning of the 
American Revolution — a war that was to last six long years before the 
thirteen colonies won their independence. 

by Robert A. Gross 

In early 1774 Stephen Barrett of Concord, Massachu- 
setts sat by the fire in his father's farmhouse practising 
his school lessons. Though 24-years-old, he was still 
going to winter school — the only session many farm 
youth ever attended in a year — and still copying 
pious maxims ("A long Life has a lingering Death") 
and figuring the prices of cows and pigs in his work- 
book. He remained very much a high-spirited boy. 
"Stephen Barrett is my name and a very good rightor 
is my fame," he wrote, probably to relieve the boredom 
of his lessons. "So Style not this Book for feir of 
Shame for in it is the onar's name." 

A year later, Barrett made a very different sort 
of entry in his old book: the oath he had just sworn on 
enlisting into the Minutemen. He promised to "De- 
fend his Majesty King George the Third" and at the 
same time to be ready to march on a minute's notice 
"to Defend all and every of our Charter Rights, Liber- 
tys and Privileges." Barrett was typical of the many 
young men in their early twenties who in the winter 
of 1775 began drilling with muskets on town commons 
under the direction of their officer fathers. They were 
asserting claims — loyalty to king and to their own 
rights — that proved ultimately incompatible. In the 
course of making those claims, thousands were trans- 
formed, like Stephen Barrett, from schoolboys and 
farm hands into active citizens. At Lexington Com- 
mon and Concord's North Bridge, they moved toward 
their own as well as a nation's independence. 

When Stephen Barrett joined the Minutemen, the 
long colonial conflict with Britain was rapidly reaching 
the final crisis. In retaliation for the Boston Tea Party, 
Parliament had, in effect, abrogated the Massachusetts 
province charter: the popularly elected Council was 
replaced with a Crown-appointed body; the Royal Gov- 
ernor and Council were given sole power to name and 
remove judicial officials; local election of juries was 
banned; and no town meetings could be held without 
the Governor's approval except the annual spring elec- 

tion session. The British had also thrown hundreds of 
seamen and laborers out of work and destroyed mar- 
kets for thousands of farmers by proscribing all trade 
at the port of Boston. To enforce these measures, 
General Thomas Gage, new military governor, had 
four regiments of troops encamped on Boston Com- 
mon, while the man-of-war Somerset patrolled the 

But Gage presided effectively over little more than 
the narrow peninsula of Boston. In the countryside, 
mobs closed the courts, forced officials to resign com- 
missions under the new governmental acts, and led 
many Tories to seek refuge in the occupied capital. 
Town and county meetings gathered more often than 
ever and solemnly pledged to boycott trade with Brit- 
ain. When Gage refused to convene the General Court 
in September, 1774, an extra-legal Provincial Congress 
assembled at Concord and then Cambridge to make 
military preparations to defend the colony's rights — 
authorizing the raising of Minuteman companies out 
of the existing militia and purchasing artillery and pro- 
visions in the event of their active service. 

Revolution was thus imminent, yet in the first, 
uncertain months of 1775, each side hesitated to pro- 
voke the call to arms. American firebrands demanded 
an immediate assault on the regulars in Boston, in 
the secret sessions of the Provincial Congress moderates 
argued for caution, if only to retain the support of 
the dozen other colonies. Many still clung to the 
slight hope that the Ministry would back down, 
as it had done ten years before in the Stamp Act crisis, 
or that King George — the last remaining focus for 
provincial loyalties to the Empire — would recognize 
that his advisers were betraying the heritage of free- 
born Englishmen in a corrupt conspiracy against lib- 

The color photographs on the following pages were taken by S.R. 
Gilcreast Jr., at a re-enactment of the British search of Colonel 
Barrett's farm, an event staged in Concord every April 19. At right, 
the 10th Regiment of Foot, Light Infantry Company in full regalia 
marches across the Old North Bridge on their way toward the farm. 





From the first, the British action was plagued by miscalculations and delays. 

erty. There were many, too, who shrank from the 
consequences of war. "The women are terrified by the 
fear of blood and carnage," Bostonian William Tudor 
wrote John Adams, and the merchants by the expected 
loss of trade. "What cowards does interest make men! 
Thank God our salvation is not dependent on the virtue 
of merchants, if it was our perdition would be una- 

General Gage, aware of the divisions among the 
Congress from the reports of a spy within its ranks, 
was content to deliberate his moves. He cooperated 
with the Boston selectmen to prevent clashes between 
soldiers and citizens; indeed, his firm discipline of un- 
ruly troops prompted complaints that "Tommy" was 
little better than "an old woman." As a precaution 
against a provincial attack, he fortified the approaches 

The British wore splendid uniforms and marched along in step. It 
was General Gage's belief that they could affect the revolutionaries' 
morale with a great show of force. 

to Boston, and he kept watch on the Americans' mili- 
tary preparations and laid the basis for future action 
by sending spies into the countryside to reconnoitre 
the terrain and discover the hiding places of the colo- 
nists' stores at Concord and Worcester. 

To crush the American spirit of resistance, Gage 
believed, required an overwhelming show of force. 
But the Ministry in London belittled his advice. Al- 
though 20,000 provincials had sprung to arms the 
previous September on the false alarm that warships 
were bombarding Boston, Gage received only token 
reinforcements; in April, 1775, he had a mere 4,000 
men in his command. "The violence committed by 
those who have taken up arms in Massachusetts," 
explained Lord Dartmouth, Secretary of State for 
America, "have appeared to me as the acts of a rude 
rabble, without plan, without concert, without conduct, 
and therefore I think that a small force now, if put to 
the test, would be able to conquer them with greater 
probability of success, than might be expected of a 
larger army, if the people should be suffered to form 
themselves upon a more regular plan." 

Dartmouth's letter was the spur to action. Trea- 
son must be punished now, Gage was told; the lead- 
ing authors of the rebellion — particularly, John Han- 
cock and Samuel Adams — should be arrested (unless 
Gage considered it indiscreet). These instructions ar- 
rived at a propitious time. After much debate the 
Congress had finally authorized the raising of an 
1 8,000-man army but had then adjourned to enlist the 
participation of the other New England colonies in 
the enterprise. "A sudden blow struck now. . . ," ad- 
vised Gage's anonymous informer, "would oversett 
all their plans." 

Neither Side Expected Explosive Events 

The military action Gage conceived was pre- 
dictable: a surprise pre-emptive strike to seize or de- 
stroy the considerable quantities of ordnance and 
provisions the Congress's Committee of Safety had 
been stockpiling at Concord, some of which the Yan- 
kees had been smuggling out of Boston in dungcarts 
from Gage's own magazine. (There is no evidence 
that Gage planned to arrest Whig leaders.) It was, 
in fact, what every well-informed colonist had been 
anticipating. On March 30 the Provincial Congress 
had advised its constituents that whenever five hundred 
regulars marched into the countryside with artillery 
and baggage train, "it ought to be deemed a design to 
carry into execution by Force the late Acts of Parlia- 
ment." The provincials should therefore sound the 
alarm and immediately form an "Army of Observa- 
tion ... to act solely on the defensive as long as it 
can be justified on the Principles of Reason and Self- 
Preservation and [no] longer." What neither side ex- 
pected was the explosive combination of events that 
formed the so-called Battle of Lexington and Concord: 
a riot by uncontrolled British troops at Lexington Com- 
mon, a military set-piece at Concord's North Bridge, 
and a guerrilla action by ill-disciplined provincials, 
drawing on Indian fighting experience, to harry the 
British retreat to Charlestown on the bloody Battle 

Revere Rides as Regulars Gather 

The British action was, from the first, plagued by 
miscalculations, leaks, and delays that helped to insure 
its failure. On Saturday, April 15, Gage relieved his 
grenadiers and light infantry — the elite corps of 
eighteenth-century armies — from regular duties, on 
the pretext that they were to learn new exercises. No 
one was fooled. "This I suppose is by way of a blind," 
British Lt. John Barker remarked in his diary. "I dare 
say they have something to do." And when at mid- 
night a fleet of troop transports was quietly launched 
from the warships in the harbor, men like silversmith 
Paul Revere, who kept a round-the-clock watch of 
British movements, grasped what was happening. That 
Sunday, at the direction of Whig leader Dr. Joseph 


Warren, Revere hurried out to Lexington, where Han- 
cock and Adams were lodging at Jonas Clarke's par- 
sonage, to warn of an impending British strike. On 
his way back, Revere arranged to signal friends in 
Charlestown whenever the regulars marched. ". . . if 
the British went out by water," Revere later recalled, 
"we would shew two lanthorns in the North Church 
Steeple, and if by land, one, as a signal; for we were 
apprehensive it would be difficult to cross the Charles 
River, or git over Boston Neck." 

By the time the 700 to 800 regulars did gather 
on Boston Common at 10 p.m. on April 18, the 
object of the expedition had largely been lost. For 
on the previous day the Committee of Safety had or- 
dered the dispersal of the stores at Concord into the 
surrounding towns. As the Redcoats prepared to 
march, 16 miles away men were working through the 
night to take arms and ammunition by ox-team to new 
hiding places in Acton, Stow, and Harvard and in the 
woods and outskirts of Concord. 

The News is Carried to Lexington 

Gage, unaware of the American activities, conr 
tinued to operate in what he thought was the utmost 
secrecy. On the afternoon of the 18th, Lt. Col. Francis 
Smith received orders to lead an expedition that night, 
but was told neither his assignment nor his destina- 
tion until he was ready to depart. That night, the 
troops were led to their rendezvous, as a deserter told 
the Americans, "by the sergeants putting their hands on 
them, and whispering gently to them, and were even 
conducted by a back way out of the barracks, without 
knowledge of their comrades, and without observation 
of their sentries." The men silently tramped to the 
foot of the Common (at Charles Street) and boarded 
transports at 11 p.m. for their passage across the 
Charles River to Phip's Farm (now Lechmere Point) 
in East Cambridge. As the boats were launched, two 
lanterns appeared in the North Church steeple, Paul 
Revere began the first part of his midnight ride in a 
rowboat to Charlestown, and William Dawes — the 
"forgotten" express rider whom Joseph Warren dis- 
patched along with Revere — slipped through a British 
guardpost, crossed the narrow Boston Neck to Rox- 
bury on the mainland, and stole his way to Lexington. 

Revere and Dawes were not the only couriers in 
the night. Other suspicious provincials had already 
carried the news to Lexington that a group of 10 
armed British officers was making its way westward 
that evening instead of returning to base. The officers 
were, in fact, sentries dispatched by Gage to intercept 
anyone seeking to alarm the people of Concord. So, 
when Revere galloped up to Jonas Clarke's at mid- 
night on his exhausted mount, he found militiamen 
posted outside to safeguard the persons — and the 
good night's sleep — of Adams and Hancock. The 

Clarke household, Revere was told, had asked not to 
be disturbed by any noise about the house. "Noise!" 
Revere exclaimed. "You'll have noise enough before 
long. The regulars are coming out!" 

The alarm bells sounded, militiamen grabbed their 
firelocks and hurried in the night to Lexington Com- 
mon, and Revere and the soon arriving Dawes hastened 
toward Concoid. Accompanied by Concord's young 
Dr. Samuel Prescott, who had been out late courting 
his Lexington girl friend, the express riders spread the 
warning along their way. Near the Lexington-Lincoln 
line, British sentries halted their progress. Prescott 
jumped his horse over a stone wall and escaped; Revere 
and Dawes had to turn back, but not before Revere 
misled his captors with a story that 500 men were on 
their way to Lexington. 

Some 400 provincials, including men from Bedford, Acton and 
other neighboring towns, stood ready to act. 

About 130 men had gathered by 2 a.m. on Lex- 
ington green under the command of Capt. John Parker, 
a 45-year-old veteran of Roger's Rangers in the French- 
and-Indian War. They talked over the situation, Parker 
later said, and "concluded not to be discovered, nor 
meddle, nor make with said regular troops, unless they 
should insult or molest us. . . ." Then they waited. 
None of the scouts Parker had dispatched returned 
with fresh information; all had been intercepted. Mean- 
while, the British column, two hours behind schedule, 
lumbered through the night. 

They Waited on the Green 

Parker's men, chilled by the early morning April 
air, disbanded, some to homes, many to nearby Buck- 
man Tavern for a warming glass of rum. Finally, near 
daybreak, Thaddeus Bowman, the last scout Parker 
had sent out, raced into town with the news that the 
regulars were near. Hancock and Adams made a hasty 
retreat through the woods toward Woburn. Parker's 
drummer beat out the alarm, and 70 men — nearly half 
of Lexington's adult males — appeared. Parker lined 
them up in double file on the green and renewed his 


As the British approached Concord, 
150 colonials lay in wait. 

command to "let the troops pass by, and don't molest 
them, without they begin first." Nearby on the Com- 
mon stood 40 unarmed spectators. 

The approaching troops — an advance guard of 
six companies under Major John Pitcairn — primed 
and loaded their guns before entering the village 15 
minutes later. Thanks to Revere and several other 

Having secured the North Bridge, the British set out on their search 
and destroy mission. Their first stop was the farmhouse of Colonel 
James Barrett, supervisor of provincial supplies at Concord. 

Americans whom they had seized on the road, the 
regulars were expecting to encounter an armed force 
of 500 to 1,000 men. Like his counterpart Parker, 
Pitcairn ordered his men "on no account to fire, nor 
even to attempt it without Orders." As the regulars 
advanced, Pitcairn rode behind the Americans and 
commanded them to surrender their arms. For his 
part, Capt. Parker, concerned for the safety of his men, 
told them to disperse peacefully. Some did, while others 
like old Jonas Parker, in his sixties, calmly prepared to 
make a stand. No one dropped his gun. 

Who Issued Order to Fire? 

What happened next is in dispute. Parker con- 
tended that the British "made their appearance, and 
rushing furiously on, fired upon . . . our party, without 
receiving any provocation therefor from us." The other 
American witnesses agreed. Several officers came 
toward the provincials: "Ye villans, ye Rebels, dis- 
perse; Damn you, disperse!" "Lay down your arms, 
Damn you, lay down your arms." Pitcairn denied, to 
his death at Bunker Hill two months later, that he or 
his officers had issued the command to fire. He was 
turning toward his men, he said, when a musket behind 
a stone wall flashed in the pan, several shots rang out, 
and the regulars fired a volley. 

There is no doubt that Pitcairn's men raged out of 
control. They were "so wild," reported Lt. Barker, 
"they could hear no orders," and they ignored their 
commander, uselessly cutting the air with his sword as 
the signal to cease firing. A few Americans returned 
the fire. Finally, Pitcairn called for a drum roll, and 
order was restored, as the major body of troops under 
Col. Smith reached town. Eight Americans lay dead, 
most of them shot in the back; old Jonas Parker was 
shot and bayoneted. Another nine were wounded. 

The British, having spent no more than half an 
hour in Lexington, soon departed with a traditional 
victory salute. At about 8 a.m., they approached Con- 
cord village, where some 150 men, including a com- 
pany from Lincoln, had been awaiting them since 
Samuel Prescott brought the alarm early that morning. 
At daybreak, saddler Reuben Brown, who had been 
sent out as a scout, galloped into town with a first-hand 




report of the 
firing at Lexington. 
Were they shooting 
bullets? asked Major 
John Buttrick. "I do not 
know," replied Brown, "but 
think it probable." 

The provincials assembled, facing the 
meeting house, atop the ridge that dominates 
the main road into town. Some of the Minute- 
men decided to go forth to meet the British. "We 
marched before them with our Drums and fifes agoing 
mild [and a] half," Amos Barrett, Stephen's first 
cousin, recalled many years later, "and we see them 
acomming, we halted and stayd till they got within about 
100 Rods then we was orded to the about face and 
marched before them with our Drums and fifes agoing 
and also the B[ritish]." Nineteen-year-old militiaman 
Thaddeus Blood was equally impressed with the spec- 
tacle. "The sun was rising and shined on their arms, 
and they made a noble appearance in their red coats 
and glistening arms." 

As the Redcoats entered the town, the provincial 
force retreated to higher ground, somewhat beyond the 
center, and held a hasty council. The British, they ob- 
served, were sending a force toward the North Bridge 
over the Concord River. Fiery minister William Emer- 
son, who was the first to answer the alarm in the early 
morning, urged an immediate stand: "If we die, let us 
die here." More prudent and militarily experienced 
minds prevailed. The men withdrew to the heights 
above the bridge, a mile or so from town. 

In the village center — from which many of the 
inhabitants had fled in fear — Col. Smith moved swiftly 
to accomplish his goal: the destruction of the colonists' 
military stores. He ordered out detachments to seize 
the two bridges controlling access to the town: three 
companies to the South Bridge over the Sudbury River 
and six to the North Bridge. Neither force faced oppo- 
sition. Once the North Bridge was secured, three com- 
panies crossed the river and set out for the farmhouse 
of Col. James Barrett, father of Stephen, general officer 
of the Middlesex militia, and supervisor of the pro- 
vincial supplies at Concord. 




' C ^MM01» 






boston W^£4iui^ Lmc WHARF 






Courtesy of American Heritage 

This map shows the routes taken by Paul Revere, William Dawes 
and Dr. Prescott on the night of April 18, 1775, when they made 
their historic rides to warn the colonists outside Boston that the 
British were coming. Their call to arms resulted in a confrontation 
on Lexington Green between Minutemen and Redcoats. 


Redcoats would no longer doubt the Americans' will to fight. 

The British search-and-destroy mission was con- 
ducted with restraint. Investigating Amos Wood's house 
near the South Bridge, an officer noticed that one room 
was locked. Were any women within? he asked Mrs. 
Wood. Avoiding a direct reply, she concealed a room- 
ful of supplies behind a grave look of concern. "I for- 
bid anyone entering this room!" the officer gallantly 
declared. In the town center, Timothy Wheeler de- 
flected a British search with equal aplomb. Wheeler 
readily admitted a British officer to his storehouse, 
where numerous casks of provincial flour lay. Playing 
the ever-cooperative country bumpkin, Wheeler put his 
hand on one of his own barrels and explained: "This is 
my flour. I am a miller, Sir. Yonder stands my mill; I 
get my living by it. . . . This is my flour; this is my 
wheat; this is my rye; this is mine." "Well," he was 
told, "we do not injure private property." 

The British search was not completely unsuccess- 
ful. The regulars threw 500 pounds of musket balls into 
a mill pond, broke open 60 barrels of flour, knocked 
the mounts off the jailyard cannon, and made a bon- 
fire of the town's liberty pole, 16 carriage wheels, and 
some barrels of wooden trenchers and spoons. The 
fire spread to the roof of the nearby town house. It was 
soon extinguished, but its billowing smoke alarmed the 
Minutemen on the heights overlooking the town. 

Meet the Redcoats Head On 

"Will you let them burn the town down?" Lt. 
Joseph Hosmer demanded of the commanding officers 
at the Buttrick farm above the North Bridge. Some four 
hundred provincials, including men from Bedford, Ac- 
ton, and other neighboring towns, stood ready to act; 
British Captain Walter Laurie had fewer than a hun- 
dred men at the bridge. Col. Barrett held a brief council 
with his officers. The decision was unanimous. They 
"resolved to march into the middle of the town to de- 
fend their homes, or die in the attempt." Still unaware 
of the massacre at Lexington, Barrett ordered the men, 
as his nephew Amos recalled, "not to fire till they fird 
first, then to fire as fast as we could." 

To' the fife strains of "The White Cockade," the 
provincials marched, in double file, towards the bridge — 
with the same solemnity, one participant felt, as in going 
to church. The three British companies hastily crowded 
at the east end of the bridge; some Redcoats tried 
briefly to pull up the planks. As the Americans neared, 
the British fired a few warning shots, then a direct 
volley. "Their Balls," said Amos Barrett, "whistled 
well." Acton's Isaac Davis and Abner Hosmer, in the 
lead, fell dead. Major Buttrick then leaped into the 
air, shouting "Fire, fellow soldiers, for God's sake, fire." 
The resulting discharge wounded nearly a dozen of the 
enemy, three of them mortally. The provincials pressed 
on to cross the bridge; the British, jammed together at 
the end, panicked and ran, unpursued, toward town. 

Concord Fight — "the shot heard round the world" — 
had taken two to three minutes. 

While the encounter at the bridge marked the be- 
ginning of war, it was on the long retreat to Charles- 
town that the regulars fully experienced the depth of 
American resistance. Their mission a failure, the Brit- 
ish left Concord at noon by the same route they had 
entered. At Meriam's Corner, they walked into the 
first of many ambushes set by Minutemen firing from 
behind stone walls, woods, buildings, and whatever 
other cover could be found. This was war as provincial 
Indian fighters had long known it: each man for him- 
self. To the British, accustomed to open field fighting, 
it was the action of "rascals" and "concealed villains," 
as one put it, "making the cowardly disposition ... to 
murder us all." 

British flankers at first managed to keep their 
assailants beyond effective musket range, but not for 
long. As the road wound its way up and down hills 
and over brooks, the Redcoats were forced into inde- 
fensible natural traps. Outnumbered by an elusive, 
ever-increasing enemy and peppered by an incessant 
fire, the British used up their ammunition in often aim- 
less shooting. They were worn and hungry from a 
virtually uninterrupted, 15 hours' march. Near Fiske 
Hill in Lexington, they began to break ranks and run 
in confusion. The rout ended beyond Lexington vil- 
lage, reported a British ensign, "after the officers got 
to the front and presented their bayonets, and told the 
men if they advanced they should die. . . ." 

Post-Battle Propaganda 

By then, the 900-man armored First Brigade, dis- 
patched that morning in response to Col. Smith's call 
for help, had arrived in Lexington. The retreating 
troops fled to safety behind the brigade lines and then 
fell to the ground, "lying prone . . . like dogs with pro- 
truding tongues," according to a contemporary British 
historian. "I had the happiness," Lord Percy, the bri- 
gade commander, remarked, "of saving them from in- 
evitable destruction." 

The British finally forced their way through to 
safety in Charlestown, encamping on Bunker Hill, a 
position they foolishly abandoned several days later. 
Seventy-three Redcoats were dead, 174 wounded, and 
26 missing — a casualty rate of close to 20 percent. 
The comparable rate for the nearly 4,000 American 
participants was only two or three percent: 49 dead, 
39 wounded, four missing. No longer would Redcoats 
who knew Americans doubt their will to fight. O 
Copyright 1974 Robert A. Gross 

An expanded version of this article will be in- 
cluded in Mr. Gross's forthcoming book, the minute- 
men and their world (spring, 1975, Hill and Wang). 
A former Assistant Editor of newsweek, Robert Gross 
teaches history at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. 


Fathers and their sons, many of whom were only schoolboys, took up arms against , the British. 



The Battle of Bunker Hill by Howard Pyle, Delaware Art Center 

Bunker Hill was the first major battle of the 
war, but the British didn't think it would be. 
They expected a minor skirmish against 
hastily-entrenched provincial troops. In the 
end, the Redcoats suffered heavy casualties 
and the event had lasting effects on our 
country's history. 

by William J. Loughran 

Bunker Hill was a little battle by modern standards, in- 
volving fewer than 6,000 combatants, 1,600 casualties, 
less than two hours of time. Yet, in importance it must 
be considered one of the decisive battles of history. 
Had it not been fought, neither in all likelihood would 
Yorktown, Gettysburg, the Marne, the Coral Sea, the 
Bulge, or Pleiku. In a word, without Bunker Hill the 
United States could have been stillborn. 

That the battle was fought on June 17, 1775 in 
Charlestown, Massachusetts, most people know. Why 
is not as clear. The battle was no accident. Vital stra- 
tegic considerations forced both sides to regard seizing 
and holding the 110-foot height as an imperative mili- 
tary necessity. The disastrous British sortie to Lexing- 
ton and Concord eight weeks before on April 19 left 
both sides plagued with chronic anxieties. When the 
British withdrew into Boston, the Americans sealed 
up the city with a semi-circular siege-line manned by 
16,000 men, mostly from Massachusetts, but including 
troops from New Hampshire, Connecticut and Rhode 
Island. They lived in constant fear that the well-armed 
British would sally out again, next time in overwhelm- 
ing force. 

Their fears were not unfounded. In early June 
British Generals Gage and Howe concocted a plan not 
only for raising the siege, but to destroy the militia army 
and end the war. This was to make simultaneous 
sweeps around the ends of the American line, south at 
Roxbury Neck, north at Charlestown Peninsula, join 
forces behind it and drive the Americans into artillery 
fire from land batteries in Boston (200 English cannon 
were positioned on Boston Common) and warships in 
the harbor. Success of the plan required one prelimi- 
nary step: seizing and fortifying some high ground near 
both ends of the American line. Failure to do this, 
they knew, would invite the colonials to get there first 
and checkmate their flanking movements with over- 
head fire from protected positions. They decided to 


occupy Dorchester Heights the night of June 18, 1775. 

The plan was supposed to be secret, but in the 
interlocking web of Whig and Tory sympathizers noth- 
ing was secret. The Americans learned all about it at 
once. It left them without alternatives. For simple 
survival they had to seize and fortify one of the hills 
before the British did. Boston's Committee of Safety, 
a sort of military junta, debated and resolved the issue. 
They chose Bunker Hill. 

Bunker or Breed's Hill? 

The resolution was conveyed to General Artemas 
Ward, in whom the Americans had a kind of semi- 
official commander-in-chief with headquarters in Cam- 
bridge. General Ward passed it to Colonel William 
Prescott of Pepperell, Massachusetts, with orders to 
carry it out. Prescott described his orders in a letter of 
August 25, 1775 (11 weeks after the battle) to John 
Adams: "On June 16, in the evening, I received orders 
to march (from Cambridge) to Bunker's Hill in 
Charlestown with a party of about 1,000 men, con- 
sisting of 300 of my own regiment, Colonel Bridge and 
Lieutenant Brickett with a detachment of theirs, and 
200 Connecticut forces, commanded by Captain 

The detachment reached Bunker Hill about ten 
o'clock. General Israel Putnam, head of the Connecti- 
cut forces, and Colonel Richard Gridley, the army's 
chief engineer, joined it there. When they arrived at the 
site, the three officers questioned the wisdom of Pres- 
cott's orders to fortify Bunker Hill. They felt that 
Breed's Hill was strategically more important; although 
at 75 feet it was smaller than Bunker Hill's 110 feet, it 
was nearer the Redcoats' probable landing place on the 
bank of the Charles River. 

Upon arriving at Bunker Hill, three officers of the provincial army 
decided that nearby Breed's Hill was a better strategic position 
from which to face the British. 

A long council of war followed, ending with a 
unanimous decision that Prescott should move over to 
Breed's Hill and fortify there. Putnam would start an 
earthwork on Bunker Hill to cover an American retreat, 
should there be one. Prescott's detachment marched 
down Bunker Hill, crossed a shallow dip, climbed to 
the top of Breed's Hill where it halted, grounded its 
arms and digging tools. Colonel Gridley marked out 
his ground-plan for the little fort, or "redoubt," as it 
was then called. The detail began digging at midnight. 

As the redoubt took form, the militia extended 
its east wall into a breastwork running about 100 
yards north to a patch of impassable swamp. The 
fort's front wall overlooked the hill's south slope, at 
the bottom of which the buildings of Charlestown hud- 
dled by the riverbank. From this wall a wooden fence 
ran down to the edge of the town. Prescott intended 
to man this fence, as well as hide snipers in the town 
itself. This fragile defense line would blockade one 
half of the peninsula, the Charles River side. The 
breastwork secured the Mystic River side as far as the 
patch of swamp. But between the swamp and the bank 
of the Mystic lay a piece of hard ground passable by 
troops. This had to be closed. 

Two hundred yards behind Breed's Hill rose 
Bunker Hill, from the base of which a stone wall topped 
with wooden rails ran to the bank of the Mystic. Pres- 
cott determined to fortify this wall to complete his 
barricade of the peninsula. The only gap then left 
would be the dip between Breed's and Bunker Hills. 
He doubted his adversaries were fools enough to send 
troops between two fortified hills. That the Breed's 
Hill redoubt was not an isolated position, but a central 
strong point in a chain of defenses, must now be clear. 

The Bombardment Begins 

Before dawn the crude redoubt neared comple- 
tion. The militia had dug a square hole five feet deep, 
130 feet on a side, and piled the excavated dirt into 
a six-foot wall around it. They had raised wooden 
parapets against its sides to support their riflemen 
when firing. At daybreak, the last watch of H.M.S. 
Lively, anchored off Charlestown was first to discern 
the startling change in the profile of Breed's Hill. The 
ship immediately launched a furious bombardment of 
the hill from her 20 guns. Generals Gage and 
Howe and staff hastily sallied forth to find, to their in- 
tense chagrin, that the colonials had stolen a march 
on them. Immediately, General Gage ordered Admiral 
Graves to launch a full scale bombardment of the re- 
doubt with the six ships of his command: Somerset, 
Cerberus, Glasgow, Lively, Falcon, and Symmetry, ag- 


The burning of Charlestown. 

gregating 168 guns. The thunderous barrage rocked 
the city, but few shots reached the redoubt. The ships' 
guns couldn't elevate enough to arc shot into the fort; 
most of their balls plunked harmlessly into the hillside. 

For Many Their Last Meal 

By now the redoubt's embattled diggers were seri- 
ously shaken. Seeing their agitation, Colonel Prescott 
leaped on the wall and strolled around it casually, in 
full view of the enemy, as if out for a walk. The tactic 
succeeded. The men steadied down and went back to 
work. About noon a string of oared barges, loaded 
with British troops, approached Charlestown. The 
barges pushed into the Charles, beached, and unloaded 

Continued on page 33 


A r r. A -v 


\\ A T T 1. K. 



I ratghtcnltu, xtTefJunt'77& 

II r 
u Officer on Ihf Spot. 

Ii n S T n .v 

// .-/ rt n b v k 



Kit F.K 

—-\ 5 

Old map shows positions of British ships that launched afull-scale bombardment of Charlestown. 


He2oJ."--A>ROlVllSE HE KEPT: 

This British engraving from 1776, a companion piece to a similar portrayal of Bunker Hill, refers to what residents of Suffolk 
County today know as Evacuation Day. Although they suffered heavy casualties at Bunker Hill, the British troops were not 
driven out of the city, but instead occupied Dorchester Heights, to the south and east of Boston Harbor. Here they remained 
until March, 1776, when General Washington dislodged them with cannon brought to Boston from Fort Ticonderoga by Henry 
Knox, and thus forced the British to evacuate Boston. 


Prescott knew the battle would have far-reaching political consequences. 

Continued from page 29 

their cargoes at Morton's Point. This first contingent, 
about 1,500 men, squatted on the grassy shore and 
proceeded quietly to eat their lunches. For many it was 
their last meal. The barges returned to Boston for 
more soldiers. 

There was a great deal of anxiety within the re- 
doubt. These were veteran troops — the far-famed 
King's regulars. But Prescott was not intimidated. 
Coolly, he began disposing his forces to smash the as- 
sault. He sent Captain Knowlton and his 200 Connecti- 
cut men to man the stone wall-rail fence at his left. 
As they were taking position, two New Hampshire 
regiments under Colonels Stark and Reed marched in 
from Cambridge to join them, and strung out behind 
the wall. Prescott sent three companies, about 125 men 
under Captains Wheeler and Crosby, into Charlestown 
to scatter through the houses and harass the enemy's 
flank with sniper fire. To further protect his right flank, 
he ordered two companies under Captains Nutting and 
Warner to lie back of the rail fence running from the 
front of the redoubt to the edge of the town. Colonel 
Gridley, with a few small field pieces, moved into the 
exposed gap between Bunker and Breed's Hills. This 
deployment left but 150 men in the redoubt which, be- 
ing the strongest position, Prescott judged could be 
most lightly manned. He moved among his men, 
encouraging them. 

They Waited 'til the Last 50 Yards 

The barges ferrying the second contingent of 
British soldiers beached and discharged their cargoes 
shortly before three o'clock. General Howe lost no time 
in forming his assault groups. One force, a regiment of 
light infantry, the Welsh Fusileers, brigaded with a 
regiment of heavy infantry, the "King's Own" Grena- 
diers led by himself, would advance along the Mystic, 
overrun the stone wall-rail fence at Bunker Hill, circle 
behind the redoubt and cut off retreat from it. Three 
regiments, the 5th, 38th, and 47th, aided by a battalion 
of marines under Major Pitcairn of Lexington-Concord 
fame, were to advance in frontal assault upon the re- 
doubt. Two other regiments, the 43rd and 52nd, were 
to storm the breastwork projecting north from the re- 
doubt. Both divisions were under command of General 
Pigot. The Welsh Fusileers and King's Own Grena- 
diers, General Howe leading, swung along the bank of 
the Mystic. They halted at intervals, as they came in 
musket range of the wall and fired massed volleys into 
it. Their salvos brought no response. Closer came the 
British, firing volley after volley. Still no answer. They 
began to wonder if the Americans had panicked and 
run away. They stepped into the last 50 yards, high 
in confidence, encouraged by this thought. 

Disaster. The wall belched flame and lead. Bul- 
lets thudded thickly into British bodies; scores fell. 
Their vanguard toppled as if swept by a scythe. A long 
cloud of blue smoke rose slowly from the wall. The de- 
fenders gaped at the havoc they had wrought. A mass 
of stricken human beings crawled, writhed, groaned, 
bled, died on the ground before their eyes. The shat- 
tered remnant reeled back out of musket range. Two 
hundred yards downrange, General Howe and his sur- 
viving officers whipped their shaken troops into line for 
a second onslaught. This was not easy. But by threats, 
appeals to esprit de corps, the flat of their swords, Howe 
and his staff managed to regroup their force. 

Facing Defeat, the British Call a Council of War 

The second attack began. It was a replica of the 
first. The English marched to within 50 yards of the 
wall without molestation. Then as before, a deadly hail 
felled the attackers in swaths and drove the remnant 
back. The stubborn Howe wanted to continue the at- 
tack, but his officers induced him to break off the attack 
and revamp his strategy. Field guns now wheeled into 
position and began shelling at close range. Meanwhile, 
the divisions of General Pigot were undergoing the 
same dreadful ordeal before the redoubt and breast- 
work. They toiled doggedly uphill without resistance 
to within 50 yards of the American defenses. Then re- 
doubt and breastwork exploded flame and smoke, strew- 
ing the slope with dead and wounded. During the 
ascent, General Pigot learned that musket fire from 
Charlestown was harassing his left flank. He dispatched 
a courier at once to General Burgoyne asking that the 
town be burned. Burgoyne flung a salvo of incandescent 
shot into the hamlet, setting it instantly afire. The 
flames spread, engulfing its buildings beyond salvation. 

As Generals Howe and Pigot sailed for Charles- 
town, General Sir William Clinton, at Gage's order, 
had stayed in Boston. Gage feared an American diver- 
sionary attack somewhere along the siege-line, and 
needed an experienced field officer to handle it, should 
it come. Watching with great distress the bloody British 
reverses in Charlestown, Clinton begged Gage to let him 
lead a reinforcement to the battle scene. Gage con- 
sented, and Clinton swiftly assembled a detachment of 
400 marines and hustled them to Charlestown. The 
British commanders felt a council of war was now im- 
perative. Their tactics had gained not one inch of soil. 

The council decided on radical strategy changes: 
make the soldiers more mobile by stripping them of 
surplus gear — blanket rolls, field rations, surplus am- 
munition; give them better artillery cover; break off 
flanking attacks and press one massive assault on the 
redoubt and breastwork. Shouted commands imple- 


Disaster. The British vanguard top- 
pled as if swept by a scythe. 

mented these decisions. A battery of field guns kept 
firing on the stone wall and a long line of field pieces 
began pounding the breastwork with solid shot. The 
barrage proved effective. The breastwork began crum- 
bling; some shots pierced it, driving the defenders into 
the redoubt. 

There Will be ho Retreat 

When General Howe judged nothing further could 
be gained by bombardment, he ordered the barrage 
stopped, and his infantry geared for a final assault. 
Close on the redoubt with all speed, he told them, and 
depend on cold steel to take it. At his command 2,000 
bayonets clicked into place, 2,000 gaitered legs thrust 

The grand assault began. A great transformation 
had taken place within the embattled redoubt. The 
raw company of a few hours ago, quaking before un- 
known terrors, had borne a fiery trial and come through 
possessed of their souls. The dauntless Prescott, watch- 
ing the redeployment of Howe's forces, doubted his 
fortress could throw back another assault, and the 
dwindling powder supply only served to confirm his 
doubts. Standard military strategy dictated retreat. But 
Prescott had the statesman's largeness of vision; this 
battle, he knew, would have far-reaching political con- 
sequences. To show the world that American colonists 
were a match for professional European troops would 
give the colonies inspiration to rise in revolution. 

Having weighed the factors, he ordered those mili- 
tiamen equipped with bayonets to mount the parapets 
and engage the enemy hand to hand as they scaled the 
wall. Those with unbayonetted weapons he sent to the 
rear wall with orders to train their firearms chest high 
above the rampart and fire when the first wave of 
attackers showed on the dirt wall. 

English Suffer Heavy Casualties 

The first English soldier to loom on the wall, tra- 
dition says, was young Private Harrington of the Royal 
Irish. Muskets cracked from the rear wall and the next 
instant the young soldier lay dead on the rampart. The 
wall sprouted a ragged line of his comrades; the thicket 
of weapons at the rear of the redoubt crashed out their 
last volley, strewing the rampart with British dead. 
Those behind hurdled their bodies and drove with fury 
into the redoubt, bayonets and swords levelled before 
them. A wild melee swirled in the redoubt. Clubbing 
their muskets and rifles, the Americans fought savagely. 
In the thick of it, Prescott fought like a tiger with naked 
sword. Enemy blades ripped his clothing but miracu- 
lously missed wounding him. Even in the throes of 
desperate combat, this superlative soldier kept his 
presence of mind. 



\ ; ft 



A wild melee swirled in the redoubt. Clubbing their muskets and 
swinging their rifles, the Americans fought savagely. 

Paradoxically, the Americans suffered their heavi- 
est casualties as they sought to end the battle. Many were 
killed or wounded struggling to leave the redoubt. The 
men of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Connecti- 
cut who successfully defended the stone wall-rail fence 
at Bunker Hill won eternal honor and glory for mag- 
nificently covering the retreat. Not a man left his post 
until the last redoubt fighter was safely across Charles- 
town Neck. 





W 4 4#S'' 

That evening, in Cambridge, when William Pres- 
cott, angered by his failure to receive reinforcements, 
confronted General Ward and demanded 1,500 fresh, 
equipped troops with which he proposed to retake the 
Breed's Hill redoubt that same night, General Ward, 
wisely, refused. Though Breed's Hill was lost, he said, 
the objective was attained. The British army gravely 
injured, had suffered heavy casualties, 226 dead and 828 
wounded, compared to the Americans 115 dead, 355 
wounded and 30 captured. He felt the British would 
likely not venture out of Boston in the near future. If 

they did, the Americans could deal with them, as 
Colonel Prescott had amply demonstrated. History 
proved General Ward right. To the day of their evacu- 
ation 11 months later, March 17, 1776, British troops 
did not sally out of the city again. O 

William Loughran a graduate of Harvard Uni- 
versity, is a feature writer for the Quincy Patriot 
Ledger, and founder and first president of Milton Art 




He never led anything larger than a frontier regiment, but Washington rode proudly into Cambridge to assume his new command 



Ballou s 

Pictorial; July 7, 1855 

When George Washington came to Cam- 
bridge to assume command of the Conti- 
nental Army, he found more rowdies than 

by Thomas Fleming 

Late on Sunday morning, July 2nd, 1775, four horse- 
men rode into the little college town of Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, down a road wet from a recent shower. 
Idlers on the streets around Cambridge Common gaped 
as the horsemen rode toward the centerpiece of the 
village, Harvard Yard. There the horsemen found 
no one to greet them but an embarrassed aide who 
directed them to the nearby house of Harvard president, 
Samuel Langdon. The biggest of the horsemen simply 
nodded and rode off to the house, still standing in the 
college grounds, close to Massachusetts Avenue. In 
a few more minutes, George Washington was in the 
house shaking hands with Major General Artemas 
Ward and other officers waiting for him there. Thus, 
without even the salute of a cannon or a guard of 
honor, the man from Virginia took charge of the 
New England army which had been besieging the 
British since the outbreak of violence at Lexington and 
Concord on April 19th, 1775. 

The lack of ceremony was typical of the man. 
When the Continental Congress appointed him, Wash- 
ington told them frankly that he felt "great distress 
from a consciousness that my abilities and military ex- 
perience may not be equal to the extensive and impor- 
tant trust." He asked every gentleman in the room to 
remember that "I this day declare with the utmost sin- 
cerity I do not think myself equal to the command." 

Washington was only being realistic. He had never 
commanded anything larger than a regiment on a fron- 
tier. Now he was taking command of an army that 
was committed to challenging the most powerful nation 
on earth for control of a continent! It was like promot- 
ing a lieutenant on a destroyer to the command of a 
battle fleet. Moreover, he was entering a totally alien 
atmosphere. The distance between New England and 
Virginia was large in both a geographical and a cultural 
sense. Washington brought no Virginians with him. 
His two aides, Joseph Reed and Thomas Mifflin, were 
both Philadelphians. His second in command, Major 
General Charles Lee, was a transplanted Englishman. 
The first thing Washington needed was informa- 
tion. He asked the outgoing commander, Artemas 
Ward, and his fellow generals how many men were in 
the army. Embarrassed stares were their answer. They 
did not know. For weeks, Ward lamely explained, he 
had been asking the colonels to make official returns 
of their regiments but for one reason or another they 
never got around to it. They "thought" there were 
from 18,000 to 20,000 men on the line. It took eight 


During his first few weeks in Cambridge, Washington did not hide 
his dislike for the New Englanders. His sense of Virginia politics 
clashed with the Yankees' bluntness, and he complained of "an 
unaccountable kind of stupidity" among his troops. 

days of pleading, cajoling and ordering for Washington 
to get a full report, and the addition was dismaying. 
There were only 13,743 rank and file soldiers present 
and fit for duty. 

The second most important item on Washington's 
information list was gunpowder. He was told that they 
had 308 barrels — roughly 16 tons. This was a re- 
spectable supply and Washington decided he could put 
that matter out of his mind for the time being. Wash- 
ington turned first to the army's fortifications. Where 
General Ward had a few hundred men desultorily dig- 
ging each day, the new commander soon had thousands. 
The British were staggered by the formidable array of 
redoubts and palisaded forts that rose before their 
eyes, and abandoned all thoughts of an attack. 

Simultaneously, Washington tackled the creation 
of discipline in the army. General Ward had issued few 
orders. Washington issued a set every day. Regulations 
about wandering too close to the enemy lines, being 
absent without leave and other irregularities were to 
be strictly punished, either by fines or that traditional 
enforcer of army discipline, the lash. Since they had no 
uniforms, Washington directed officers to distinguish 
themselves by different colored ribbons. Major gen- 
erals were to wear purple, brigadiers pink, aide-de- 
camps green, colonels red, majors pink cockades in 
their hats, the captains yellow or buff, lieutenants 
green, sergeants a shoulder knot of red cloth and 
corporals green. 

Within a few days, the Reverend William Emerson 
of Concord, a frequent visitor to the army at Cam- 
bridge, noted, '"There is great overturning in camp as 
to order and regularity. New lords, new laws . . . Orders 
from his Excellency are read to the respective regi- 
ments every morning after prayers. The strictest gov- 
ernment is taking place, and great distinction is made 
between officers and soldiers. Everyone is made to 
know his place and keep in it, or be tied up and receive 
not 10 (the common British punishment), but thirty 
or forty lashes according to his crime. Thousands are 
at work every day from four till eleven o'clock in the 
morning. It is surprising how much work has been 

But Washington was soon fuming over the failure 
of his ribbons to create an instant spirit of subordina- 
tion between officers and enlisted men. He was con- 
tending with a hundred years of inbred New England 
equality and he simply could not understand it. "They 
regard their officers as no more than broomsticks," 
he raged at one point. He was equally distressed by the 

soldiers' failure to keep themselves clean and was 
soon calling them "an exceedingly dirty and nasty 
people." He did not understand that New Englanders 
traditionally expected women to do their washing for 
them and, as soldiers, disdained such women's work. 

Yankees Were Argumentative 

Washington also found the Yankees stingy and 
grasping. He caught colonels drawing pay for men not 
enrolled, for their own minor children, and sometimes 
for men they had sent home to work on their farms. 
He was appalled by the way the officers did business 
with the men. He condemned an ex-barber whom his 
aide Joseph Reed saw "shaving one of his men on the 
parade." Lieutenant Joseph Hodgkins of Ipswich re- 
peatedly asked his wife to send him some "shothread" 
because he had a buyer for a new pair of boots. Lieu- 
tenant Jabez Fitch of Connecticut had a neighbor drive 
two fat oxen from Norwich to his post at Roxbury, 
where he sold them for 13 pounds 3 shillings. Although 
Washington made "a pretty good slam" among officers 
whom he caught speculating, he despaired of stopping 
these kinds of business transactions. "These people 
seem to be too inattentive to everything but their 
interest," he groused. 

There was much that was wrong with the New 
England army and needed setting right. But it is also 
obvious that in the first several weeks in Cambridge, 
Washington was displaying a prejudice against New 
Englanders which he had imbibed as a delegate to the 
Continental Congress. Virginians in Congress found 
the delegates from Massachusetts and her satellite colo- 
nies very hard to take. Their blunt argumentative ways 
clashed directly with the Virginian inclination to 
smooth and smother discord. Not long after Washington 
arrived in Cambridge, one of his best friends in Con- 
gress, Benjamin Harrison, wrote to him sympathetically, 
"Your fatigue and various kinds of trouble I dare say 
are great, but they are not more than I expected, know- 
ing the people you have to deal with by the sample we 
have here." 

Washington and the Politicians 

As Washington's ire escalated, his anti-New Eng- 
land comments actually seemed to endanger America's 
fragile unity. He told Richard Henry Lee — a very 
bad choice for a correspondent because he was inti- 
mate with many New Englanders, especially Samuel 
Adams — that there was "an unaccountable kind of 
stupidity in the lower class of these (New England) 
people, which, believe me, prevail too generally among 
the officers of the Massachusetts part of the army who 
are nearly of the same kidney with the privates. . ." New 
England congressmen were soon grumbling menacingly 
against Washington. Eliphalet Dyer of Connecticut 
growled that his state's troops had "lost all their fame 


What Washington inherited in men 
and arms disappointed him. 

and glory. You will scarce hear anything but execra- 
tions against them." John Adams acidly asked another 
correspondent, "Pray tell me . . . does every man to 
the southward of Hudson's River behave like a hero, 
and every man to the northward of it like a poltroon, 
or not? ... I must say that your amiable General gives 
too much occasion for these reports by his letters." 

Major General Nathanael Greene of Rhode Island 
tried to defend Washington against the animus of the 
politicians. The General, Greene wrote, "has not had 
time to make himself thoroughly Acquainted with the 
Genius of this People . . . The common People are ex- 
ceedingly aviricious. The Genius of the People is Com- 
mercial from the long intercourse of Trade. The Senti- 
ment of honnor, the true Characteristick of a Soldier, 
has not yet got the better of Interest." 

Two things changed Washington's opinion. One 
was the arrival of 1,430 riflemen from Pennsylvania, 
Maryland and Virginia. They made a spectacular im- 
pression at first. One eyewitness called them "remark- 
ably stout and hearty men; many of them exceeding 
six feet in height." They wore round wool hats, hunt- 
ing shirts, breeches, stockings and leather leggings and 
moccasins, and on the breasts of their shirts in capital 
letters was a motto, "LIBERTY OR DEATH." They 
boasted of marching 400 to 700 miles to reach the 
camp without losing a man from sickness. They brought 

The army was bolstered by 1,430 riflemen from Pennsylvania, 
Maryland and Virginia. The men were often rowdy, and mutineers 
were tried, convicted and fined 20 shillings each. 

with them long-barreled Kentucky rifles and were soon 
giving performances of their amazing accuracy. They 
put a bullet into a clapboard the size of a dollar at 250 
and 300 yards — an impossible feat for a man firing 
the crude smooth bore musket. But the frontiersmen 
proved to be a dubious blessing. They did not give 
Washington enough men to attack the British and they 
proved to be much more difficult to discipline than the 
most obstreperous New Englander. When one of their 
men was ordered to the guardhouse for breaking a camp 
regulation, the rest of his company seized their guns, 
loaded them and headed for the jail. Washington was 
forced to order out 500 men to strengthen the guard 
and then personally pursued the mutineers and ordered 
them to ground their arms. He tried and convicted 
them of mutiny and fined them 20 shillings each. 

The Right Man to Lead 

Even more serious was a clash that erupted be- 
tween Virginia riflemen and Colonel John Glover's 
Marblehead Regiment later in the fall. From an ex- 
change of snowballs this became a riot which had a 
thousand men in full mutiny against their officers, 
punching and kicking each other in the slush. When 
Washington heard the news, he threw himself into the 
saddle of his horse, always kept at the door, and gal- 
loped to the pasture where the troops were battling. 

One of his black servants, Pompey, had been 
ordered ahead to take down the pasture bars, but Wash- 
ington was on top of them before he could do the job. 
Without so much as a pause in his headlong rush, 
Washington sent his horse soaring over Pompey and 
the bars into the midst of the rioters. Leaping from the 
saddle, he grabbed two brawny soldiers by the throats 
and lifted them off the ground, one in each hand, shak- 
ing them like children while he roared commands to 
the rest, which instantly extinguished the fight. 

John Sullivan, who witnessed this scene, later 
said: "From the moment I saw Washington leap the 
bars at Cambridge and realized his personal ascendancy 
over the turbulent tempers of his men in their moments 
of wildest excitement, I never faltered in the faith that 
we had the right man to lead the cause of American 

Sullivan was also an eyewitness of the second 
incident that did much to transform Washington from a 
Virginia provincial to the commander of a national 
army. At the beginning of August, the British showed 
some signs of preparing for an attack and Washington 
decided to issue additional cartridges to his men. He 
asked the state of Massachusetts to give him 165,000 
rounds from its stock of powder. He was told that this 
was impossible. The state only had 36 barrels of gun- 
powder. A hasty recount of powder brought by other 
New England states revealed only an additional 54 bar- 
rels — about 9,900 pounds. If the British attacked, 


Colorful entries from diaries of men in the war reveal some of the disciplinary problems that faced American officers. On one occasion, 
a man reportedly died as the result of a drinking bout with a fellow officer. 

Washington had barely enough powder to issue each 
man nine cartridges. British regulars carried 60 into 
battle. Washington, John Sullivan said, "was so struck 
he did not utter a word for a half hour." 

In the diaries of the men in camp we catch a view 
of their way of life which extends beyond the range of 
the Commander in Chief's eyes. Lieutenant Jabez Fitch 
found it almost impossible to discipline his men. He 
was always ready to argue on behalf of any offender. 
When one man was put in jail for firing his gun in 
camp, an offense which Washington had forbidden at 
least a dozen times, Fitch did his utmost to get the 
sinner out of the jug. "Yet after all, Bedwell lay con- 
fined till morning," Fitch informed his diary. 

Fitch frequently joined his fellow officers to peti- 
tion Washington against the appointment of a certain 
lieutenant, or inform him that in their opinion they 
should be permitted to cut wood on Tory land. Wash- 
ington, unacquainted with the New England town meet- 
ing, furiously condemned "this mode of associating and 
combining, as subversive of all subordination, disci- 
pline and order." 

Fitch was often at gatherings where "the gin sling 
passed very briskly" and on two occasions was "catched" 
by the officer of the day carousing with his fellow lieu- 

tenants and captains in the guardhouse. The atmos- 
phere of the camp was on the whole intensely religious. 
Every regiment had its chaplain. But Lieutenant Fitch 
was not above ranging "beyond the punch bowl Tavern 
to find . . . some white stockinged women, etc." 
Seventeen-year-old David How, a leather worker from 
Methuen, noted in his diary that a man was "found 
dead in a room with a woman this morning. It is not 
known what killed him." How also noted the story of 
a "drinking bout" between two men in Cambridge who 
"drinkd so much that one of them died in about an 
hour or two after." 

Women who attempted to accompany their men 
to camp found the military routine dreary and the 
atmosphere depressing. The wife of Fitch's colonel 
became so unhappy she killed herself. Sickness was 
common. Twenty-four-year-old Joseph Perry, chaplain 
to a Connecticut militia regiment, "found the hospital 
a disagreeable place; a dead man at the door of the 
first entrance. Groans from within of distress both of 
body & mind . . . Prayd at four places at the desire of 
the sick." 

It was that kind of war. Fighting so close to their 
homes, the soldiers had a steady stream of sons and 
nephews and cousins pouring in and out of camp. They 


New York Bank Note Company 

Soldiers' pay ranged from six and two-thirds dollars per month 
for privates to 20 dollars per month for captains. 

sent home for items in short supply, such as sugar and 
coffee. One ensign asked for "a young pig to roast." 
In general, however, the food was the one consolation 
of these amateur soldiers. One captain's orderly book 
shows him issuing a pound of fresh beef or three- 
quarters of a pound of pork or one pound of salt fish 
per day, and a pound of bread or flour, three pints of 
peas or beans per week and a quart of beer per man 
per day. A lieutenant's letters frequently speak of "a 
fine peas of beaf" and later he told his wife, "We have 
ben to supper on a fine turky." The pay was also satis- 
factory, six and two-thirds dollars a month for privates, 
10 dollars a month for second lieutenants (called en- 
signs), 13 dollars and 33 cents for lieutenants, and 20 
dollars for captains. A good example of the American 
soldiers' contentment with their lot was the following 
bit of propaganda which was tied to rocks and thrown 
to British sentries on Bunker Hill which was now enemy 

I Threepence a day 


I Seven dollars a 

II Fresh provisions and II Rotten salt pork 
in plenty 

III Health III The Scurvy 

IV Freedom, ease, afflu- IV Slavery, beggary 

ence and a good farm 

and want 

By mid-September, Washington's attitude toward 
his New England army had changed from alarm and 
dismay to a growing confidence. By this time, that other 
source of alarm, the shortage of powder, had been 
largely remedied, thanks to diligent American smugglers 
who found large supplies in the Dutch West Indies. 
Thus, on September 1 1 th, Washington summoned his 

Despite their differences, Washing- 
ton and the New Englanders formed 
a strong and victorious relationship. 

generals to a council of war and asked them what they 
thought of going over to the offensive — hurling his 
men at the entrenched British in Boston in an all-out 
attempt to settle the quarrel with England in one fero- 
cious battle. He found that his generals and most of 
the Continental Congress still hoped King George would 
dismiss his ministers and appoint a new government 
that would make peace with the colonies. Washington, 
with his instinct for realism, no longer believed this was 
likely to happen. But he yielded to the unanimous 
opinion of his generals that an attack should be post- 
poned for the time being. "I cannot say," he told Con- 
gress, "that I have wholly laid it aside — " 

Devotion to the Cause 

Six months later, Washington would make the 
attack, designating the man he had cajoled back into 
the army. Brigadier General John Thomas, as its com- 
mander. It would succeed brilliantly. By deft maneu- 
vers the British were driven out of Boston with almost 
no bloodshed. The man from Virginia and the men 
from New England had achieved a meeting of the mind 
and spirit. It was no simple resolution and there would 
always be a certain uneasiness in the relationship. New 
Englanders, like other Americans, responded to Wash- 
ington's natural gift for leadership. But the thing that 
won New England's heart, in spite of his early criti- 
cisms of their individualistic habits, was Washington's 
utter devotion to the Cause. It is best summed up in 
a letter he wrote to a New York general who was hav- 
ing his own troubles with cantankerous New England- 
ers and threatened to resign. "Let me ask you, sir," 
Washington wrote, "when is the time for brave men to 
exert themselves in the cause of liberty and their coun- 
try, if this is not? Should any difficulties, that they may 
have to encounter in this important crisis, deter them? 
God knows, there is not a difficulty that you . . . very 
justly complain of, which I have not in an eminent 
degree experienced, that I am not every day experi- 
encing; but we must bear up against them, and make 
the best of mankind as they are, since we cannot have 
them as we wish." EH 

In 1963, Thomas Fleming won the Mass Media Award 
given annually by the National Conference of 
Christians and Jews. He is the author of now we are 


lightning and the forgotten victory. Mr. Fleming 
also assisted Margaret Truman in the preparation of 
her biography, harry s. truman. 


WAat/cfaWo Many 

S^ectana f (Don^uience^ 
ofti?. SH^ ^teoo/utiafi/ cotis/ en/ 

and 't/u& axi&^kted^om/ 
ins t/ie caur&& of /i/teen/ 9Jazr& 



From a letter John Adams wrote to Thomas Jefferson on August 24, 1815 




After the Revolution, people felt a new sense of pride. They could finally 
work land that was no longer under foreign control. Family records and 
diaries tell how it was then - the power of seasonal rhythms, work, day-to-day 
economic transactions, birth, sickness, death and rural isolation. 

by Jack Larkin 

In the Massachusetts landscape of the twentieth century 
there remain traces of the rural society New Eng- 
land once was. Farm fields abandoned to other pur- 
suits and long since gone back to forest are marked out 
by stone walls, many now forming boundaries along 
country roads. Old farmhouses stand firmly rooted, 
posing a nostalgic contrast to shiny, prefab suburban 
dwellings and the cemetery gravestones dotting hillsides 
in every town reinforce the silent presence of the ordi- 
nary men, women and children who made up rural 
society in days long past. 

In commonplace documents like diaries, remin- 
iscences, and account books, some of the region's early 
residents have left us clues about the sort of people 
they were. They were not the heroes of the Revolution, 
nor were they the statesmen and business successes of 
the New Republic; they were instead representative of 
people leading "commonplace" lives, dealing with the 
day-to-day problems of working, raising families, and 
living in communities in an environment different from 
ours in the texture, rhythm and scale of life. By reading 
what ordinary men and women wrote down in the 
course of their own lives we can become better imagin- 
ers ourselves when we visit historic sites; we can bring 
our own everyday lives into historical perspective. In 
trying to evoke the kind of society that existed in rural 
Massachusetts after the Revolution, I have talked about 
people and towns in rural New Hampshire and Con- 
necticut, as well as in Massachusetts. Since then, as 
well as now, the six-state area shared a common iden- 
tity, what is shown about Massachusetts also has a 
wider reference to rural New England and what was 
true of towns in close proximity to the state's border 
can be assumed to also be true of Massachusetts. 

It was said that the Yankee's facial muscles had 
withered from disuse, that country people wore inex- 
pressive masks and moved "with a certain sheepish air, 
and a heavy awkward gait." One chronicler went so 
far as to suggest from the vantage point of Boston 50 
years later, that the central Massachusetts townspeople 
of his parents' generation would have been first-class 
poker players — if they could in any conceivable 
stretch of the imagination be pictured playing cards. 
The common pattern of speech was one which still sur- 
vives today, more frequently in northern New England. 
Except where urban influence had clipped and "puri- 
fied" the sounds, speech was slow and nasal, almost 
drawling. The historian of Enfield, uncertain whether 
it was due to cold and damp climate and the prevalence 
of head colds, or the Congregationalist habit of intoning 
psalms, observed that the Yankee child of the time was 
"soothed by a nasal lullaby and will drawl from the 
time he leaves the cradle. He will drawl at his lessons 
and repeat love's litany through the nose." 

With men, horse, ox, and a water wheel that might 
at best generate 10 horsepower, with scythe, reaping 
hook and plow, the work of the New England farm 
was uncompromisingly scaled to human size and 
strength. The pace of daily tasks was determined by 
the speed of an ox team at the plough or the repetitious 
movements of a spinning wheel. "My old first Hengate 
plow failed today being completely worn out, and 
that chiefly by myself," wrote Horace Clarke of Granby, 
Connecticut in an early May of 1837, adding with a 
kind of affection that "I have followed that plow more 
miles than any one man did or ever will any plow what- 
soever, in my opinion." Oliver Putnam, who lived and 
was a merchant in Massachusetts and farmed in New 


/\ The work on a New England (Massachusetts) farm was uncompro- How much a man could accomplish in a day was determined by the 
misingly scaled to human size and strength; the seasonal calendar speed of his team and plow. As one farmer noted in his diary: 
determined the rhythm of life. "I have followed that plow more miles than any one man did. . ."V 


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Although most farmers have turned to modern farm machinery to plant their fields, in some places in Massachusetts, such as this 
farm outside of Springfield, older, traditional plowing with oxen still proves to be effective. 

Hampshire, recorded his farm's work with extraordi- 
nary care. A glance at his detailed diary might evoke 
a day's work on a New England farm for us. 

May 24, 1817 

Put in 7 apple tree grafts between wood and 
bark in field no. 5 

Washed the sheep and got 5 bu. of sand 

sharpened 2 saws 

hawled 3 loads of stones out of field no. 1 

spread 5 bushels plaster (lime) on oats in no. 8 

ploughing in no. 1 
The seasonal calendar created the long-term 
rhythm • of farm life, decreeing times for ploughing, 
planting, cultivating, shearing and harvesting. Woven 
into the regularities was the unpredictability of New 
England's weather, which must have often reminded 
people of their vulnerability in a difficult environment. 
Horace Greeley described the experience of most farm 
families in Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Ver- 
mont in the "cold summer of 1816 when we arose on 
the eighth of June to find the earth covered with a good 
inch of newly fallen snow — when there was frost every 
month, and corn did not fill till October." Horace 
Clarke, a Connecticut farmer, recorded in June of one 
year, "... the prospect for the farmer is gloomy, if July 
and August do not tell the right story, we are gone as 

to crops." By October 10, he "found a killing frost — 
Ice almost as thick as a window glass on pails and kettles 
of water — all that frost can do to vegetables is ac- 
complished, the story is told." 

Making Ends Meet 

In July of 1817, Putnam and his brother Thondike 
were mowing hay, an exhausting job that led to 12 or 
14-hour workdays. A careless hired hand roused his ire 
with some sloppy work, and Putnam recorded his exas- 

July 21. One hand employed all the morning in 
getting up the oxen and hitching them to the 
wagon to bring 1 V2 barrels from the well in the 
garden into the house. Judicious Management! 
Memorandum: to put the horse to the drag (a 
small sled) whenever there is a bucket of water 
to fetch, the grass ground in the garden will not 
then be cut up by the wagon wheels, and it will 
not take more than half an hour to do with the 
horse what could be done by hand in five min- 
Managing the farm was a complicated enterprise, 
most often carried out in a mixture of traditional prac- 
tice, guesswork, common sense — and, occasionally, 
new methods. Putnam's 88-acre farm was typical of the 


region; but his attempt to figure out the production cost 
of a bushel of rye or a basket of potatoes through care- 
ful record-keeping, long before the days of the agricul- 
tural extension agent, was most unusual. Unfortunately, 
we don't know what his neighbors thought. 

In a village economy, of course, Putnam's fellow 
townsmen must have tested his shrewdness and sound- 
ness as a farmer and trader weekly, if not daily. In 
such towns economic life was to a large extent carried 
on face-to-face, in a multitude of small exchanges and 
transactions between neighbors — the use of tools, the 
rental of land, a day's work threshing, a bushel of rye 
in the wintertime, the loan of a carriage and horse for 
a long trip, the exchange of skills like butchering, car- 
pentry, as well as the purchase of a milk pan or a plow- 
share. The country store, was a source for manufac- 
tured goods and a variety of items that the local econ- 
omy did not produce — but the storekeeper, too, was 
part of a web that combined social, political and eco- 
nomic relationships as well as a link to the larger world. 

Unalterable Conditions 

These transactions were almost always precisely 
recorded — account books are probably the most com- 
mon surviving personal record from rural New Eng- 
land — and accounts were closely watched and care- 
fully settled. Pliny Freeman of Sturbridge kept ac- 
counts with 15 or 20 other men — neighbors, crafts- 
men, storekeepers, often waiting two years to balance 
the books, often with a small payment in chronically 
scarce cash. And two Danvers diaries describe fre- 
quent visits to settle accounts. "In the evening went over 
to Mr. Wyatt's," wrote Moses Porter, "reckon'd and 
settled accounts with him by paying him 25 cents, had 
no difficulty in settling the former misunderstanding 
being occasioned by a mistake of my own." 

One curious remnant of the colonial period, which 
persisted well into the time of Daniel Webster and 
Charles Sumner in many country towns, was the habit 
of reckoning prices and values in traditional English 
currency — although the pound notes, shillings, and 
halfpence had rarely been seen in rural Massachusetts, 
even before the Revolution. Putnam, Clarke and Por- 
ter, like most of their contemporaries for instance, 
reckoned accounts and made cash payments in dollars 
and cents (often with Spanish dollars, which were quite 
as common as American-minted ones) but persisted in 
buying and selling many times — a day's work, a gal- 
lon of beans, a shoe pattern — in terms of 1/s/d. As 
any traveler can attest, the mental gymnastics involved 
in making such conversions are considerable. Why so 
clumsy a dual system of reckoning persisted for so long 
is mysterious — except for the speculation that it pro- 
vided canny traders with a useful way of "shaving" the 
slower calculators. 

Reading the headstones in a country graveyard 

reminds even the casual observer of the presence of 
death and frequency of illness, conditions as unalterable 
as the seasons and as capricious and difficult to control 
as the weather. With a rudimentary and unscientific 
medical practice, levels of nutrition and resistance to 
disease that varied with the seasons, occasional epi- 
demics and shortages of food, life could properly be 
viewed as risky enterprises — and was, as tombstone 
inscriptions attest. For a child born in 1790, life ex- 
pectancy was 10 to 15 years lower than a child born 
in 1974. This reflected both a much higher death rate 
for infants and children, and the danger of infectious 
disease. Because of the hazards of childbirth, women 
had a shorter life expectancy than men, reversing the 
present pattern; perhaps one of every 30 pregnancies 
might end disastrously. 

In the six months from January to June, 1824, 
Moses Porter of Danvers recorded the deaths of eight 
people who lived close by, from "Old Mrs. Peele, who 
has been fast declining for some time past," to a vigor- 
ous man in his early forties, John Proctor, who "was 
not sick more than a week with a fever." Proctor's 
death prompted the Porter family to a Sabbath medi- 
tation on the theme of the funeral sermon, from the 
words in Job, " 'yea, man giveth up the Ghost, and 

Stone walls were painstakingly built by hand to form boundaries 
along farm property. The fact that many are still standing today is 
a testimony to the art of their construction. 


A typical rural Massachusetts farmhouse in the 19th century would 

The mortar and pestle were used to grind food substances or drugs. 
Two early varieties are shown here. 

where is he?' " Porter also noted a couple of serious leg 
injuries to neighbors, the crushing of his father's toes by 
a falling log, a raging toothache (his own) and a hired 
girl at Perley Goodale's nearby farm struck by lightning. 
In 1824 Moses Porter was 30 years old. The only 
son of his family, he worked a substantial farm with 
his father — whom he called "Sir" unfailingly in his 
diary — and did some trading on his own account. At 
that time he was taking every opportunity — market 
days, town meetings, school recitations, trips to settle 
accounts with a neighbor — to court 28-year-old 
Fanny Giddings, who was living with her sister and 
brother-in-law a few miles away. Fanny was helping 
her sister with the care of several young children, and 
Moses' eventually successful courtship was often "con- 
siderably interrupted" by the children. He noted with 
annoyance one evening that young Augustus was 
"rather troublesome in consequence of his mother's 
weaning him." 

Five to Seven Children per Family 

By the norms of rural New England (Massachu- 
setts), Moses and Fanny who married in the next year 
at 31 and 29, were somewhat older than average, but not 
unusually so; ages at marriage were in the late twenties 
for men, mid-twenties for women — considerably later 

Heavy iron scales often adorned store counters. Note the decora- 
tive touches that were characteristic of early handiwork. 

than in modern American society. The Porters were to 
be atypical, however, in having only one child, when 
the average figure for rural Massachusetts was five to 
seven; the most probable explanations are infertility or 
serious illness. Moses died at 64, having surpassed the 
average life expectancy by some years; Fanny weathered 
the usually risky childbearing years and lived to a matri- 
archal 86. 

Most Homes Sparsely Furnished 

Historic houses, now rich showcases of domestic 
architecture, furniture and decorative arts, are more 
numerous in Massachusetts than anywhere else. But 
many of the houses in a New England farming com- 
munity after the Revolution were far less impressive 
than the imposing structures, white-painted with neat 
trim, that have survived a long process of "natural se- 
lection." A reminiscent account of Enfield, Massachu- 
setts describes the "neat and comfortable" houses of 
"prosperous farmers" but adds that houses of the 
"poorer sort" were of "one story, rarely painted, and 
dusky with weatherstain" and sometimes "miserable." 
A look at inventories of household furnishings even for 
the "prosperous farmers," reveals that the interiors of 
those houses would have seemed quite bare to us; a 
house of the "poorer sort," almost empty — except of 
course for those who lived in it. 


seem sparsely furnished by modern standards. 

Without central heating, our ancestors spent much time trying to 
keep themselves warm by refueling heavy iron stoves. 

Seth Dunham's house in Brimfield, which was in- 
ventoried when he died suddenly at 43, in 1837, con- 
tained the following items of furniture: 

1 Clock $ 6.00 

1 Bureau 8.00 

1 Chest and Drawers 2.00 

1 Light Stand 1.00 

1 Easy Chair 1.50 

6 Dining Chairs 2.00 

1 Dining Table 2.50 

1 Kitchen Table .75 

6 Kitchen Chairs 1 .50 

1 Rocking Chair .25 

1 Feather Bed 10.00 

2 Old Beds and Bedstead 4.00 
1 Bed, Bedstead and Bedding 12.00 
1 Bedstead and under Bed 1 .50 
Dunham was not destitute, but representative of a 

middling farmer with house, barn, outbuildings and 95 
acres of land; nor was he simply unusually frugal; most 
inventories indicate similar kinds and quantities of 
household furnishings. The "typical" Massachusetts 
farmhouse must be visualized, then, with a couple of 
prized pieces in the parlor — a clock, bureau, a quan- 
tity of straight-backed wooden chairs, with one or two 
"easy" chairs as perhaps concession to age or weariness, 

For fire prevention, homemade tallow candles were placed in lan- 
terns with perforations to diffuse the light. 

beds and bedsteads, a quantity of blankets and sheets, 
dishes and crockery, utensils and tools — and little else. 
A town's 10 best houses would have been relatively 
opulant, with fine furniture from Boston and carefully 
finished interiors. The 40 or 50 worst houses, out of 
300 or so would have been simply hovels — inhabited 
by landless laborers with families or the marginal farm- 
ers working the stoniest and poorest land, who in En- 
field were called the "hill people." 

Towns Were Autonomous 

The rural community, with farms and a few small 
district schoolhouses scattered over 20 or 30 square 
miles, two or three village centers at crossroads or 
millsites, had the meetinghouse as its social and political 
center. Stark and white on the town common, the meet- 
inghouse has long been a powerful symbol of local self- 
government, community solidarity, and resistance to 
oppression — all those American political virtues. In 
the generations both before and after the Revolution, 
towns maintained a great deal of local autonomy — 
something they lost during the next 150 years as state 
and federal governments overshadowed them. Issues 
about taxation, the care of the poor, and the building 
of roads and schools predominated in town meetings; 
they were debated and voted on, sometimes in remark- 


Rural Massachusetts has not disappeared. 

able "peacef ulness," sometimes in bitter conflict. Some 
town meetings, as in the town of Sturbridge in the 
1 790's, seem to have been peaceful, with little recorded 
debate and many unanimous votes; one in Enfield, how- 
ever, ended with an attempt to blow up the meeting- 

The life of the community was punctuated by oc- 
casions that drew men, women, or families together 
from their farms and shops. All-day church services on 
Sunday were the norm, and, as an historian of Essex 
county put it with slight exaggeration "everyone went 
to church in those times." Because religious diversity 
was increasing, it was less likely for a congregation to 
embrace an entire community — Congregationalists, 
Baptists, Methodists, Unitarians lived together in a fair 
degree of mutual tolerance. 

Communities Became Less Isolated 

Town meetings three or four times a year, annual 
election day, militia training, even the two or three days 
a year required of each able-bodied man for work on 
the roads were "official" occasions that drew men to- 
gether, ostensibly for the serious business of the com- 
munity, but just as often, particularly before temperance 
took hold in the 1830's, for conviviality and emotional 
release. More informally, diaries reveal a substantial 
amount of visiting, between neighbors and both near and 
fairly distant relatives; they also describe itinerants — 
singing masters, book peddlers, tin peddlers, painters or 
"limners" who made yearly or seasonal circuits, lodging 
briefly with families in each town. More organized ac- 
tivities like spelling or quilting bees, school recitations, 
the meetings of associations — for the foreign missions, 
for temperance, for the improvement of maternal care, 
were an increasingly common feature of community 
life. Investigating what seemed to be a fire one evening 
at Seth Richardson's, Moses Porter found a brightly lit 
house, a blazing fire in the chimney, and a throng of 
people from a singing school (which could be described 
as an hour between choir practice and a hoe-down) who 
were intent on staying long past what seems to have 
been the usual farmer's bedtime of 9:30 or 10 o'clock. 

A trend toward more visiting, more travel, a 
richer pattern of social life had been underway since 
before the Revolution in Massachusetts. With increas- 

ing trade, better roads, faster mail service, and more 
news in circulation, the rural villager of the 1820's was 
substantially better informed and less isolated than his 
pre-revolutionary counterpart. 

The Revolution itself had begun to diminish the 
isolation of rural communities in New England. A 50- 
mile circle from home had marked the limit of travel 
for most men and women. Revolutionary veterans like 
the rural minister "who had seen and talked to Lafay- 
ette, and had carried musket and bible under command 
of Washington," were figures of importance in a farm- 
ing village, and were eager to overcome distances and 
bad roads to reach the world beyond the town bounds. 
On March 4, 1 807, Archelaus Putnam of the village of 
New Mills, Danvers, noted James Madison's inaugura- 
tion, and added a little sourly that "Mr. Jefferson re- 
tires from office. ... He has not been so fortunate as 
to leave the country in so good condition and clear of 
difficulties as he found it." Later, a month before the 
traditional Fourth of July cannon-firing celebration, he, 
at the age of 21, talked about leaving his community: "I 
am now on the verge of leaving Danvers New Mills, my 
birthplace and abode, where I was nursed and nourished 
and spent my life . . . where resided my brothers, sisters, 
and near and familiar connections. To be transplanted 
into an untried soil. . . ." 

A Test For The Imagination 

And the familiar shape of rural Massachusetts was 
changing, as cities expanded, farming declined after a 
brief surge of prosperity, milltowns grew up alongside 
farming villages, and families by the scores of thousands 
decided to go to the West, to the city, to the mills, "to 
be transplanted into an untried soil." With its concerns 
of work, family, community, that rural world took a 
long time to disappear, and it lingers in the landscape. 
Re-creating it in the mind's eye is a constructive activ- 
ity of the imagination for anyone traveling in Massa- 
chusetts in the Bicentennial years. LJ 
Jack Larkin is a member of the Museum Education De- 
partment at Old Sturbridge Village and this year is 
Coordinator of the Museum Internship program at Stur- 
bridge. He is a PhD candidate in the History of Ameri- 
can Civilization at Brandeis University and is pursuing 
interests in New England community history. 



On a typical day in 1820, a rural New 
England housewife would undoubtedly 
rise early, cook some brown flour and 
molasses in her fireplace, send the 
children off to the one-room school- 
house, weed her herb garden, pickle 
some vegetables, spin some yarn, and 
stop by the country store to see the 
goods which recently arrived from 
other communities and even other 

Her husband would probably have 
started off the morning by tending to 
the animals in the barn and, after a 
bit, wandering up to the stray animal 
pound to see if an errant sheep or 
mule had been turned in. For 12 cents 
and five mills (one mill equals one- 
tenth of a cent) he could retrieve the 
mule, and an additional penny plus 
four mills would give him back the 
sheep. Perhaps he'd be lucky enough 
to find some sturdy horse or plump 
goose, unclaimed for three days by its 
owner, and make a bid for purchase. 
Depending on the time of year, he'd 
spend the balance of the day either 
tending to his crops or plying a craft, 
such as pottery or coopery, which 
earned him extra income in the farm- 
ing slack season. 

The re-creation of these activities 
— and many more like them — is pre- 
sented every day of the year except 
Christmas and New Year's Days at 
the 200-acre museum of rural life 
known as Old Sturbridge Village. 
Opened in 1946 and chartered by the 
state of Massachusetts as an indepen- 
dent, non-profit, educational institu- 
tion, the Village takes seriously its 
designation as a living museum of 
history. Staffed by historians, re- 
searchers, curators, and archivists and 
aided by a part-time group of more 
than 200 hosts and hostesses, the 
Village aims to bring alive the story 
of what things were like in a small 
New England farming town during 
the first 50 years of the Republic. 
That it succeeds so well in satisfying 
everyone from serious historians to 

small children is a tribute to both 
the scholarship and the enthusiasm of 
the Old Sturbridge family. 

Many of the hosts, called interpret- 
ers of history, are retired teachers or 
business and professional men and 
women who come to the Village at dif- 

ferent times of the year to become an 
actual part of that 19th century com- 
munity. For example, the banker at 
the Thompson Bank, the Greek Re- 
vival building of 1835 now located at 
the Village Common, dresses in the 
knee socks and handsomely-embroi- 

Thanksgiving is a big day at Old Sturbridge Village. Preparation of the traditional dinner 
takes up most of the day, and visitors who make reservations at least a year in advance can 
enjoy the meal. Above, a staff member prepares a turkey, following the same procedures 
that were used in the 19th century. 


dered laced shirt of the period and 
tells the story of banking and credit 
practices of 1 50 years ago. He has no 
set speech to give, but his training has 
included continual reading and dis- 
cussions of the topic. His presentation, 
therefore, is factual as well as witty 
and spontaneous. 

His wife may well be working down 
at the Pliny Freeman Farmhouse, in 
the kitchen of the gambrel-roofed 
structure dating from 1802. As she 
takes out fried fish or cookies from 
the fireplace — and shares them with 
eager visitors — she happily talks 
about the art of fireplace cooking or 
the many chores of a 19th century 
woman's day. The teacher at the 
Schoolhouse, built in 1810 in Candia, 
New Hampshire, invites the visiting 
children to sit on the wooden-backed 
benches around the central wood- 
burning stove, and describes for them 
what the school day was like. 

Craftsmen of all ages and other 
students of history, folk art, or agri- 
culture augment the Village staff, oc- 
casionally getting college credits for 
their work. Authenticity has become 
the byword of Old Sturbridge Vil- 
lage. Researchers in architecture, ag- 
ricultural practices, and technology 
draw upon the 20,000 volumes in the 
reference library (open to the public 
by permission) and a wealth of pri- 
mary source records from all over the 
countryside to substantiate their work. 

Five years of intensive research 
went into the restoration and stocking 
of the Asa Knight Store, for instance, 
before it was opened at the Village in 
1973. Originally located in Dummer- 
ston, Vermont, where it was first built 
in the early 1800's and operated until 
1860, the store was spotted by a mem- 
ber of the museum's curatorial staff 
who is constantly on the lookout 
throughout New England for such fine 
examples of historical architecture no 
longer in use. As is the case with 
most of the structures at the Village, 
a sponsor was found to facilitate the 
moving and restoring of the building 
at its present site on the Village 

Further evidence of the painstaking 
research undertaken to authenticate 
rural life in the 19th century is seen 
in certain changes that have been 
made as the Village staff has uncov- 
ered new information. The Town 

Common at Old Sturbridge used to 
be carefully mowed and manicured 
lawn grass until it was realized, in re- 
cent years, that the original green had 
been filled with wild grass and other 
vegetation. Thus, the area was re- 
planted with field grass so that baby 
lambs could wander about and graze, 
just as they did in centuries past. A 
number of people apparently wrote to 
the Village management after the 
change in "mowing" procedure, ac- 
cusing them of letting the grounds go. 
But once the historical explanation 
was provided, the complaints lessened. 
Another instance of historical rec- 
tification is seen in the Freeman Farm- 
house which was refurbished with 
items reflecting a setting more fitting 

to the early 1800's. The change in 
furnishings from those of an earlier 
period was triggered by the discovery 
of a diary of a young couple who, in 
1802, carefully listed the stock of 
goods they received when they were 
married. By comparing this list with 
an inventory of the items owned when 
a will was probated some time later, it 
was possible to determine with a fair 
degree of accuracy just what would 
have been owned by a typical rural 
family in the early 1 800's. 

Even the animals on the farm, the 
apples in the orchards, and the seeds 
in the ground harken back to a time 
before selective breeding and cross- 
fertilization produced the breeds, and 
grains, and fruits we know of today. 

Another task involved in Thanksgiving dinner preparations at Old Sturbridge Village is 
butter churning, done exactly as it was 200 years ago. 


Since 1965, the Pliny Freeman Farm 
has been experimenting in back-breed- 
ing of livestock in order to reproduce 
the cows and sheep raised by the early 
settlers. Agricultural researchers at 
Old Sturbridge also have been work- 
ing to rediscover and preserve as many 
old New England varieties of apples 
as possible. The task is viewed by 
geneticists and agronomists as having 
biological and environmental advan- 
tages as well as historical significance. 
The Village is a place you'll want 
to visit at any season and, more than 
likely, at each of the seasons. There 
is always something different going 
on, depending on the time of year. 
The entire museum acreage is run on 
the time-table of a traditional agricul- 
tural community, with plowing, plant- 

ing and repairing of fences in the 
spring and the harvesting of crops and 
drying and preserving in the fall. 

Early winter months find the staff 
involved in butchering and candle- 
making, repairing of tools at the 
blacksmith shop, and mending of 
clothes. In late winter, there's tapping 
of the maple trees. During the sum- 
mer, crops are cared for and a variety 
of year-round crafts are demonstrated. 
So whenever you go to Old Stur- 
bridge, or no matter how often you 
go, you'll find new activities to catch 
your eye and absorb your interest. 

School groups with advance reser- 
vations can take advantage of the fa- 
cilities at the new Museum Education 
Center which provides opportunities 
for children to try everything from 

flailing corn cobs, to chopping fence 
posts, to weaving on a hand-loom, to 
spinning on a wheel. 

For people of all ages, there is 
much to be learned and enjoyed in 
every part of Old Sturbridge Village. 
Take Exit 9 off the Massachusetts 
Turnpike to Route 20. The Village is 
open all year; April through October, 
9:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.; hours slightly 
shorter during the winter months. 
Adults $4;. children 6 to 14, $1.25; 
under 6, free. Consecutive two-day 
tickets are available at reduced prices. 
All children under 15 must be accom- 
panied by an adult. Facilities include 
a picnic area, restaurant and snack 
bar. □ 

An accountant looks over his ledgers at the Asa Knight Store on the grounds of Old Sturbridge Village. Originally located in Dummerston, 
Vermont, the store was moved to Massachusetts, refurbished and opened at the Village in 1973. 



When the Sugar Act of 1733 was ordered 
to be enforced in 1760, the royal customs 
collectors applied for writs of assistance 
to search for 'violations. Otis, serving as 
King's Advocate General at Boston, <was 
expected to argue for the writs. Instead, 
he resigned and set out to argue the il- 
legality of the writs. John Adams later 
'wrote that the fire and fury of Otis' 
speech led to the birth of American 

A State of Mind 

Massachusetts is more than the birthplace of the 
American Revolution. For 200 years it has been the 
home of people who have sustained the Revolution's 
symbolic significance in thought and deed, changing 
our nation's way of life in many areas. A look at their 
beliefs during the last two centuries helps us celebrate 
the ideals that inspired the first great Western revo- 
lution for personal freedom. 

Edited by Jon Kathe 
JAMES OTIS (1725-1783) 

". . . But I think I can sincerely declare, that I cheerfully sub- 
mit myself to every odious name for conscience's sake; and 
from my soul I despise all those whose guilt, malice, or folly 
has made them my foes. Let the consequences be what they 
will, I am determined to proceed. The only principles of 
public conduct, that are worthy of a gentleman or a man, are 
to sacrifice estate, ease, health, and applause, and even life, to 
the sacred calls of his country." 

From a speech, "On the Writs of Assistance," made before the Superior Court of 
Massachusetts in February, 1761. 

Library of Congress 


IHHk. -,' 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 

JOHN ADAMS (1735-1826) 

"If the laws of God and men, are therefore 
of no effect, when the magistracy is left at 
liberty to break them; and if the lusts of those 
who are too strong for the tribunals of justice, 
cannot be otherwise restrained than by sedi- 
tion, tumults and war; those seditions, tumults 
and wars, are justified by the laws of God and 

From a pamphlet "Addressed To the Inhabitants of the Colony of 
Massachusetts Bay," February 27, 1775. 

Although Adams opposed mob outbreaks and for a time feared 
independence from Great Britain, he condemned the Boston Port 
Act and exulted in the dumping of tea into Boston's Harbor. 
He wrote many pamphlets and petitions urging that "natural 
rights" be recognized and preserved, and later went on to assert 
the real and immediate need of government by the peoples of 
the colonies. 

A merchant and politician, and as of 1780, Governor of Massa- 
chusetts, Hancock <was the richest New Englander on the patriot 
side, and was therefore an obvious asset. He was accused, how- 
ever, of having mediocre abilities, but he was popular with the 
general public because of his willingness to share his wealth for 
the good of the people. 

JOHN HANCOCK (1737-1793) 

"There! John Bull can read my name without spectacles and may now double his 
reward of £500 for my head. That is my defiance." 

Reportedly uttered by Hancock after being the first one to sign the Declaration of Independence. 

Library of Congress 







"We shall neither be exposed to the 
necessary convulsions of elective 
Monarchies, nor to the want of wis- 
dom, fortitude, and virtue, to which 
hereditary succession is liable. In 
your hands it will be to perpetuate a 
prudent, active, and just legislature, 
and which will never expire until 
you yourselves lose the virtues which 
give it existence." 

From a speech, "On American Independence" made 
in Philadelphia on August 1, 1776. 

Known as one of the world's most effective revolutionary agi- 
tators, Adams and his Sons of Liberty were chiefly responsible 
for provoking the British into antagonizing the colonists further 
and thus bringing the issue of independence to a head. John 
Singleton Copley's painting (above) shows Adams presenting his 
grievances concerning the Boston Massacre to Royal Governor 
Thomas Hutchinson. 

On March 5, 1770, following newly-appointed British Prime 
Minister North's assertion that Parliament had the right to tax 
the colonies, a group of people including the Sons of Liberty 
gathered in Boston and began to harass the British soldiers. 
Upon provocation, the Redcoats fired into the crowd, killing 
three men and mortally wounding two others; several men were 
injured. Although the soldiers were held for trial, the event, 
known as the Boston Massacre, was the first sign of the blood- 
shed to follow. 


DANIEL WEBSTER (1782-1852) 

"Mr. President, I shall enter upon no encomium 
of Massachusetts; she needs none. There she is. 
Behold her, and judge for yourselves. There is 
her history; the world knows it by heart. The 
past, at least, is secure. There is Boston, and 
Concord, and Lexington, and Bunker Hill; and 
there they will remain forever. The bones of 
her sons, falling in the great struggle for Inde- 
pendence, now lie mingled with the soil of every 
State from New England to Georgia, and there 
they will lie forever. And, sir, where American 
Liberty raised its first voice, and where its youth 
was nurtured and sustained, there it still lives, in 
the strength of its manhood, and full of its origi- 
nal spirit. If discord and disunion shall wound it, 
if party strife and blind ambition shall hawk and 
tear it, if folly and madness, if uneasiness under 
salutary and necessary restraint shall succeed in 
separating it from that Union, by which alone its 
existence is made sure, it will stand, in the end, by 
the side of that cradle in which its infancy was 
rocked; it will stretch forth its arm with whatever 
of vigor it may still retain, over the friends who 
gather round it; and it will fall at last, if fall it 
must, amidst the profoundest monuments of its 
own glory, and on the very spot of its origin." 

From a speech made on the floor of the U.S. Senate on 
January 21, 1830. 

As a fervent believer in the Union, Webster decried any and all at- 
tempts at states' rights and nullification, claiming that the Union itself 
had preceded the states and that nullification would wreck the founda- 
tions of the country. He wanted "Liberty and Union, now and forever, 
one and inseparable/" 

EMERSON (1803-1882) 

U A more secret, sweet, and over- 
powering beauty appears to man 
when his heart and mind open to 
the sentiment of virtue. Then he 
is instructed in what is above him. 
He learns that his being is without 
bound; that to the good, to the 
perfect, he is born, low as he now 
lies in evil and weakness. . ." 

From an address delivered before the 
Senior Class in Divinity College in Cam- 
bridge on July 15, 1838. 

Emerson's address was attacked by many, 
and shock was the order of the day when 
Emerson declared the Church dead because 
modern Christianity had come to neglect the 
soul. However, Emerson was not ignored 
and many who did not agree with his ideas 
were much in attendance at his lectures. 




"Stripped then of these introduc- 
tory recitals and alleged injurious 
consequences, and of the qualifying 
epithets attached to the facts, the 
averment is this ; that the defen- 
dants and others formed them- 
selves into a society, and agreed 
not to work for any person who 
should employ any journeyman or 
other person, not a member of 
such society, after notice given him 
to discharge such workman. The 
manifest intent of the association 
is, to induce all those engaged in 
the same occupation to become 
members of it. Such a purpose is 
not unlawful." 

From the majority decision in Common- 
wealth vs. Hunt which legalized measures to 
allow labor unions to fight suppression by 

In his many years on the judicial bench, Shaw witnessed the growth and devel- 
opment of industry. With his experience, and his personal momentum, lie became 
a tremendous influence on commercial and constitutional law. 



"Cost what it may, every slave on the American 
soil must be liberated from his chains. Nothing is 
to be put in competition, on the score of value, 
with the price of his liberty; for whatever con- 
flicts with the rights of man must be evil, and 
therefore intrinsically worthless. Are we to be 
intimidated from defending his cause by the fear 
of consequences? Is it, then, safe to do wrong? 
Has a just God so ordered it, that the strong may 
oppress the weak, the rich defraud the poor, the 
merciless torture the innocent, not only without 
guilt, but with benefit to mankind? Is there no 
similitude between the seed that is sown, and the 
harvest which it brings forth? Have cause and 
effect ceased to retain an indissoluble connection 
with each other? On such a plea, what crime may 
not be committed with impunity? What deed of 
g^^_ ^_, villainy may not demand exemption from rebuke? 
p* ■ ' -." What system of depravity may not claim protec- 
— ~ tion against the assaults of virtue?" 

—. From "No Compromise with Slavery." 

Although not the first American abolitionist, Garrison was one 
of the most visible opponents of slavery and was the editor of 
"The Liberator." 



"I come to present the strong claims of suffering 
humanity. I come to place before the Legislature 
of Massachusetts the condition of the miserable, 
the desolate, the outcast. I come as the advocate 
of helpless, forgotten, insane, and idiotic men and 
women; of beings sunk to a condition from which 
the most unconcerned would start with real hor- 
ror; of beings wretched in our prisons, and more 
wretched in our almshouses. And I cannot sup- 
pose it needful to employ earnest persuasion, or 
stubborn argument, in order to arrest and fix 
attention upon a subject only the more pressing 
in its claims because it is revolting and disgusting 
in its details." 

From "Memorial on the Condition of the Insane of 
Massachusetts" (1843). 

CHARLES SUMNER (1811-1874) 
"It is the policy of rulers to encourage this ex- 
clusive patriotism, and here they are aided by the 
examples of antiquity. I do not know that any 
one nation is permitted to reproach another with 
this selfishness. All are selfish. Men are taught 
to live, not for mankind, but only for a small por- 
tion of mankind. The pride, vanity, ambition, 
brutality even, which all rebuke in the individual, 
are accounted virtues, if displayed in the name of 
country. Among us the sentiment is active, while 
it derives new force from the point with which it 
has been expressed. An officer of our Navy, one 
of the heroes nurtured by War, whose name has 
been praised in churches, going beyond all Greek, 
all Roman example, exclaimed, 'Our country, 
right or wrong,' — a sentiment dethroning God 
and enthroning the Devil, whose flagitious charac- 
ter must be rebuked by every honest heart." 

From a speech, "The True Grandeur of Natrons," made in 
Boston on July 4, 1845. 

A United States Senator who was especially concerned with 
world peace, Sumner lobbied for a Congress of Nations. He 
was also an ardent defender of individual rights, opposing the 
exclusion of black children from schools and fighting against 
the law which prohibited the marriage of black and white. 


Boston Medical Library, Countway Library of Medicine 

Dorothea Dix set out to combat the mistreatment of insane 
throughout the entire country, hi each state she documented and 
reported the horrors she saw perpetrated. Five years after 
addressing the Massachusetts Legislature, she petitioned Con- 
gress and in time, the terrible injustices toward the insane 
began to be rectified. 

Lowell directed much of his literary ener- 
gies toward reform, of which abolition of 
slavery was prominent. His first anti- 
slavery poem, written when he was 24 
years old, is 39 pages long. 



"Chain do^nVyour slaves with ignorance, ye 

carmptwkeep apart, 
With all y*uV ©raft of tyranny, the human 

heary^rdoi heart: 
When first thj^Mgrims landed on the Bay 

State's^® r^ghore, 

one day iw|u«uuiv,. 

From the poemJ^lOi^the Capture of Fugi- 
tive Slaves near V^aAhington" (18+5) 



1U tt> *»X_ZA*GZ^ 



Yon are hereb] respectfully CAUTIONED and 
adiised, (o avoid conversing with (he 

Watchmen and Police Officers 
of Boston, 

For since the recent ORDER OF THE HAVOB & 
ALDERMEN, Ihe.v are empowered to acC as 



Slave Catchers, 

And they have already beeu actually employed In 
KID.>AI'PI>e, ClTlllIX;. A.\D KEEPIN6 
SLAVES. Therefore, Ifyou value yoar LIBERTY, 
and the itself are of the Fugitive* among you, Shun 
Inem In every possible manner, as M» many JUOl'lVDS 
on the track ofthe most unfortunate of your race. 

Keep a Sharp Look Out for 

KIDNAPPERS, and have 

TOP EYE open. 

APHIL *4, 1H51. 

A theologian and Unitarian clergyman, 
Parker (author of the above sign) 
brought the church into the outside world, 
urging reform from behind the pulpit. A 
strong opponent of slavery, Parker was 
active in helping slaves to escape. 

Library of Congress 

THEODORE PARKER (1810-1860) 

"A Christian church should be a means of reforming the world, of 
forming it after the pattern of Christian ideas. It should therefore 
bring up the sentiments of the times, the ideas of the times, and 
the actions of the times, to judge them by the universal standard. 
In this way it will learn much and be a living church, that grows 
with the advance of men's sentiments, ideas, and actions, and while 
it keeps the good of the past will lose no brave spirit of the present 
day. . ." 

From a sermon entitled "The True Idea of a Christian Church," delivered on the 
first Sunday of 1846. 


As a youth, Mann was 
subjected to a repressive 
and limited education, 
and in later years he 
devoted much time to re- 
form of educational insti- 
tutions. At a time when the 
well-to-do were turning 
more and more to private 
schools, Mann sought to im- 
prove public education; the 
results of his efforts were 

HORACE MANN (1796-1859) 

"Education then, beyond all other devices of human origin, is a great equalizer of the conditions of 
men, — the balance wheel of the social machinery. . . The spread of education, by enlarging the 
cultivated class or caste, will open a wider area over which the social feelings will expand; and, if 
this education should be universal and complete, it would do more than all things else to obliterate 
factitious distinctions in society." 

From his twelfth annual report as the Secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education (1848). 


". . . Must the citizen ever for a moment, or in 
the least degree, resign his conscience to the legis- 
lator? Why has every man a conscience, then? 
I think that we should be men first, and subjects 
afterward. It is not desirable to cultivate a re- 
spect for the law, so much as for the right. The 
only obligation which I have a right to assume is 
to do at any time what I think right." 

From "Civil Disobedience" which was first printed under the 
title of "Resistance to Civil Government" in 1849. 

Essayist, poet and transccndentalist, Thoreau 
outwardly demonstrated his belief in "civil 
disobedience" through non-payment of his 
poll tax in protest of slavery and the Mexi- 
can War. Thoreau is perhaps best known 
for his Walden, or Life in the Woods. 


W.E.B. DU BOIS (1868-1963) 

". . . We will not be satisfied to take one jot or 
tittle less than our full manhood rights. We claim 
for ourselves every single right that belongs to a 
freeborn American, political, civil and social; and 
until we get these rights we will never cease to 
protest and assail the ears of America. The battle 
we wage is not for ourselves alone but for all true 
Americans. It is a fight for ideals, lest this our 
common fatherland, false to its founding, become 
in truth the land of the thief and the home of the 
slave — a byword and a hissing among the nations 
for its sounding pretentions and pitiful accom- 

From the Niagara Address to the Nation made to the delegates 
at the second annual meeting of the Niagara Movement at 
Harper's Ferry, West Virginia on August 16, 1906. 

William Edward Burghardt DuBois, author, teacher and editor, 
•was an early advocate of liberating the African colonies. His 
•writings solidified the revolt of black intellectuals against the 
compromises previously made by Booker T. Washington. In 
1905, DuBois founded the Niagara Movement which in 1910 
evolved into the NAACP. 

SUSAN B. ANTHONY (1820-1906) 

"I address you by letter to ask the privilege of ap- 
pearing before you during the sittings of this Con- 
vention, to demand the enfranchisement of the 
women of America, the only class of citizens 
wholly unrepresented in the Government, the only 
class (not guilty of crime) taxed without repre- 
sentation, tried without a jury of their peers, 
governed without their consent. And yet in this 
class are found many of your most noble, virtu- 
ous, law-abiding citizens, who possess all the 
requisite qualifications of voters. Women have 
property and education. We are not "idiots, luna- 
tics, paupers, criminals, rebels," nor do we "bet 
on elections." We lack, according to your consti- 
tutions, but one qualification — that of sex — 
which is insurmountable, and, therefore, equiva- 
lent to a deprivation of the suffrage; in other 
words, the "tyranny of taxation without repre- 

From a letter to National Democratic Convention July 4, 1868. 

A pioneer leader of the women's suffrage movement in the 
United Slates, Susan B. Anthony devoted her life to the anti- 
slavery movement and women's rights. 



". . . It is said that this manifesto was more than a theory, that it 
was an incitement. Every idea is an incitement. It offers itself for 
belief and if believed it is acted on unless some other belief out- 
weighs it or some failure of energy stifles the movement at its birth. 
The only difference between the expression of an opinion and an 
incitement in the narrower sense is the speaker's enthusiasm for 
the result. Eloquence may set fire to reason. But whatever may be 
thought of the redundant discourse before us it had no chance of 
starting a present conflagration. If in the long run the beliefs ex- 
pressed in proletarian dictatorship are destined to be accepted by 
the dominant forces of the community, the only meaning of free 
speech is that they should be given their chance and have their way." 

This quote is taken from the dissenting 
opinion of Supreme Court Justices Holmes 
and Brandeis. The case dealt with the 
power of state governments to regulate 
freedom of speech and of the press, and 
more specifically with the publication of 
The Left Wing Manifesto by Benjamin 
Gitlow, a prominent Socialist. Although 
Gitlow's conviction was upheld, Holmes 
and Brandeis stated that even though 
Gitlow argued for the forcible overthrow 
of government, no evil came of his ad- 
vocacy and thus there was no "clear and 
present" danger. 

From Gitlow v. New York 268U.S.652 (1925). 



Pi '4tk 0^ 

* # 



Sitting on the Supreme Court in 1926 are Holmes, front row, second from left, and Brandeis, front row, extreme right. 


JOHN F. KENNEDY (1917-1963) 

". . . Some say that it is useless to speak of 
world peace or world law or world disarma- 
ment — and that it will be useless until the 
leaders of the Soviet Union adopt a more en- 
lightened attitude. I hope they do. I believe 
we can help them do it. But I also believe 
that we must re-examine our own attitude — 
as individuals and as a Nation — for our atti- 
tude is as essential as theirs. And every gradu- 
ate of this school, every thoughtful citizen 
who despairs of war and wishes to bring 
peace, should begin by looking inward — by 
examining his own attitude toward the possi- 
bilities of peace, toward the Soviet Union, 
toward the course of the cold war and toward 
freedom and peace here at home." 

From his speech at American University on June 10, 1963. 

As the 35th President of the United 
States, John F. Kennedy was committed 
to easing the tension of the cold war 
that had surfaced between the United 
States and the Soviet Union after World 
War 11. At the same time, however, 
Kennedy felt it necessary that the United 
States maintain a strong show of force 
in order to equalize the rising tide of 
nuclear power. 






Like the Puritans, the Jacksonian Utopians and dreamers realized that "na- 
ture" meant more than clouds and forests; above all, it meant a state of 
consciousness that was free from all dependence on the established institutions. 

by Stephen Nissenbaum 

It takes time to settle the machinery for self-government 
while simultaneously forging tradition and culture in 
the new republic. But because of its already long his- 
tory and the particular aspects of it, Massachusetts was 
the scene of an unprecedented flowering of visionary 
dreams and Utopian experiments during the 10 years 
between 1835 and 1845. In the quiet Boston suburb of 
Concord, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thor- 
eau, and others forged a radically new social philos- 
ophy. That philosophy was put into practice at an 
experimental community in the Boston suburb of West 
Roxbury, dubbed "Brook Farm" by its founders. In 
Milford, some 30 miles to the southwest, a Christian 
Utopia with the touching name "Hopedale" was estab- 
lished, while in the north-central town of Harvard a 
secular Utopia called "Fruitlands" struggled along for 
a few dramatic months late in 1843. Still another coop- 
erative venture flourished for several years near the 
Connecticut River town of Northampton, in the western 
part of the state. And it was during this period, too, 
that the four small villages of simple religious folk 
called Shakers which had been planted in Massachusetts 
more than a generation earlier came to experience a 
remarkable surge of growth and revival. 

Puritan Utopias Unsuccessful 

The history of Massachusetts is inseparable from 
the history of Puritanism, and it is with Puritanism that 
any exploration of the Utopian impulse of the nine- 
teenth century must begin. From the 1630's on, the 
towns of Massachusetts were designed to function as 
little Puritan Utopias — cooperative enterprises in 
which the interest of the community assumed auto- 
matic priority over the interests of its individual mem- 
bers. As Governor John Winthrop wrote in 1630, 
"The care of the public must oversway all private re- 
spects." Recognizing how easily private initiatives 
might come into conflict with the public good, the 
Puritans established a variety of mechanisms intended 
to prevent individuals from developing too distinct a 
sense of their own individuality. In the towns of seven- 
teenth-century Massachusetts, people knew that their 
behavior, and even their state of mind, was continually 

monitored by church members, civil authorities, neigh- 
bors, their own families — and God himself. 

From the very beginning these tightly regimented 
Puritan Utopias were weakened by a steady succession 
of blows — the increase and dispersal of population, 
the quickening pace of westward migration, the rise of 
urban commercial centers, and the unleashing of in- 
dividualistic competitive impulses — until by the early 
nineteenth century the Puritan vision had all but dis- 
appeared as an effective social force. Even then, how- 
ever, it remained present as an empty shell — a heavy 
shell of expectation and guilt that weighed on the gen- 
eration that came of age in these years. "Shall we never, 
never get rid of this Past?" asks a young character in 
Nathaniel Hawthorne's The House of the Seven Gables; 
"It lies upon the Present like a giant's dead body! What- 
ever we seek to do of our own free motion, a dead 
man's icy hand obstructs us." 

Emerson Chose Solitude 

In retrospect, it seems inevitable that it was a son 
of the Puritans, a Massachusetts minister descended 
from six generations of Puritan clergymen, who de- 
livered the intellectual blow that for many of his gen- 
eration finally thrust aside that dead weight. More 
than most people of the early 1800's, ministers still 
felt its burden, and nowhere more intensely than in 
burgeoning, commercial Boston, where young Ralph 
Waldo Emerson served as minister of the venerable 
Second Church — the church of Cotton Mather a 
century before. For Emerson to resign the ministry, 
as he did in 1832 at the age of 29, was not simply to 
shift occupations, but to throw off the historical mantle 
which rested on his shoulders. Suddenly stripped of a 
comfortable social identity, Emerson was forced on the 
threshold of middle age to confront himself as a naked 
individual. It was out of this existential crisis that he 
in 1836 produced the manifesto Nature, which, more 
than any other single document of the period, inspired 
the Utopian experiments that would spring into being 
a few years later. At once a record of Emerson's own 
ordeal and a carefully generalized handbook for others 
confronting a similar crisis, Nature offered the assur- 
ance that liberation from the icy hand of the past was 


easy — and that it could be an altogether exhilarating 

Emerson urged his readers to go into solitude, 
away from all reminders of their conventional social 
role, family obligations, or community and class iden- 
tity, and in this way gain a sense of their primal iden- 
tity through communion with a socially transcendent 
cosmos. "In the woods," he wrote, "I feel that nothing 
can befall me in life . . . which nature cannot repair." 
Hackneyed, perhaps, to the modern reader, such senti- 
ments marked a radical break with Emerson's Puritan 
ancestors, who feared solitude ■ — ■ and the new sense of 
selfhood it encouraged — so deeply that they built 
their entire social order on the premise that it should 
be impossible to achieve. 

The radical implications of Nature were perhaps 
most strongly sensed by Emerson's young Concord 
neighbor, Henry David Thoreau, a jobless Harvard 
graduate who in 1845, at the age of 28, moved to the 

Shaker communities were tightly disciplined and rigidly structured. 
The above photograph, taken around 1880, shows members of the 
Church family of Shakers on the east steps of the Brick Dwelling. 

shores of nearby Walden Pond, where he lived for two 
years (on land owned by Emerson) in a somewhat 
desperate attempt to free himself from the expectations 
of family and fellow-townsmen. 

In breaking free of society, Emerson insisted, peo- 
ple could recapture the original natures they had lost 
as children. "In the woods," he reported, "... a man 
casts off his years . . . and, at what period soever of 
life, is always a child." This view of childhood as a 
time when the human spirit had not yet been perverted 
by the heavy hand of society was shared by many in 
Emerson's audience and put into practice at the well- 
known Temple School, conducted in Boston from 1834 
to 1839 by Emerson's admirer Amos Bronson Alcott. 
Rejecting the traditional purpose of education — to 
exorcise the child's innately evil characteristics by in- 


Amos Bronson Alcott, an early pioneer in the field of education, 
established Fruitlands, an experimental, Utopian community. 

stilling a profound sense that his every act was being 
judged — Alcott tried to create a supportive environ- 
ment in which his pupils' natural wisdom might find 
spontaneous expression. Convinced that children could 
teach their elders as much as the trees or the stars, 
Alcott published verbatim accounts of discussions in 
his classroom. The Temple School, like Thoreau's 
hut at Walden, must be ranked as one of the Utopian 
experiments of this period. 

By 1840 many people in Massachusetts (and else- 
where) had come to redefine themselves in more-or- 
less Emersonian terms, concluding that their actions 
should be dictated less by tradition and social conven- 
tion than by the prompting of their own natures. For 
them, self-realization and personal fulfillment had be- 
come the controlling values of life. 

Utopian Communities Flower in 1840's 

At the same time, however, these "Emersonians" 
were acutely aware that radical individualism, when 
practiced on a mass scale, was fraught with dangers. 
Translated into political or economic terms, it could 
quickly degenerate into political demagoguery and cut- 
throat competition — features of Jacksonian society 
that were every bit as loathsome as Puritan repression 
to Emerson's Massachusetts admirers. Caught between 
two eras, these men and women longed for a version 
of Emersonian individualism that would lead not to 
competition but to cooperation. From this seemingly 
paradoxical impulse sprang the sudden flowering of 
experimental Utopian communities in the 1840's. 

The first and most famous of these was Brook 
Farm. Founded in 1841 by George Ripley, like Emer- 
son a Boston minister who had resigned his pastorate, 

the "Brook Farm Institute of Agriculture and Educa- 
tion," as it was officially designated, survived for six 
years. Most of the 100-odd members were young 
(many in their early twenties), unmarried, socially 
prominent, and troubled about their careers. An im- 
pressive number of them achieved renown after their 
"season in Utopia": Nathaniel Hawthorne would 
emerge from obscurity to become one of the nation's 
best-known writers; George William Curtis would be- 
come editor of Harper's Weekly; Charles A. Dana, 
editor and owner of the New York Sun; John Sullivan 
Dwight, an important figure in the Boston musical 
world; and Isaac T. Hecker, the founder of America's 
first indigenous Roman Catholic religious order, the 
Paulist Fathers. 

Brook Farm and Hopedale Strive for Social Harmony 

Brook Farm offered its members an excursion into 
what Emerson called "Nature." "The lowing of cattle 
is the natural bass to human voices," wrote one enthu- 
siast. But along with a bucolic setting it promised 
freedom from the oppressive power relationships which 
characterized life in the world outside. By coming into 
harmony with their own inner nature, members hoped 
that they would readily "harmonize" with each other. 
Residents were free to "choose their departments of 
action" — to do whatever farm or household labor 
most attracted them. They all lived in a few large farm- 
houses, to which they gave such fanciful names as the 
"Hive," the "Pilgrim House," and the "Eyrie," and 
they ate their meals in common. They craved such 
close contact not because they shared the Puritan belief 
that isolation led to dangerous anti-social behavior, 
but because they hoped to find "self-fulfillment" more 
easily in the company of kindred spirits than on the 
lonely shores of Walden Pond. Their social activities 
— parties, plays, and pantomimes (often in the woods), 
and regular choral presentations of the great German 
composers, with individual voices blended in literal 
harmony — were intended to demonstrate that self- 
expression and a "natural" social life went hand in 
hand. One young woman resident wrote that she 
"could not feel contented again with the life of iso- 
lated houses, and the conventions of civilization." 

The intense but often inchoate aspirations of the 
Brook Farmers found their most systematic expression 
in the complex doctrine of "Association" promulgated 
by the French Utopian philosopher Charles Fourier 
and officially espoused by Brook Farm early in 1844. 
Having identified to his own satisfaction the social and 
economic arrangements which most accurately corre- 
sponded to the deepest "passions" of the human soul, 
Fourier with mathematical precision concluded that a 
community of exactly 1,620 individuals — divided into 
carefully calibrated "series" — could provide the great- 
est degree of economic efficiency and social harmony 
while satisfying its members' particular "passions." The 
little Brook Farm community tried to put Fourier's 


Utopians attempted to restore the fabric of human relationships. 

theories into practice on a small scale, even to the point 
of constructing a "Phalanstery" (the elaborate structure 
that was to form the central edifice of a Fourierite Asso- 
ciation), but when the still-unfinished building was 
destroyed by fire in 1846, the heart went out of the en- 
terprise, and it disbanded the following year. 

Similar in aim to Brook Farm was the cooperative 
community of Hopedale, founded in 1842 in Milford, 
Massachusetts by yet another former minister, Adin 
Ballou. Unlike Brook Farm, Hopedale tried to yoke 
its socialism to the Christian religion — but, even so, 
its members were required only to make a "simple 
declaration of faith in the religion of Jesus Christ." 
The guiding principles of Hopedale actually came far 
closer to Brook Farm's Fourierism than to traditional 
Puritan Christianity. Christian Socialism, Ballou de- 
clared, would combine "individual freedom with social 
cooperation. ... All may thrive together as individuals 
and as a community." Like Fourier, Ballou constructed 
an elaborate schema of human types and social roles 
and provided the calculus by which the two could be 
"harmonized." This effort to create what Ballou called 
"a miniature Christian republic" survived considerably 
longer than Brook Farm, but in 1856, having fallen 
into the hands of speculators, it too collapsed. 

Family as an Institution Challenged at Fruitlands 

For all the radicalism of their social vision, neither 
Brook Farm nor Hopedale confronted the family — an 
institution which provided the traditional order with 
its most powerful support. At Brook Farm, despite 
communal facilities and apartment-like dwellings, indi- 
vidual families generally continued to live together. 
(Indeed, a major reason for the construction of the 
"Phalanstery" was to allow families that were broken 
up among several small buildings to be reunited! ) At 
Hopedale, Adin Ballou vehemently rejected any sug- 
gestion that his venture threatened monogamy or fam- 
ily life. 

It was only at Fruitlands, one of the smallest, most 
short-lived and eccentric of these Utopian ventures of 
the 1840's, that the institution of the family was chal- 
lenged in a fundamental way. Fruitlands was the crea- 
tion of Amos Bronson Alcott, whose Temple School had 
collapsed in 1839 after the upper-class Boston parents 
of some of his pupils in the school objected to his 
publication of open discussions of birth and reproduc- 
tion. On a subsequent trip to England, Alcott met a 
reformer named Charles Lane, with whom he discussed 
at length the various Utopian communities then in ex- 
istence. The two men came to the conclusion that all 
these ventures had fallen short of the true Utopian goal 
because they had not challenged the "divided, con- 
flicting family arrangements" of their members. Lane 
returned with Alcott to America, and together, in the 
summer of 1843, they purchased a 90-acre farm near 

the town of Harvard, Massachusetts, which they hope- 
fully named "Fruitlands." Here settled the Alcott fam- 
ily, Lane, and a handful of other Utopian adventurers. 

Fruitlands was a strange place. Carrying to an 
extreme position their effort to break free of society's 
artificialities and return to a simpler "natural" order, 
the members gave up alcohol, tobacco, and meat; they 
refused to "enslave" animals by using them for farm 
labor or to "debauch" the soil with manure fertilizer; 
they even disdained to wear woolen clothes (which in- 
volved robbing sheep of their "property") and instead 
wore loose-fitting linen robes. 

The most radical innovations at Fruitlands had to 
do with sex and family life. All the members of the 
community belonged to what Bronson Alcott called a 
"Consociate Family," an affectionate spiritual union 
which would replace the less spontaneous ties of blood 
and marriage. As it happened, the Alcotts themselves 
were the only married couple in residence at Fruit- 
lands, and Bronson Alcott, acting under Lane's influ- 
ence, affirmed his renunciation of institutional marriage 
by ceasing all sexual relations with his wife. 

Henry David Thoreau, inspired by Emerson's essay Nature, tried to 
free himself from social expectations. In 1845, when he was 28 
years old, he moved to Concord's Walden Pond to think. 


The Utopian impulse did not disappear; it simply turned away from larger 
communities and toward the family itself. 

Abigail May Alcott, Branson's wife and the eco- 
nomic mainstay of Fruitlands, bitterly resented this 
meddling with a family structure she had always val- 
ued, and she and her four young daughters came to hate 
Charles Lane. He reciprocated their dislike. Mrs. Al- 
cott, he wrote, "has no spontaneous inclination towards 
a larger family than her own natural one; . . . She vows 
that her own family are all that she cares for." In 
November, 1843, Mrs. Alcott threatened to move away 
and take her children with her. To underscore the 
seriousness of this threat, one of her kinsmen announced 
that he was withdrawing his financial support of the 
community. By January, 1844, the Fruitlands venture 
was abandoned, and the members went their separate 
ways. Charles Lane joined a community of Shakers 
which had been in existence since 1793 just a few miles 
from the site of Fruitlands, and which he and Alcott 
had previously visited. 

Shakers Emphasize Spontaneity 

The Shakers were a religious sect which originated 
in England during the eighteenth century under the 
leadership of Ann Lee, a charismatic visionary whose 
unhappy marital life had prompted her to insist that 
total celibacy would be a key to the new earthly order. 
Transplanted to America during the 1770's, the tiny 
sect established a number of communities, including 
four in Massachusetts. Members accepted the celibate 
life — there was strict sexual segregation — along with 
communal property arrangements and the total rejection 
of their natural families. One Shaker song was espe- 
cially forceful on this last subject: 

My gospel relations are dearer to me 

Than all the flesh kindred that ever I see. . . . 

Of all the relation that ever I see 

My old fleshly kindred are furthest from me. 

So bad and so ugly, so hateful they feel 

To see them and hate them increases my zeal. 

Shaker communities, true to their eighteenth cen- 
tury origins, were rigidly structured and tightly disci- 
plined, under the authority of deacons and elders and 
their female counterparts — sexual equality being an- 
other fundamental Shaker principle. But in the early 
1840's the Shakers were "discovered" by those secular 
reformers, like Charles Lane, who were attracted to 
their communal arrangements, their rejection of family 
ties and worldly competitiveness, and even to their 
celibacy. During this decade the Shakers experienced 
a dramatic surge of growth, with the four Massachu- 
setts communities alone attaining a total membership 
of perhaps 750. And at the same time, traditional Shak- 
erism was itself transformed by its new followers 

— Shaker life during this period was characterized by 
a new emphasis on individual fulfillment and spon- 
taneous social harmony. 

Utopian Impulse Follows Different Channel 

Still, the Shaker revival of the 1840's, together 
with the larger communitarian impulses which char- 
acterized that remarkable decade, were short-lived. One 
by one the Utopian ventures collapsed, and even the 
Shaker movement, though much longer lived, entered 
upon the long decline that by the mid-twentieth century 
would reduce its membership to a handful. 

But the Utopian impulse did not disappear; it sim- 
ply began to flow into a different channel. It was turn- 
ing away from larger communities and toward the 
family itself. Young people who had left society to live 
at Brook Farm re-entered the world as hopeful mar- 
ried couples. Branson Alcott himself, having recovered 
from the suicidal depression which affected him after 
the breakup of Fruitlands, embraced the nuclear fam- 
ily with a characteristic intensity: "I will show you 
what is beautiful, beautiful indeed," he wrote to the 
prospective members of another Utopian venture; "it is 
the pure and happy life of a family, a home where peace 
and gentle quiet abide." 

No longer the harsh disciplinary agent of Puritan 
times, the family now promised to be a Brook Farm or 
a Fruitlands in miniature, a "natural" environment, nur- 
turing and supportive, which would allow its members 
to cultivate their own true natures, safely sheltered 
from the bufferings of the competitive world that lay 
beyond the walls of the home. For another century 
and more, the middle-class family would carry the 
Utopian expectations which Ralph Waldo Emerson had 
first enunciated in Nature, and which for a brief span 
had been lived out in an efflorescence of socialist experi- 
ments. And in the process, the family would itself be- 
come a burden — for many people, a burden every bit 
as heavy as the Puritan tradition it replaced. 

Appropriately enough, it was Bronson Alcott's 
own daughter Louisa May, whose semi-autobiographi- 
cal novel Little Women (1868) evoked for millions 
of readers a loving, close-knit Victorian family group, 
who played a major role in this reincarnation of the 
Utopian visions which had dominated Massachusetts in 
the years of her childhood. Ll 

Stephen Nissenbaum, co-author of salem possessed: 
the social origins of witchcraft (Harvard Uni- 
versity Press, 1974), is Associate Professor of History 
at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He is 
currently writing a book about sex and social change 
in nineteenth century America. 



Saturday 23 [December, 1843] 

In the morning mother went to 
le Village and I had my lessons and 
,ien helped Annie get dinner after 
'hich mother came home and Annie 
ent an errand for mother to Mr. 
ovejoys we stayed a little while to 
see their little baby boy I often 
wish I had a little brother but as I 
have not I shall try to be contented 
with what I have got, (for Mother 

often says, if we are not contented 
with what we have got it will be 
taken away from us) and I think it 
is very true, When we returned' from 
Mr. Lovejoys, we played till supper 
time in the evening we played cards 
and when I went to bed I felt happy 
for I had been obedient and kind to 
Father and Mother and gentle to my 
sisters, I wish I could be gentle always. 

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When the Alcott family moved to Walpole, New Hampshire in 1855, Louisa May brought along her Fruitlands diary. Last year, the 
pages were discovered in the Walpole house and given to the Fruitlands Museum Library. Louisa wrote the above entry at the age of 1 1 . 

Hancock Shaker Village: "Keeping the Spirit Alive" 

In 1959, the last male member of the 
Shaker Society at Hancock, Massachu- 
setts died, leaving only two elderly 
women to carry on the legacy of the 
religious-agricultural community founded 
during the time of the Revolutionary 
War. Celibacy had been one of the 
principal tenets of the Shaker creed 
since its beginnings by Englishwoman 
Mother Ann Lee. Now, with no de- 
scendants to continue the work and 
prayer at Hancock Village, and no new 
converts, the old women were moving 
to an existing Shaker community in 
New Hampshire. 

A group of 33 people living in nearby 
Pittsfield and other Berkshire County 
towns heard that the buildings were go- 
ing on the market. Immediately they 
began to negotiate to acquire the prop- 
erty before the Shaker heritage in the 
northern Berkshires was lost forever. 
The result was the formation of a non- 
profit educational organization, known 
as Shaker Community, Inc., incorpo- 
rated in 1960 for the purpose of main- 
taining a permanent educational me- 
morial to the Shaker sect. Inspired by 
the enthusiasm of Mrs. Amy Bess Miller, 
Pittsfield resident who has made the 
preservation of this historic community 
her personal crusade, more than 500 
people from all across the United States 
have joined the original founders as 
supporting members of this National 
Historic Landmark. 

Devoted to the idea that every part of 
human life should also be a religious 
experience, the Shakers worked their 
farms, made their furniture, did their 
household chores, and socialized with 
one another according to the precise 
rules prescribed by the Ministry. The 
results of this total blend of secular 
and religious life are evident through- 
out Hancock Village. Eleven of the 19 
buildings planned for restoration are 
now open, and each indicates some 
aspect of the Shaker faith. 

The Garden House, for instance, with 
its plain, wooden hand-hewn cabinets 
and the simple elegance of the various 
sifters, baskets, bowls, and tools, is a 
living testimony to the Shakers' rever- 
ence for God as Provider. No froth 
and frills here — nor anywhere through- 
out the community, for that matter. 
Everything is practical and functional 
and, as such, has a character and 
beauty all its own. "The garden is said 
to be an index of the owners mind," 
reads a sign in the small building next 
to the herb garden. "If this be true, 

many who otherwise might be acquitted 
must be judged to possess minds sus- 
ceptible of much improvement in order, 
usefulness, and beauty." It is a proper 
admonition to the gardener, as well as 
to everyone else who passes by. 

A particular favorite of children visit- 
ing the Shaker Village is the Round 
Stone Barn, ingeniously designed in 
1926 just as its name implies. A cylinder 
of stone masonry and wood, the barn 
circles 95 feet in diameter with en- 
trances on three different levels. Resto- 
ration of the barn was completed in 
1968, and an exhibit describing the 
events in a Shaker farmer's year was 
installed at the time. 

One of the larger buildings at the 
Village, known simply as the Brick 
Building, was once used to house 100 
Shaker brethren and sisters. Nowhere is 
the principle of separation of the sexes, 
but total equality as well, made more 
clear than in this main living area. 
There are examples of two separate 
doctors rooms and two separate retir- 
ing areas, two separate work rooms and 
even two separate waiting rooms where 
sisters and brethren each sat on the 
wooden benches and rockers before 
being called in to dine. Then, through 
two separate dining room doors they 
went, sisters seated on the right, 
brethren on the left, to eat their meals 
in separate silence. 

In the basement of the house is the 
kitchen where meals were prepared for 
the entire community, including the 
Elders and Eldresses who ate together 
in a small dining room on the first floor. 
The wooden work benches, the ovens, 
the mortars and pestles for chopping 
fine herbs; the coffee grinders, bowls 
of nuts, jars of spices; even the dumb- 
waiter that took the food steaming hot 
to the dining room directly above liter- 
ally gleam with the devotion to order 
and neatness expressed by the Shaker 

Many of the baked goods from that 
kitchen were sold by Shaker women to 
eager housewives in the area. Keeping 
up the noble tradition, there is a bake 
shop run today as a Woman's Exchange 
in the basement of the Brick Building. 
All manner of mouth-watering home- 
made cookies and cakes, jams and 
bread can be purchased at nominal 
cost. The cooks are all local women, 
one of whom can boast of making and 
selling 5,000 gingerbread men in eight 
One of the most interesting exhibits 

for visitors to tour is the Village Library, 
a multi-purpose building originally in- 
tended for anything from keeping poul- 
try to drying corn and apples. In 1974, 
is was redesigned to accommodate 
manuscripts, photos, historical docu- 
ments, and other material relating to 
all eighteen of the Shaker communities. 
The library's archives are open to quali- 
fied visitors by appointment. All kinds 
of items are apt to catch your eye and 
your interest in the library. One, 
especially noteworthy, is a copy of a 
State-approved indenture agreement 
from 1841, reflecting a time when par- 
ents or guardians could indenture minor 
children to the Shakers to be raised 
until they reached the age of 21. At 
that time, they were free to choose if 
they wanted to become members of the 
Covenant Society or if they wished to 
return to the outside world. The same 
choice was left to orphaned children. 

Sometimes children would come to 
the Village with their parents who had 
been converted to the Shaker principles 
after marriage and child-bearing. The 
youngsters lived together, according to 
their sex. Supervised by a caretaker, 
they were sent to school for three 
months each year where classical learn- 
ing was eschewed as "mere lumber of 
the brain." 

The Meeting House at the Village was 
brought to Hancock in 1962 from the 
Shaker community that once flourished 
in the town of Shirley, Massachusetts. 
Seated on the wooden benches, tra- 
ditionally pushed back from the center 
of the floor to permit the believers to 
dance and shake as the spirit moved 
them, visitors of today can relax and 
listen to the recordings of Shaker 
songs. The sign above the stairs, 
brought from New Lebanon, reads: 
"This is a place of trade and public 
business, therefore we open it not on 
the Sabbath." 

But, in the interest of educating the 
public to appreciate the Shaker heri- 
tage, the Hancock Shaker Village is 
open seven days a week (June through 
October, 9:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. Adults $2; 
children under 12, 500. School groups 
welcome for special tours in May and 
October. For information, write to the 
Village Office, P.O. Box 898, Pittsfield, 
02120 or call (413) 443-0188.) 

To reach the Village, take Route 20, 
five miles west of Pittsfield, or the Mass. 
Turnpike to Exit 1 north on Route 41. 
Note: The Village cannot be reached 
via Route 43 from the town of Hancock. 


Fruitlands: Earthly Paradise 

If ever there were a perfect setting for 
a paradise on earth, then Fruitlands 
would be the place. Set in rolling hills 
overlooking the Nashua Valley near the 
Middlesex town of Harvard, it was to 
this spot that teacher and philosopher 
Bronson Alcott took his wife and four 
daughters in 1843 to establish his 
Transcendental community, known as 
the Con-Sociate Family of New Eden. 
The community lasted but a short time 
as the Utopian dream of its founders, 
Alcott and Englishman Charles Lane, 
but its ideals and its natural beauty 
have been preserved forever in the 
Fruitlands Museums. 

Through the efforts of the late Clara 
Endicott Sears, who started the muse- 
ums in 1914, the magnificent estate 
has become the setting for a historic 
record of transcendentalism, as well 
as for an American Indian Museum, a 
Shaker House of the 1790's, and a Pic- 
ture Gallery with a noted collection of 
American paintings. Located equidis- 
tant from Worcester, Lowell, or Boston, 
"Fruitlands" is a place to see and learn 
and wander and dream and, also, to 
think back to a time when Alcott and 
company came here to escape "a world 
lost in materialism." But even Alcott 
and Lane had to admit, after a year at 
Fruitlands, that even the most noble 
dreams of a Utopian idealist must be 
made compatible with the reality of 
everyday living. 

The challenge is most notably seen 
in the early 18th century farmhouse that 
was the home, from 1843-44, of the 
Alcotts, Charles Lane and his son, and 
the seven other men and a woman who 
comprised the Con-Sociate family. The 
house was the original residence on 
the property, and it was there that Mrs. 
Alcott tried to do the cooking, sewing, 
and other chores connected with keep- 
ing a family going. The task was not 
an easy one, especially when the prin- 
ciple of non-exploitation of animals 
meant that tallow candles could not be 
used, wool or cotton garments could not 
be worn and, certainly, in addition to 
the general practice of vegetarianism, 
no milk could be drunk or eggs eaten. 
Even the mouse traps that still rest in 
the corner of the stairway were opened 
in the morning, and the captured 
creatures released to the fields. 

Next to the Alcotts' kitchen is a re- 
stored room containing articles of daily 
living that would have been used in the 
kitchen of a family residing there in 

the colonial or federal period. Chil- 
dren wandering through the rooms to- 
day are encouraged by the guides to 
try to figure out which objects in that 
room would be in sharp contrast to 
the bayberry candles, linen clothes, 
and other artifacts of the New Eden 
residents, for none of the items seen 
today were part of the Alcott family's 
daily existence. No wonder, then, that 
Mrs. Alcott supposedly sat in her small 
kitchen and pleaded with her husband 
to be allowed to use a whale oil lamp 
by which to do her reading. 

Such compromises to practicality did 
not come easy to Alcott and Lane. The 
deed to the farm was not even in their 
name, so opposed were the men to the 
idea of private ownership. Mrs. Alcott's 
brother held the papers for them. The 
"Fruitlands Design for Daily Living," 
posted in the room adjacent to the 
house where documents relating to the 
transcendental movement have been 
collected, provides an insight into what 
life was like during the time of resi- 
dence: "Rise with early design; begin 
the Day with cold bathing [and] a music 
lesson." But even such scheduling 
proved insufficient to keep the farm run- 
ning. In 1844, Charles Lane left to join 
the Shakers, and the others returned to 
their various homes. 

Lane's association with the Shakers 
provided the impetus for benefactress 
Clara Sears to move a Shaker House 
to the Fruitlands estate in 1920, as 
part of the museum display. The house, 
built in 1794, once served as the office 
of the deacons of the Harvard Society 
of Shakers whose community flourished 
from 1791 to 1919. Shakers in the 
nearby town of Shirley maintained an 
active society from 1793 to 1909. The 
cemetery in the town of Harvard on 
South Shaker Road, being restored for 
the Bicentennial, and many of the old 
buildings there which are now privately 
owned, mark the site of the original 
Harvard Shaker settlement. A glimpse 
of what life was like as a participant 
can be viewed by touring the house 
at Fruitlands, with its sisters' work- 
room, complete with "senility rocker" 
where the elderly could be cared for, 
and the shoe repair shop of the broth- 
ers' workroom. 

A third building at Fruitlands, now an 
American Indian Museum, was formerly 
the Still River Schoolhouse, abandoned 
at the turn of the century and brought 
down from the top of the hill. The 

museum contains Indian souvenirs from 
all over the United States, as well as a 
part of Henry Thoreau's collection of 
Indian relics, on loan from Harvard 
University. Dioramas designed by the 
Pitkin Galleries in Cambridge tell the 
story of King Philip's raid on Lancaster, 
of which Harvard was originally a part. 
In 1676, frontierswoman Mary Rowland- 
son was carried off by the attacking 
Indians where she remained their cap- 
tive for 12 weeks. Finally, through the 
intercession of a white man friendly 
with the tribe, her freedom was bartered 
for 20 pounds worth of goods and 
money. Living to record the tale of her 
desperate adventures, Mary achieved 
the distinction of being the first woman 
writer in America. 

The fourth museum building, the Pic- 
ture Gallery, houses an impressive 
number of paintings from the Hudson 
River School, the first national school 
of painting in America. The second 
part of the collection features portraits 
of both the known and the unknown, 
dating from the mid-1 880's when itiner- 
ant portrait painters went around New 
England in their horse-drawn carts drum- 
ming up business. The careers of most 
of these untrained artists were ruined 
by the introduction of the daguerro- 
types as a way of preserving a family's 
image. Fortunately, Ms. Sears wisely 
recognized the folk art value of the 
painters' trade, and went from one 
farmhouse to another throughout the 
countryside buying up pictures of an- 
cestors before they were discarded by 
unappreciative relatives. 

Plan to spend the entire afternoon 
at Fruitlands where you can enjoy those 
all-too-rare moments of serenity so 
longed for by the Con-Sociate family 
of long ago. (May 30 to September 30, 
daily except Monday unless a holiday, 
1 to 5 p.m. Adults $1; children under 16, 
250. Take Prospect Hill Road, off Route 
110, Harvard, MA) 



In 1775, 300,000 people lived in Massa- 
chusetts and 80 percent of them were of 
English descent. But, during the ensuing 
200 years, enough immigrants arrived to 
give Massachusetts a present-day character 
of ethnic diversity. 

by Peter R. Knights 

In the two centuries since American independence, 
about 48 million persons have migrated to the United 
States. Of these, perhaps one-third later left the coun- 
try, to return home or to move on yet again. The 32 
million who remained, together with people already 
present in 1775, and their descendants, accounted for 
the 203.2 million people living in the United States in 
1970. Since in 1970 there were almost 10 million peo- 
ple of foreign birth residing in the United States, it 
follows that 30% of all the people who have immi- 
grated to this country, and remained here, are still alive. 

The experience of Massachusetts has paralleled 
that of the nation at large. Historically, Boston has 
generally accounted for about 5% of immigrants enter- 
ing the U. S., as against 70-80% for New York City. 
This suggests that in two centuries some 2.4 million 
immigrants, about four times the population of pres- 
ent-day Boston, have landed in Boston. If we assume 
that two-thirds of these remained in the U. S., that re- 
duces the net gain to 1.6 million. Assuming further 
that 30% of them are still alive would give us some 
480,000 who would be living today, as compared with 
495,000 foreigners living in Massachusetts as of 1970. 

Two hundred years ago, about 1775, the situation 
was much simpler. Only 300,000 persons lived in Mas- 
sachusetts. Boston had only 15,000 inhabitants, less 
than Concord today. Dartmouth, with over 6,000 per- 
sons, and Salem, with 5,300, were the province's larg- 
est population centers. For many years immigration to 
Massachusetts had been low, so that most residents 
were descended from much earlier settlers. Reflecting 
England's early colonizing efforts, about 80% of the 
population was of English descent. Some 4% were 
Scotch and another 4% Irish. The largest non-English- 
speaking group, the Germans, is thought to have 
amounted to only 0.3% of the population. It is thus 
safe to say that almost 98% of the people of revolu- 
tionary Massachusetts stemmed directly or indirectly 
from the British Isles, a little over 1 Vi % were black, 
and the remainder came from the rest of the world, 
primarily northern Europe. Continued on page 76 



European immigrants may have found the trip to America long and arduous on the high seas, but the fact that they were heading in the 
direction of their "dreams" or families made the roughest crossing bearable, and sometimes joyous. Having arrived by ocean, many 
stayed near their place of landing, joining work forces in seaport cities, especially Boston and New Bedford. 


Vast numbers of rural Europeans, uprooted by the Industrial Revolution, turned 

Continued from page 74 

Although we have no way to be absolutely sure, 
it is likely that in 1775, as throughout the 19th cen- 
tury, members of foreign ethnic groups concentrated in 
Massachusetts' larger towns. Having arrived by sea, 
perhaps possessing neither the desire nor the means to 
move westward to take up farms, many joined the 
growing work forces of the seaport cities. Between 
1790 and 1830, for instance, Boston's population rose 
by 235 % , the state's by only 61 % , the nation's by 227% . 

As the 19th century advanced, a number of fac- 
tors came into play that were to change radically the 
character of Massachusetts' population, producing the 
diversity of today. All over western Europe, the spread 
of machine technology — the "Industrial Revolution" 
— altered societies fundamentally. Large numbers of 
workers were drawn from rural areas into cities to man 
factories, while those remaining in the countryside per- 
ceived new benefits to be gained from consolidating 
small holdings and changing to city-oriented crops. The 
result was a vast displacement of rural dwellers who 
could no longer subsist on the land. Occasionally, as 
in Ireland in the 1 840's, widespread crop failures wors- 
ened the situation. Millions in western Europe were 
desperate to escape similar calamities. 

Simultaneously the exports of raw materials (such 
as lumber and grain) from the United States to Eu- 
rope were increasing, but imports tended to be less 
bulky manufactured or processed goods. Consequently 
ships sailing from the U. S. to Europe were heavily 
laden, but not so on the return trip; this meant that 
they required ballast to sail well. It did not take long 
for someone to reason that people wanting to migrate 
to the U. S. might make good ballast, certainly more 
profitable to carry than stones, and easier to offload. 

Migrants to early- 19th-century America were not 
all displaced agriculturalists. Some were advance agents 
of industrial prosperity, bringing with them ideas and 
techniques that were to transform the U. S. from an 
agricultural to an industrial nation. 

An Alternative to Agriculture 

Massachusetts, probably more than any other 
state, was ready to embrace this new way of life. Never 
an area of marked agricultural abundance, it had little 
prospect of being able to support its people by agricul- 
ture alone. Most of the best farmland had long since 
been taken up, and farms produced not only crops but 
children (as of 1800, the average American wife bore 
seven children in her lifetime; this figure declined to 
three by 1900) . Just as in modern India, the land could 
not support unlimited subdivision of farmsteads: "ex- 
tra" children had to move on. An indeterminate propor- 
tion moved west to the rich plains of Illinois, Indiana, 
and Iowa, while others shifted to industrial towns . 


With the opening of factories in the east and farms 
farther west, the U. S. truly became a vast magnet for 
population, drawing mostly from northern and western 
Europe. The heaviest immigration, in terms of its 
social impact, occurred during the 1850's, when some 
2.6 million people arrived. Since the whole country 
contained only 23.2 million population in 1850, this 
meant that during the decade of the 1850's one foreigner 
landed for each nine persons present in 1 850. 

Composition of Immigration Changes 

The impact in Massachusetts was much more rapid 
than in other states, for by 1850 the state contained 
some 116,000 natives of Ireland, who made up almost 
one-eighth of the whole population, and 70% of the 
state's foreign-born. So rapidly did the foreigners in- 
crease, by reproduction as well as by continuing immi- 
gration, that by 1860 "the foreign element, composing 
only about one-third part of the population of the State, 
produced more children than the American." Sober- 
minded social commentators predicted the utter decline 
of the Commonwealth unless immigration were checked 
or altered in character to restore dominance to the "old- 
stock" countries. 

Political reactions varied, from requiring immi- 
grant vessel captains to post bond that their passengers 
would not become a charge on the state, to the rise of 
parties (Native American or "Know Nothing") dedi- 
cated to immigration restriction and stringent naturali- 
zation requirements. This party movement did not fade 
until the onset of the Civil War. 

Year after year the influx continued, until by 1875, 
a century ago, about one-quarter of the state's popula- 
tion was foreign-born and about another fifth, while 
native-born, had both parents foreign-born. Perhaps 
another 4% of the population was native-born with one 
foreign parent. Thus what had been foreseen had come 
to pass: half the population was of the "foreign element." 

The Irish, with one-seventh of the state's popula- 
tion, still predominated among the foreign-born (55% 
of the total), followed by natives of Canada (5% ) and 
of England (3% ). The German states had contributed 
just over 1% of the population, and no other country 
accounted for as much as 1 % of the total. Foreigners, 
especially Irish, had largely displaced native Americans 
in the state's mill-town work forces. Second-generation 
immigrants, again led by the Irish, were more and more 
making their presence felt on the political and economic 

In the late- 19th century, the composition of immi- 
gration to the U. S. altered, as industrialization and 
land-tenure changes spread to eastern and southern 
Europe. Decade by decade the immigration totals 
swelled: 2.3 million in the 1860's, 2.8 in the '70's, 5.2 

in to Massachusetts, the one state ready to welcome workers to its labor force. 

in the '80's, a fall (because of depression in the U.S.) 
to 3.7 in the '90's, and the amazing total of 8.8 million 
in the first decade of this century. 

Most of the earlier immigrants had at least spoken 
English, but this changed with the influx of the '80's 
and after. From the 1890's on, social survey after social 
survey agreed on the same basic facts: the "new immi- 
grants" were less likely to disperse throughout U. S. 
society than had been the "old immigrants." They per- 
sisted in concentrating in linguistic and ethnic "ghet- 
tos" in America's cities, where they could live among 
others like themselves. Many social commentators 
worried that the country could not absorb and assimi- 
late immigrants clustered in apparently indigestible 

Yet it was also apparent that the new immigrants 
were performing the same kinds of ill-paid work that 
had formerly been relegated to members of the early- 
19th-century immigrant groups, such as physical labor 
in construction, fabrication, and mining, tending ma- 
chines in mills and factories, and domestic service in 
homes. The supply of people appeared inexhaustible, 
the flow unstoppable. Had not World War I intervened, 
it is likely that the 1910's would have seen the arrival 
of yet another 8-10 million foreigners, but only 5.7 
million entered. Even at the height of American par- 
ticipation in the conflict, in 1917-1918, over 400,000 
managed to enter the country. The census of 1910 
showed the greatest concentration of foreign-born yet 
recorded in the U. S., slightly higher than the previous 
high point of 1890: one person in seven in the country 
had been born abroad. 

The United States Establishes Quotas 

With the end of World War I and a renewal of 
efforts to exclude foreign influences such as socialism 
and "Bolshevism," the time had come to try to keep 
out as well the most visible representatives and carriers 
of these influences — foreign immigrants. The flow had 
to be reduced, and a law of 1921 established the first 
immigration "quotas," 3% of the number of persons 
from any country who were living in the U. S. as of 
1910. The results were gradual but far-reaching: 

Total immigration 
by decade (millions) 

1921-1930 4.1 

1931-1940 0.5 

1941-1950 1.0 

1951-1960 2.5 

1961-1970 3.3 

% of foreign-born in 
the U.S. population 

1920 13.2 

1930 11.6 

1940 8.8 

1950 6.9 

1960 5.4 

1970 4.7 

The situation in Massachusetts about 50 years 
ago represented the high tide of the foreign-born popu- 
lation. From 29.2% in 1920, it declined to 25.1% by 
1930. Reflecting increased interest in national origins, 

the censuses of 1920 and 1930 asked Americans about 
their ethnic background. In Massachusetts about two- 
thirds of the population reported that it was foreign- 
born or had one or both parents foreign-born. About 
one-seventh of the people were of Irish background, 
while the second and third-largest groups, the English 
and French Canadians, together outnumbered those of 
Irish descent. Around 7% of the state's people claimed 
an Italian background, with England accounting for just 
under 5% and Poland about 4%. Other leading areas 
were Germany, Scotland, and Portugal. These results 
suggest that people were remaining in Massachusetts in 
about the proportions in which they or their forebears 
had immigrated to the state. 

Ethnic Diversity in Massachusetts Today 

Since the 1920's, with the flow of immigration 
markedly reduced, the proportions of the state's popu- 
lation that are foreign-born or of foreign parentage have 
been cut in half, from about 66% in the 1920's to 40% 
in 1960 and 33.3% in 1970. With this decline in out- 
side supply of population has come an increase in per- 
sons from other areas of the U. S. and its possessions. 
Blacks, who had long constituted just under 2% of the 
state's people, have moved to northern cities in increas- 
ing numbers since World War I (although recently the 
rate has slackened somewhat), and as of 1970 they 
made up 3% of the state's population. However, some 
60% of the state's blacks live in the city of Boston, 
and another 12.5% in its suburbs. Again, about 28% 
of the state's people of Spanish background live in Bos- 
ton, and another 28% in its suburbs. The struggles of 
these two groups to achieve parity with earlier, "estab- 
lished" ethnic groups have been a prominent part of 
Massachusetts' recent past. 

Today, the ethnic picture of Massachusetts is one 
of considerable diversity. Two-thirds of the state's 
people are at least third-generation Americans (i.e., are 
native-born of native-born parents), and for them we 
cannot know their ultimate ethnic background. Of the 
third of the population which is first or second-genera- 
tion American, the largest component, about 8%, is of 
Canadian background. Italian-Americans of the first or 
second generation make up 5% of the state's people, 
followed by 4% of Irish ancestry, 2% of Polish, and a 
little less than 2% of Russian. Members of these 
groups continue to be disproportionately concentrated 
in the state's urban areas, where their continued ob- 
servance of their ethnic traditions helps remind us that 
America yet remains a "nation of peoples." D 

Among other publications, Peter Knights has written 


CITY GROWTH. Mr. Knights is currently Associate Pro- 
fessor of History at York University, Toronto, Canada. 



Celebrating the New Year, Chinese-style, is a traditional and festive event in Boston. 

Chinese New Year Celebration 

From the last week in January 
through the third week in February, 
a Chinese New Year celebration takes 
place in John Hancock Hall on the 
corner of Berkeley and Stuart Streets. 
Designed to acquaint Americans with 
Chinese customs, the celebration in- 
cludes modern, folk and Chinese 
dancing, a Chinese fashion show and 
Chinese boxing. Admission, $2 to $3. 
For further information, call the Chi- 
nese Christian Church of New Eng- 
land, (617) 426-4710. 

Italian Feast Days/ Boston 

The evening of July 1 1 kicks off eight 
consecutive weekends of North End 
celebrations, honoring various saints. 
During this time the Italian section 
of Boston is colorfully decorated with 
streamers, arches and smiling faces. 
Highlights include a life-sized statue 
of the saint, dancing, band concerts 
and fireworks. The feast days are a 
good time to visit Boston's North End 
to partake of delicious Italian food and 
get a glimpse of the people and tradi- 
tions that make this part of Boston 
famous. For further information, call 
(617) 227-0155. 

Portuguese Spring Festival/ Fall River 

Friday night, Saturday and Sunday of 
Memorial Day Weekend are devoted 
to the festival featuring food, contests 
and a soccer game. Portuguese hors 
d'oeuvres, pastry and five different 
prepared dishes are offered. Informa- 
tion on Portuguese traditions and his- 
tory is available through slide shows 
and film exhibits. For further infor- 
mation, call the Portuguese-American 
Center at Bristol Community College, 
(617) 674-4483. 

St. Peter's Fiesta/ Gloucester 

Ninety-five percent of the more than 
600 men that comprise the current 
fishing force in Gloucester are of 
Italian-American descent. Each year, 
on the last weekend of June, the en- 
tire Italian-American section of the 
city is adorned with flags, colored 
lights, and huge arches stretching over 
the streets in honor of St. Peter, the 
patron saint of fishermen. The focal 
point of the lavish decorations is a 
life-size statue of St. Peter, first en- 
shrined in the area in 1926. 

The fiesta is highlighted by the pro- 
cession of the statue of St. Peter 
on Sunday morning, carried by eight 
Gloucester fishermen, and continuing 

to the "Blessing of the Fleet," which 
includes a high pontifical Mass on the 
outdoor altar at 3 p.m. at the Public 

Two contests held on June 28th are 
the Dory Race, a rowboat competition 
with Canada which will take place 
off Pavilion Beach at 5 p.m.; and the 
Greasy Pole Contest. Both the day 
before, and the evening following St. 
Peter's ceremony, the city is alive 
with band concerts, floats and displays 
of fireworks. People of all religions 
are invited to participate in all aspects 
of the celebration. 

Feast of the Blessed Sacrament 
New Bedford 

A Portuguese Mardi Gras replete with 
street decorations and music is held 
on Friday, Saturday and Sunday of 
the first week in August. Ethnic danc- 
ing, a Sunday parade, a midway, fire- 
works and food highlight the festivi- 
ties. For further information, call the 
New Bedford Chamber of Commerce, 

Ethnic Fair/Pittsfield 

During late August, at the City Hall 
Mall, German, Polish and Portuguese 
booths, to mention but a few, provide 
visitors with food of each country and 
a glimpse of native costume. Bands 
and dancing, as well as cultural pre- 
sentations, are also provided. For fur- 
ther information, call the Pittsfield 
City Hall, (413) 499-1100. 

Italian Festa/Sagamore 

On Saturday and Sunday of Labor 
Day weekend, contests, games, dinner 
and dancing highlight the Italian 
Festa. In the evening, dinner and 
dancing take place at the Civic Boost- 
ers Club for a nominal fee. For more 
information, call the Bourne Cham- 
ber of Commerce, (617) 759-3122. 

Festival of the Harvest Moon 

An annual event that dates back to 
1800, the festival takes place on Sep- 
tember 20 and is dedicated to the 
American Indian and other ethnic 
groups native to the area. The event 
features art exhibits, entertainment, 
fireworks and a visiting delegation of 



/• Pittsfield 

Worcester • 

1 Springfield • 

New Bed 

visible cities 

The cities of Massachusetts reflect the diverse history of 
the Commonwealth — its role as a seaport, its industrial 
growth, its literary and cultural heritage. 

A look at the cities is at once a look at urban growth 
and urban decay, a struggle for economic revitalization 
and a rethinking of what makes a social community. Many 
of the cities in Massachusetts have been working hard 
over the past years to improve the urban environment for 
residents and visitors alike. The Bicentennial celebration 
has come along as the catalyst needed to spark individual 
cities into even more action and to bring together people 
from many areas throughout the state who are concerned 
with the same problems of the quality of urban life. 

In response to this concern, the Massachusetts Bi- 
centennial Commission has established a program known 
as "Visible Cities," focusing on the efforts of six urban 
centers to re-explore their past in planning for the future. 

Lowell, New Bedford, Pittsfield, Salem, Springfield, 
and Worcester have been designated Visible Cities. Each 
city is unique, with a flavor of its own. Each is involved in 
the process of building on its history to develop current 
and future programs that provide a permanent Bicen- 
tennial legacy. 

Visible City representatives, reflecting the support of 
municipal leadership, meet together to discuss common 
challenges and common solutions. Plans abound. The 
Bicentennial years will see physical improvements in res- 
toration of buildings and historic neighborhoods, redevel- 
opment of waterfront areas, and establishment of parks 
and bike trails. Bicentennial programs and exhibits re- 
flecting each city's history and continuing contributions 
to Massachusetts, will spark the pride of residents and the 
interest of visitors. 

The six cities invite you to visit them and watch the 
process of rediscovery go on. Tour the sights and visit 
the exhibits. Wander the streets undergoing change and 
hear what future plans call for. Reflect on what such pro- 
grams could mean for your own city or town. 

There's a lot to see and admire already — there will 
be even more as the Bicentennial years continue to en- 
courage each community to give itself a visible birthday 
gift for everyone to share. 



Two of Pittsf ield's magnificent stone build- 
ings are the Round Barn at Hancock Shaker 
Village (below) and the old church in the 
city's Park Square area (bottom). 

Pioneer settlements came late to the Housatonic 
River valley area known as Pontoosuck Plantation. 
But after 1761, when the town took the name of 
Pittsfield (after British statesman William Pitt) 
and became shire town for the new Berkshire 
County, the community wasted no time in becom- 
ing an agricultural, industrial and literary center. 

Its history is dotted with remembrances of 
places where Herman Melville retired from the 
sea to receive inspiration for his epic Moby Dick 
from the inland October Mountain. Oliver Wen- 
dell Holmes and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 
summered in the area, similarly drawing on the 
beauty of the Berkshires for creative energy. 

Nineteenth-century literary greats rubbed 
shoulders with early manufacturing magnates on 
Pittsfield's streets. Over a century later, the 
blend of industrial and cultural vitality still exists 
in the city, with 40 companies turning out varied 
products. In contrast to the push of industry, the 
Berkshire Museum and the Athenaeum stand as a 
quiet tribute to the area's intellectual growth. 

But still there is need to expand on this bal- 
ance, to add to the recreational facilities of the 
city, to restore its natural setting where it's been 
tarnished by the pace of commercial success. 

Visible changes will occur during the Bicen- 
tennial years, continuing Pittsfield's on-going 
program of community improvement. Twenty- 
four public parks, six youth centers, and a chil- 
dren's zoo already exist in the city. To these, 
there will be added new areas for leisure activity, 
focused on the banks of the Housatonic River 
which gave the area its original impetus for 
growth. Volunteer activities to clean up the shal- 
low river bed have been coupled with major com- 
munity funding to provide for permanent corrective 
improvements. Bridges will be built and river- 
banks landscaped. By 1976, parks and bike trails 
will wind along the river's edge. 

Environmental programs will be complemented 
by extensive efforts to renovate the central busi- 
ness district. Pittsfield's architectural heritage 
similarly will not be forgotten, with historic build- 
ings preserved and restored. 

Pittsfield's citizens, proud of the town's desig- 
nation as a Visible City to commemorate the 
nation's birthday, have adopted the idea that "no 
idea is too small, but no idea is too great either." 
Programs reflecting this spirit are in evidence ev- 
erywhere, and the Bicentennial Commission is 
eager to show you how. Its office is in Morewood 
School, a little red schoolhouse dating from mid- 
19th century, located on South Mountain Road, 
two blocks from Route 7. Stop by with your ques- 
tions, or call (413)499-1976. 

As a county seat, Pittsfield is largely associated with the 
surrounding terrain as a four-season resort area. Along the 
broad streets of the downtown section, restoration and reno- 
vation are evident. The following are some suggestions for 
places to stop on your travels through the Berkshires: 

Berkshire Athenaeum at 44 

Bank Row, an imposing struc- 
ture with Victorian Gothic mo- 
tifs has dominated the Park 
Square area since it was built 
in 1876. The Melville Room 
upstairs contains an outstand- 
ing collection of materials on 
the author, plus a number of 
interesting exhibits. Future 
plans call for the library to be 
emptied of its books when the 
new building just beyond Park 
Square is complete; the Athe- 
naeum may then be used as a 
county museum and center for 
special exhibits. (Monday 
through Friday, 9 a.m. to 9 
p.m.; Saturday until 6 p.m. 
Admission free.) 
Berkshire Museum at 39 
South Street contains a per- 
manent collection of original 
art from Egyptian to modern. 
American painters of the Hud- 
son River school are repre- 
sented, along with some early 
American portraits reminiscent 
of Massachusetts' earlier days. 
The mineral room is one of 
the most beautiful exhibits of 
its kind in New England and 
the History Museum is on the 
lower level. In addition, Berk- 
shire Museum conducts a na- 
ture program for community 
children in the summer. (Tues- 
day through Saturday, 10 a.m. 
to 5 p.m.; Sunday 2 to 5 p.m. 
Admission free.) 
Berkshire County Historical 
Society owns two historic 
houses that are open to the 
public as museums. Head- 
quarters House at 113 East 
Housatonic Street was built 
between 1855 and 1858. It is 
the society's main office and 
shows changing exhibits of 
historical interest. The house is 
open all year, Monday through 
Friday, 2 to 5 p.m. Admission 
500. The Major Butler Good- 
rich House at 823 North Street 
is also maintained by the 
society. Built in two stages, 
during 1793 and 1813, the fur- 
nished period house contains 
fine examples of Queen Anne, 
Chippendale and Hepplewhite 
furniture. Visitors are welcome 

during July and August, 
Thursday through Sunday, 1 to 
4 p.m. Admission 500. 
Holmesdale, off Holmes Road, 
was once the home of Dr. 
Oliver Wendell Holmes. The 
yellow manor, dating from 
1849, graces the hilltop above 
Canoe Meadow. During his 
seven seasons at Holmesdale, 
he wrote, among other works, 
The Deacon's Masterpiece 
and The New Eden. The house 
was recently sold to a private 
interest and is not open. 
Arrowhead, out Holmes Road 
a mile past Holmesdale, was 
Melville's house when he lived 
in Pittsfield. In addition to 
Moby Dick, he wrote My Chim- 
ney and I while he was here. 
Melville's well-known Piazza 
Tales are referred to by Pitts- 
field citizens today who share 
a kindred appreciation of the 
purple hills. Arrowhead is now 
a private residence. 
South Mountain, west of 
Routes 7 and 20, is one of the 
best places to visit in Pitts- 
field. The forested hill, alti- 
tude 1,870 feet, has skiing in 
the winter, concerts in the 
summer and hiking all year 
round. From the top, one can 
get an excellent view of the 
city with the hills stretched 
out on either side. General 
Electric and other plants are 
skirted by roads that lead to 
three storied duplexes and 
on to larger bay-windowed 
houses. From this spot, it is 
evident that there are no 
crowds in Pittsfield, comfort- 
ably spread out on its valley 

Hancock Shaker Village, just 
west of Pittsfield on Route 
20, offers an afternoon, or 
even an entire day's explora- 
tion into Shaker living in the 
19th century. This 1,000-acre 
area of restored homes, shops 
and community buildings skill- 
fully portrays the social and 
economic independence of the 
Shaker community; their re- 
spect for harmony of form 
and function is best shown in 
the round barn of 1826. 




One of many 
State Street is 

interesting buildings in Springfield, this church on 
representative of the city's architectural heritage. 

Criss-crossed by a maze of highways that cover 
up most remnants of early 17th-century settlement 
in the Connecticut River Valley, Springfield is very 
much a 20th-century city. An industrial and com- 
mercial center, once a storehouse for and then 
a manufacturer of munitions, and the home of fine 
museums and educational institutions, Springfield 
reflects all the elements of modern-day urban life. 

Aware of the community's diversity, the 
Springfield Bicentennial Commission has taken 
"the City is the Exhibit" as its theme for the na- 
tion's birthday. The entire city is on display for 
the Bicentennial — the places where it has physi- 
cally deteriorated as well as the spots that show 
innovation, rebuilding and intellectual attainment. 
Springfield is on the move, aware of its need to 
improve its urban environment and proud of its 
decision to make those improvements. The city 
invites you to see its established museums, insti- 
tutions and historic sites; it also invites you to 
see the process of visible change taking place 
throughout the city's neighborhoods. 

The historic Alexander House at 284 State 
Street in downtown Springfield serves as a recep- 
tion center for tourists, with offices of the Bicen- 
tennial Commission upstairs. Stop by or call 
(413) 785-1825. Springfield's newest shopping 
center, Bay State West, provides a second infor- 
mation center just off Route 91. Stop at either of 
these places to find out what to visit and to hear 
about all the many Bicentennial programs. 

Local residents take pride, for instance, in 
the joint efforts of the Bicentennial Commission, 
Springfield Historical Commission, and Mattoon 
Preservation Society to restore the architec- 
turally-significant row houses on Mattoon Street, 
dating from 1870 to 1890. Part of the Quadrangle- 
Mattoon Street Historic District, the renovation 
project — including the development of a park 
area — is just getting off the ground. Some of the 
warts are still there, but so is the hope that some- 
thing special and beautiful will take their place. 

The process of change is also in evidence 
along the riverside where the Riverfront Park 
recreational facilities, proposed almost 100 years 
ago, will finally be completed. The zoo, too, is 
undergoing improvement, as is Chestnut Hill Park, 
an extended intercity park area. 

Walking trails are being developed to retell 
the story of Springfield's history: its founding as a 


colony for fur-trading and religious freedom; its 
role as a fixer and supplier of guns in the French 
and Indian War and the Revolution; and its strate- 
gic location during Shays' Rebellion; its flourish- 
ing as a 19th-century crossroads of trade; and, as 
the place where basketball was invented in 1891. 
Trails will also take you to the famous library- 
museum Quadrangle that brings together the city's 
cultural achievements. 

The story of Springfield's heritage will also 
be preserved in a comprehensive written history 
prepared for the Bicentennial and in several spe- 
cial books for children. Municipal buildings will 
get a face-lifting; art and sculpture will be scat- 
tered throughout the community's parks and 
downtown area. Special exhibits will be held at 
the Civic Center and the Museum of Science. And 
the list goes on. 

Springfield is changing before your very eyes. 
Don't expect to go there and find everything fin- 
ished. Much of the excitement is in the doing. 

Springfield offers numerous suggestions tor visitor activities. 
In addition to the walking tour outlined tor the Bicentennial 
celebration (available at the local information centers), there 
are bike routes, architectural interest walks, a downtown 
tour and bus programs. The following are places to visit: 

Alexander House at 284 State 
Street is a good first stop on a 
tour of Springfield. Built by 
Simon Sanborn in about 1811 
from designs by noted archi- 
tect Asher Benjamin, the 
house was formerly known as 
Linden Hall, and contains a 
beautiful spiral staircase and 
Federalist reception hall. The 
building currently houses the 
Bicentennial Commission 
offices and downstairs is an 
information center sponsored 
by the Springfield Chamber. 
Merrick Park, a small parcel 
of land at the corner of State 
and Chestnut streets, was 
saved from destruction by a 
group of concerned citizens 
who, in 1877 bought the area 
and gave it to the city for 999 
years. The bronze Puritan on 
the rise of Merrick Park has 
become a symbol of Spring- 
field's early history. The statue 
of Deacon Samuel Chapin 

stands where the man himself 
once planted his Puritan be- 
liefs upon arriving in the New 
World. The monument was 
sculpted in 1887 by Augustus 
St. Gaudens for the deacon's 
descendent, Chester W. 
Chapin, president of the Bos- 
ton and Albany Railroad. 
Museum of Fine Arts at 49 
Chestnut Street exhibits ex- 
cellent collections of French, 
Dutch, English, American, 
Chinese, Japanese and East 
Indian art from various pe- 
riods. The museum is for- 
tunate to have an esteemed 
collection of works by Erastus 
Salisbury Field, an artist from 
Leverett, Massachusetts who 
took up portrait painting in the 
primitive style about 1824. 
Typical of the itinerant limners 
of the time, he mass-created 
heads and shoulders of his 
subjects and then went door 
to door, discovering individual 

faces to copy. It took Field 
two years to complete a wall- 
wide canvas, probably in- 
tended for the Philadelphia 
Centennial Exposition in 1876. 
(Tuesday through Saturday, 1 
to 5 p.m.; Thursday, 7 to 9 
p.m.; Sunday 2 to 5 p.m.) 
City Library on State Street, 
adjacent to the Puritan, was 
designed by Edward Tilton and 
completed in 1912. Tilton's 
specialty was library design 
and Springfield's building re- 
flects his training under 
McKim, Mead and White. 
George Walter Smith Art Mu- 
seum at 222 State Street fea- 
tures collections of jades, por- 
celains, armor, rugs, furniture, 
enamels and some American 
paintings. George Smith, foun- 
der of the museum, was re- 
sponsible for the first art ex- 
hibit in the city and the event 
was stimulus enough to make 
art shows popular. Ultimately, 
Smith was inspired to estab- 
lish and then give the art mu- 
seum to the community. 
(Tuesday through Saturday, 1 
to 5 p.m.; Sunday, 2 to 5 p.m. 
except during July; closed 
August. Admission free.) 
Springfield Science Museum 
at 236 State Street is one of 
the oldest museums of natural 
history in the country. It was 
organized with the help of 
Daniel Harris, a railroad ex- 
ecutive and one-time city 
mayor. Exhibits include gal- 
leries featuring birds, plants, 
fish, and reptiles, a plane- 
tarium, and a special chil- 
dren's area. (Tuesday through 
Saturday, 1 to 5 p.m.; Sunday, 
2 to 5 p.m.; closed Sunday 
during July and August. Ad- 
mission free.) 

Connecticut Valley Historical 
Museum is housed in the 
William Pynchon Memorial 
Building at the foot of the 
quadrangle. Devoted to re- 
search and education, the 
museum oversees a compila- 
tion of records and manu- 
scripts, as well as selected 
objects preserving the history 
of the Connecticut Valley area. 
The museum also has period 
rooms, and of special interest 
are the portraits of Joseph 
Stock, a Springfield artist 
(1815 to 1855) and a collection 
of miniatures by James S. 
Ellsworth. For scholars, there 

are account books of John 
Pynchon, dating from 1651 to 
1702. (Tuesday through Satur- 
day, 1 to 5 p.m.; Sunday 2 to 
5 p.m.; closed Sunday in July 
and August.) 

Court Square, encompassing 
Main Street and Court Street 
to Elm Street has been the 
location of the seat of Spring- 
field's government for 300 
years. The First Meeting House 
was built on this site near Elm 
Street in 1645, and Parsons 
Tavern, long removed, enter- 
tained George Washington in 
1775. The Old First Church 
is the most distinguished 
building on the square. Al- 
though the present structure 
dates from 1819, the congre- 
gation was organized in 1637, 
following settlement of the 
region in 1636. Opposite 
Elm Street is the Hampden 
County Courthouse, built be- 
tween 1871 and 1874, espe- 
cially notable as a turning 
point in the formulation of 
architect Henry Hobson Rich- 
ardson's style. The Campa- 
nile with its observation tower 
provides a good view of the 
city and is distinguished by 
its neoclassical style. (The 
tower is open in the summer, 
free of charge.) 
Springfield Armory, estab- 
lished during the Revolution, 
operated until 1969. Now the 
site of Springfield Tech. Col- 
lege, it houses an arms mus- 
eum containing the most ex- 
tensive collection of small 
arms in the world, at State and 
Byers sts. (Monday through 
Saturday, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; 
Sunday, 1 to 5 p.m. Adults $1; 
children under 18, free.) After 
July 1, 1975, the Armory will 
be a National Historic Site. 
Basketball Hall of Fame at 460 
Alden Street on the Springfield 
College Campus is an interest- 
ing stop for basketball fans. 
In 1891, James Naismith of 
Springfield invented the sport, 
and the hall, built in his honor, 
exhibits memorabilia and rec- 
ords from the history of bas- 
ketball. Highlight films are 
shown to visitors. (Monday 
through Saturday, 10 a.m. to 5 
p.m.; Sunday, September to 
July, 1 to 5 p.m.; rest of year 
on Sunday, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
Adults $1.50; students $1; 
children under 6, free.) 




Centrally located in the middle of Massachusetts, 
Worcester long ago declared itself 'the heart of 
the Commonwealth," reflecting its industrial and 
cultural role as much as its geographic position. 

The area was once home to the Nipmuck 
Indians, but with the arrival of Englishmen in the 
1670's, the wigwams on the seven hills gave way 
to the thickly-settled buildings of the 18th and 19th 
centuries. Today, the three-decker houses of the 
city's historic district, and the brick-layered fac- 
tories scattered throughout, stand as a silent re- 
minder of the age of invention when Worcester 
burst forth as an industrial giant. 

The city's growth as commercial center and 
county seat had gone along at a steady pace for 
about 100 years. With the arrival of the industrial 
revolution and the expansion of the railroads, 
however, the steadiness became explosive. The 
city spurted ahead, often without time to pause for 
a look at the past or a plan for the future. 

Yet traditions continue to exist even without 
plan. Known as a center for thought and debate 
since Revolutionary times, Worcester had become 
home to radical publisher Isaiah Thomas when he 
was forced to flee British Boston's suppression of 
the press. Floating his printing press down the 
Charles River under cover of night, he arrived in 
Worcester to begin republishing the Massachusetts 
Spy and, subsequently, the Worcester Spy, both 
journals that sparked political thought and action. 
On July 13, 1776, Thomas stood upon the steps 
of the old South Church and proudly read the 
Declaration of Independence to the Worcester 

More than a century later, the ideas of such 
men as Abraham Lincoln, Matthew Arnold and Sig- 
mund Freud resounded from the stages of Worces- 
ter's public halls. The sounds of music, drama and 
dance were heard as well, continuing the festive 
traditions of the town's early days when wrestling 
matches, horse races, and market trading wel- 
comed the convening of the shire courts. Though 
entertainment was of a different type in the cen- 
turies that followed, the spirit of festivity still con- 
tinued. Edwin Booth and Sarah Bernhardt thrilled 
audiences at the Worcester Theatre. Such greats 
as Lillie Langtry, Fanny Kemble, Lola Montez, 
Jenny Lind, and P. T. Barnum all made Worcester 
an important stop. 

Today, as a Visible City, Worcester seeks to 
mark the nation's anniversary with a celebration 

showing its long tradition of art, music, theatre 
and debate. Special Bicentennial plans draw from 
such well-established institutions as the Worcester 
Art Museum, the annual Music Festival, and the 
many local colleges and universities. Seminars, 
programs and projects are all part of the observ- 
ances. The Worcester Bicentennial Commission 
at 695 Main Street can give you the details; call 

The Commission is also encouraging per- 
manent Bicentennial gifts to the community be- 
cause it is finally pausing in the mid-20th century 
to uncover some of the beauty and interest of the 
past that was forgotten when the city moved into 
the present. Local citizens have worked to redis- 
cover and restore part of the 18th century burial 
yard on the central green that was covered over 
during the urban expansion of the 1850's. A long- 
term project includes the restoration and marking 
of the historic district, architectural preservation, 
renovation of Mechanics Hall — once the site of 
the music festivals — as a cultural center, and the 
mapping of historic trails. 

Most of all, the Worcester Bicentennial Com- 
mission seeks to make its own residents more 
aware of the wealth of cultural heritage and cul- 
tural opportunity all through the city. You, too, 
are invited to take part in Worcester's visible 

The Worcester Art Museum (above) and the John Woodman Higgins 
Armory Museum (right) are worthwhile places to visit in Worcester. 


Worcester is an industrial city which boasts a long list of 
"famous firsts." It published the first newspaper in America, 
manufactured the first American bicycle and hosted the first 
elephant seen in this country. The following are a few places 
to see on your visit to the city: 

-J ' 

The best way to begin a tour 
of Worcester is to stop at one 
of the visitor information cen- 
ters, located in all branches 
of the public library system: 
Main branch, Salem Square 
(Monday through Thursday, 
9 a.m. to 8:30 p.m.; Friday and 
Saturday until 5:30 p.m.; Sun- 
days, October 28 to May 19, 
1:30 to 5:30 p.m.). Billings 
Square, 15 Hamilton Street; 
Greendale, 470 West Boylston 
Street; Main South, 984A Main 
Street; Quinsigamond, 812 Mil- 
bury Street; South Worcester, 
705 Southbridge; and Tatnuck, 
1 Copperfield. (Hours for the 
other branches vary.) 
John Woodman Higgins Ar- 
mory Museum at 100 Barber 
Avenue should be a stop for 
everyone who visits Worcester. 
John Woodman Higgins, the 
founder of the museum, was 
born in 1874 in Worcester, 
educated in the Worcester 
schools and graduated from 
Worcester Polytechnic Institute 
in 1896. His life-long interest 
in iron and steel led to his 
collection of arms and armor. 

Over 3,500 items are ex- 
hibited in a large hall with 
balconies and high, vaulted 
ceilings. The fascinating col- 
lection encompasses examples 
from the Stone, Bronze and 
Iron Ages through the medi- 
eval and Renaissance periods. 
Included with more than 100 
suits of armor are paintings, 
tapestries, statues, stained 
glass windows, wood carvings 
and firearms. 

The building is recognizable 
by the knight-in-armor statue 
over the main entrance. (Tues- 
day through Friday, 9 a.m. to 4 
p.m.; Saturday, 10 a.m. to 3 
p.m.; Sunday 1 to 5 p.m. Adults 
750; children 100). 
Worcester Art Museum at 55 
Salisbury Street (on Route 9) 
was opened in 1898 as 
Worcester's first cultural cen- 
ter through the generosity of 
a leading merchant and civic 
benefactor, Stephen Salisbury 
III, together with a group of 
citizens as trustees and a fund 
from the people of the city. 

With four major expansions 
from the original building, 
Worcester Art Museum is rec- 
ognized internationally as "the 
best of its size anywhere." 
The permanent collection in 
33 galleries spans 50 cen- 
turies of man's history through 
his art from Early Egypt to 
modern times, including con- 
temporary outdoor sculptures. 

Primary emphasis is on 
painting, sculpture and the 
graphic arts with important 
collections of European, Ori- 
ental and American art includ- 
ing artists such as Rembrandt, 
El Greco, Goya, Hogarth, 
Gainsborough, Gauguin, Ma- 
tisse, Copley, Stuart, Whistler 
and Homer. Early American 
art of the 17th and 18th cen- 
turies is especially notable for 
the portraits of Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Freake and her husband, 
painted in Boston in 1684 and 
important silver by Paul Re- 
vere and other silversmiths. 
(Tuesday through Saturday, 
10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Sunday, 2 to 
6 p.m. Admission free.) 
Worcester Historical Society 
at 39 Salisbury Street houses 
items related to the history of 
Worcester, including local 
documents and histories, bi- 
ographies, and bibliographies 
of noted residents. A small mu- 
seum is housed in the same 
building. (Tuesday through 
Saturday, 1 to 4 p.m.; other 
days by appointment.) 
American Antiquarian Society 
at Park Avenue and Salisbury 
Street is a national organiza- 
tion founded in 1812 by Isaiah 
Thomas. Both a learned soci- 
ety and a library, its purpose 
is to protect and preserve 
printed materials relating to 
the history of America. It is 
believed to contain two-thirds 
of all printed matter issued in 
this country between 1620 and 
1820. The collection has many 
newspapers, manuscripts, and 
genealogies. The press on 
which Thomas printed the now 
famous Worcester Spy and 
Massachusetts Spy is exhib- 
ited upstairs. 

The distinguished society, 

providing a facility for ad- 
vanced research, is a cultural 
asset to Worcester. (Monday 
through Friday, 9 a.m. to 5 
p.m. Archives open for schol- 
arly research. Admission free.) 
Worcester Science Center on 
Harrington Way is a wonderful 
place to visit. Ersa and Major, 
the center's polar bears, raise 
their noses to greet you when 
they hear their names. Wolves 
timidly watch the steam train 
chug by in the valley below 
and woodland gardens, ponds, 
and a tunnel make a tour of 
the 50-acre grounds an ad- 
venture. Inside the museum, 
there is a bird's nest big 
enough to sleep in and a par- 
rot that mocks his teasers, 
plus many more fascinating 

The Science Center is 
owned and operated by the 
Worcester Natural History So- 
ciety which was founded as 
early as 1825, one of the old- 
est natural history societies 
in the country. Set away from 
the noise of the city, it offers 
a glimpse at nature's side of 
Worcester. The city's hills can 
best be seen off the landing 
above Polar Bear Plaza. (Mon- 
day through Saturday, 10 a.m. 
to 5 p.m.; Sunday from noon. 
Adults $1.50; children under 
16, 750.) 

Elm Park along Route 9 was 
built in 1854 on the first land 
ever purchased in the United 
States for a public park. Re- 
cently, the park has been re- 
stored in an attempt to make 
it the way it was originally in- 
tended. Replicas of the old 
arched-back bridge are a dis- 
tinguishing touch. The square 
surrounding Elm Park has 
some lovely large homes. 
Across the highway, Rogers- 
Kennedy Monument honors the 
determination and endurance 
of Worcester's early settlers. 
Quinsigamond State Park 
along Lake Avenue, south of 
Belmont Street (Route 9), is 
named for the beautiful lake 
that stretches seven miles 
along the eastern border of 
Worcester. Boating, swimming 
and sailing are favorite sports 
on the lake. The Eastern As- 
sociation of Rowing Colleges 
has its annual Regatta event 
here. (May through October; 
admission fee.) 




The city of Lowell was the dream of textile mag- 
nate Francis Cabot Lowell in the early 19th cen- 
tury. A total industrial complex, to be built at the 
confluence of the Merrimack and Concord Rivers, 
Lowell imagined the city as a canaled Venice, with 
palatial factories, mills and laboring gentility. 

Francis Lowell died before his dream mate- 
rialized, yet the mills went on to flourish. People 
came from foreign countries to labor in the fac- 
tories and the clean and orderly city was consid- 
ered by some to be an industrial Utopia. Artist 
James Abbott McNeill Whistler was born in Lowell 
in 1834, and he may well have been inspired by 
early memories along the river to paint the scenes 
of Venice and the River Thames in his later life. 

With the end of the Civil War, the local mills 
began to decline. Textile manufacturing found 
its way to other parts of the country, and the eco- 
nomic deterioration in Lowell continued well into 

the 20th century. After 1924, the city's economy 
slowed down to an uncomfortable crawl, exacer- 
bated by the onset of the Depression. Water pol- 
lution and unemployment were added to the list 
of urban woes; many of the waterways were 
dredged over. 

Yet, gradually, the city began to fight its way 
up again. Economic priorities occupied first place, 
as diversified industries were introduced and en- 
couraged. With a financial base somewhat more 
secure in recent years, Lowell citizens finally were 
able to concentrate their civic energies on doing 
something about the quality of their urban environ- 
ment. What they needed was a project that would 
generate funds in the long-term but, most impor- 
tantly, would unite the entire community behind 
a plan to revive Lowell's industrial Golden Age. 

The plan that captured the imagination of the 
Human Services Corporation, City Development 
Authority and the Chamber of Commerce is the 
proposed Urban Park Project. Supported by the 
Lowell Bicentennial Commission, the plan seeks a 
total revitalization of the riverbanks where Penna- 
cook and Pawtucket Indians once gathered for 
fishing parties and festivities and, years later, in- 

Lowell's Urban Park Project calls for the restoration ot some of the city's mill buildings and canals. 


dustries set up their machines. It also calls for a 
refurbishing of the canals which once had served 
as major transportation arteries. 

The Urban Park, aided by state funding, will 
provide green-space and recreational areas, bi- 
cycle trails and promenades. Mills and factories 
will be renovated, and a series of historical mark- 
ers and walking tours will point the way to some 
of the most interesting mills (among other places) 
where visitors can see the actual production of 
goods. The canals will be restored for use by 
barges, canoes and pleasure craft, as well as for 
their aesthetic appeal. 

A few of the waterways, with the old wheels 
churning and the canal gatehouses operating, 
will be ready for visitors to see during the Bicen- 
tennial years. Other parts of the project will be 
undergoing various stages of planning and recon- 
structing. The Lowell Bicentennial Commission, 
located at the John F. Kennedy Civic Center next 
to City Hall, can also direct you to all there is now 
and all there is going to be as Lowell visibly 
works to re-create its 19th-century dream. For 
further information, stop by the Civic Center or 
call (617) 458-8766. 

// you visit Lowell, the city you see during the Bicentennial 
years will be a place of potential change, rather than com- 
pleted restoration. But, with a little imagination, you can 
visit the city and seek out a history of the old days and pos- 
sibilities tor new ones to come. The following are a few 
places to begin looking: 

The Central Information Center 
of Lowell is located in the 
office of the Greater Lowell 
Chamber of Commerce at 176 
Church Street. Maps, bro- 
chures and possibly progress 
reports on the discovery net- 
work (restoration progress) 
will be available for visitors. 
Another center is scheduled to 
open in the Merrimack Canal 
Gatehouse on Merrimack Street 
near City Hall, within one of 
Lowell's historic districts. 
The Locks and Canal System 
of Lowell is one of the city's 
most interesting sites, and 
offers some of the area's 
exciting potential for res- 
toration. Nearly six miles of 
canals criss-cross the city, al- 
though at present, much of 
the system is not readily visi- 
ble from the streets. Within a 
decade, it will be possible to 
explore all the canals, map in 
hand, tracing the history of the 
city through the buildings. 
Francis' Gate, built in 1850, 
stands on the Pawtucket 
Canal, and was named after 
James Francis who came to 
Lowell as an engineer for the 
canal system. Many of the en- 
gineering improvements in the 
system have been accredited 
to his foresight, especially his 
fear that the Pawtucket Canal 
would bring floods to the city 
center. "Francis' Folly," a 
great gate 27 feet long, 25 feet 
high and two inches thick 
stands behind its cover of 
berry bushes and elms. No 
longer an object of ridicule, it 

is now considered a noble 
structure, since it saved the 
city twice, in 1852 and in 1936. 
Saint Anne's Church on Merri- 
mack Street was built in 1826 
from stone cut out of the bot- 
tom of the canals. Kirk Boott, 
construction manager of the 
canals, was a dominant figure 
in the church's early history 
and the structure was named 
after his wife, Anne. Boott or- 
dered all workers to attend 
St. Anne's and support it with 
dues of 37 cents per month. 
Lucy Larcom Park, adjacent to 
St. Anne's, was dedicated to a 
woman who worked in the 
Lowell mills from 1835 to 1846. 
She wrote about her life as a 
mill girl and recorded her ob- 
servations in a book entitled 
A New England Girlhood. The 
volume was published in 1889. 
Whistler House at 243 Worthen 
Street is a large grey clap- 
board building on the edge of 
a little-used street. Built in 
1825 by Paul Moody, the 
house was the birthplace of 
artist James Abbott McNeil 
Whistler, and later home of 
James Francis, engineer for 
Lowell's locks and canals. The 
Lowell Historical Society runs 
the house, and when it is 
open, visitors can also view 
paintings hanging in the ad- 
jacent Parker Gallery. Check 
with the house to learn about 
their special Bicentennial 
plans. (Predictably open in 
summer, Tuesday through Fri- 
day, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Sunday, 
noon to 5 p.m. Admission fee.) 

"Winged Victory" welcomes visitors to Lowell City Hall. 

Powerful wheel mechanisms operate the canal gates and locks. 



The House of Seven Gables, interesting for its architecture as well as its place in history, is Salem's most popular site. 

Salem's winding streets have grown from an In- 
dian's footpath, a colonist's dooryard and a vil- 
lage's stagecoach road into a complicated mac- 
adam network, much of which is undergoing 
renovation as part of general urban redevelop- 
ment. . Signs abound in these streets: apologies 
for the inconvenience caused by construction; 
signs of welcome at places of interest to the trav- 
eler; witches pointing the way to historic sites. 

But don't let the witches deceive you. Salem's 
infamy in the 1690's as the scene of the tumultuous 
witch trials is just one small part of the city's 
history. Known earlier in the 17th century as the 
first permanent colony of the New England Com- 
pany (later to become the Massachusetts Bay 
Company), Salem later was to become recognized 
as the busiest seaport in the nation. The National 
Maritime Site at Derby Wharf stands as present- 
day testimony to the heydays of the 18th and 19th 
centuries when first privateering and then, the 
China trade, brought extraordinary prosperity to 

the bustling city. The affluence of the merchant 
princes of the town is still recalled by the many 
architectural treasures that line the city's streets 
(especially Chestnut Street) and the many fine 
museums and public homes which display price- 
less items accumulated during that period. 

Salem's reign of the sea was lost as new types 
of shipping and new port facilities took over its 
former predominance. The city subsequently grew 
as a manufacturing center, accompanied by all 
the 20th century problems of an urban industrial 
area. Often, the urban deterioration has gone un- 
noticed by tourists who come from near and far 
simply to see Nathaniel Hawthorne's House of 
Seven Gables, or the Peabody Museum's incom- 
parable collection of materials on China, or any 
one of a number of other attractions. But the towns- 
people of Salem have decided that their problems 
should not be allowed to continue, even though 
they're often hidden from a visitor's view. 

The city can, in fact, come alive for residents 


as well as tourists. Historic areas, such as Derby 
Square, can be restored and the buildings used 
for plays, concerts, exhibits and lectures. The 
Square's former status as a shopping area and 
gathering place for residents can also be reas- 
sumed in time. The once humdrum main thorough- 
fare, Essex Street, can be turned into a pedestrian 
mall with brick walkways and trees. A focal point 
for the downtown shopper, businessman, or stu- 
dent can be the fountain to be built on the very 
spot on Essex Street where the Continental Con- 
gress and Provincial Congress met from 1774 to 
1777. The waterfront can be beautified, and the 
two forts on Salem Neck — Fort Lee and Fort 
Pickering — can be scheduled for more imme- 
diate restoration. 

All of these projects are just a few of the 
ways that Salem has decided to embark upon a 
program of urban improvement and expanded 
visibility for the Bicentennial years and ever after. 
The Salem Bicentennial Commission, working 
closely with the city's Planning Department and 
the Cultural Arts Commission, has helped to en- 
courage groups of local citizens to take an active 
role in urban renewal and restoration projects, 
and to help plan cultural and pictorial presenta- 
tions depicting Salem's role in America's history. 

Special events planned for the Bicentennial 
years form an impressive list. To obtain a de- 
tailed schedule, stop at the Salem Bicentennial 
Commission, Salem Old Town Hall or call (617) 744- 
4581. Highlights that should not be missed include 
a full scale dramatic production, known as Salem 
Chronicles, staged on the steps of the Custom 
House each summer. Sponsored by the coopera- 
tive efforts of local citizens, the play brings Sa- 
lem's history to life. Another Bicentennial presen- 
tation is scheduled for February, 1975, re-enacting 
with music and drama the retreat of British troops 
from Salem 200 years before. (Call the Commis- 
sion for location and ticket information.) 

A joint effort for the Bicentennial is a photo- 
graphic exhibit entitled Salem Streets and Peo- 
ple: 1860-1930, presented by the Cultural Arts 
Commission together with the Essex Institute and 
the Bicentennial Commission. Other programs in- 
clude Salem symposia, market days and com- 
memorative ceremonies. Churches will become 
hospitality centers for visitors, and young people 
and senior citizens will serve as tour guides. 

There's always been a lot to see and do in 
Salem to glorify its past. And now there's even 
more. Salemites are making the entire city visi- 
ble to others and, just as important, they're view- 
ing their own city with a new sense of pride in 
its future. 

Salem offers historic trails to follow, recreational parks to 
visit and museums to explore. Many of the sites offer com- 
bination tickets, so you can see several places at a discount. 
For information on the hours and admission fees of houses 
you'd like to see, stop by the Chamber of Commerce, 18 
Hawthorne Boulevard, or at any of the sites in town. 

Salem Maritime National His- 
toric Site on Derby Street 
includes portions of Salem 
Harbor and Derby Wharf, re- 
calling the era of the China 
Trade when Elias Hasket 
Derby became the first million- 
aire in New England. The 
Richard Derby House at 168 
Derby Street, part of the Mari- 
time Site, is the oldest brick 
house in Salem, built in 1762. 

Looking back across Derby 
Street from the end of the 
wharf, you can see the giant 
golden eagle atop the Old 
Custom House at 178 Derby 
Street. Built in 1819, the Cus- 
tom House saw the height, and 
decline of sailing fortunes. (All 
buildings in the Historic Site 
open daily, 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m.; 
in summer until 7 p.m. Admis- 
sion to Derby House free; all 
others, adults 500; children 
under 16, free.) 
The House of Seven Gables at 
54 Turner Street is the most 
popular of Salem's historic 
sites. Built about 1668, the 
house is believed to have in- 
spired the setting for Haw- 
thorne's novel of the same 
title. Aside from its history, 
the building is architecturally 
a significant landmark. (July 1 
through Labor Day, 9:30 a.m. 
to 7:30 p.m.; rest of year, 10 
a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Adults $1.25.) 
Federalist architecture in Sa- 
lem attracts many people in- 
terested in New England's old 
homes. Salem was the home 
of architect Samuel Mclntire, 
the man who almost single- 
handedly was responsible for 
the perfection of the Federal- 
ist style. 

Salem exhibits a number of 
Federalist houses. To begin a 
tour, walk along Chestnut 
Street, lined with homes built 
between 1796 and 1810. A 
number of other places in- 
clude: Assembly House, 138 
Federal Street (1782); Peirce- 
Nichols House, 80 Federal 

Street (1782); Hamilton Hall, 

Chestnut Street at Cambridge 
Street (1805); Gardner-Pingree 
House, 128 Essex Street 
(1804); Ropes Mansion, 318 
Essex Street (1719); and Pick- 
ering House, 161 Broad Street. 
Essex Institute at 132-134 Es- 
sex Street houses an exten- 
sive library on the history of 
Essex County, and old log 
books and sea journals make 
the institute a mecca for his- 
tory buffs. Exhibits also in- 
clude colonial portraits, paint- 
ings and several rooms fur- 
nished with period furniture. 
(Tuesday through Saturday, 9 
a.m. to 4:30 p.m.; Sunday, 2 to 
5 p.m. Admission fee.) 
John Ward House, behind the 
Institute, is open for visitors. 
The clapboard cabin with its 
lean-to roof and overhang was 
built in 1684. (June through 
October, Tuesday through Sat- 
urday, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.; Sun- 
day, 2 to 4:30 p.m. Admission 

Peabody Museum at 161 Essex 
Street is the oldest museum 
in America and an important 
stop for visitors interested in 
Salem's history. Its maritime 
collection and artifacts from 
the China Trade are unsur- 
passed, and exhibits include 
New England maritime history, 
primitive art from the South 
Pacific and Northeastern In- 
dians, and items pertaining to 
the region's natural history. 
(Daily, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Sun- 
day, 1 to 4 p.m.; Adults $1; 
children 500.) 

Pioneer Village at Forest Park 
was built by the city in 1930 
as a replica of the earliest 
settlement in Salem. Exhibits 
include a pillory and stock, 
dugouts and wigwams and the 
Ruck House, the oldest dwell- 
ing in Salem. (June through 
October, 9:30 a.m. to 6:30 
p.m.; after Labor Day, 10 a.m. 
to 5 p.m. Adults 500; children 



new bedford 


As you approach New Bedford, use your imagina- 
tion to see the faded images of ghost-whalers that 
linger in the harbor. For a moment look out to sea, 
beyond the hurricane wall, and scan the hori- 
zon for the Catalpa with her hardy crew and cargo 
of barrels heavy with oil. 

Herman Melville sailed out of New Bedford in 
the early 1840's. The run was rough and he jumped 
ship before it finished its three- or four-year trip. 
But in a way, Melville returned to the sea in 1851 
when the classic Moby Dick was published; his 
book says a lot about New Bedford's past. Since 
New Bedford dwells on the glory of her age of 
sail, it is appropriate that the whaling era, as well 
as fishing and textile manufacturing, the industry 
that kept the city alive when whaling died, be the 
key to the city's visibility in Bicentennial years. 

New Bedford's Visible City projects are inter- 
woven with the area's recent surge toward self- 
improvement. Celebration of the Bicentennial will 
serve as a catalyst and source of support for 
groups and individuals already in the develop- 
ment stages of independent projects. Existing 
programs, such as the restoration of the Water- 
front Historic District, will identify with the Bicen- 
tennial thrust. Hopefully, the next few years will 
provide for the restoration of whaling logs kept at 
the New Bedford Free Public Library. A register 
of local buildings will record structures that are 
historically or architecturally significant. A course 
in New Bedford history will be initiated into the 
local high school curriculum. Walking tours will 
map out the historic center of the city. 

In addition to the waterfront revival, Fort 
Taber is being restored. This seacoast fortress 
will be transformed into a learning and recreation 
center of lasting importance to the city. Also 
planned is a center for historic information, to be 
located in one of the city's historic houses high- 
lighting New Bedford's three important industries: 
whaling, fishing, and textile production. Bike trails, 
summer park programs, and ecology projects will 
supplement city activities in 1976. 

Some of New Bedford's well-rounded urban 
progress projects are moving quickly toward com- 
pletion, while others are just beginning. In the 
Bicentennial years, the city will show its changes 
as it continues to grow aware of its untapped po- 
tential. It is no longer Melville's "land of oil." But 
to those who live there, New Bedford is still "the 
dearest place to live in, in all New England." 

For further information on the Visible City 
program in New Bedford, stop by the Bicentennial 
Commission at 13 Centre St., or call (617) 997-1776. 

The Whaleman Statue in front of the New Bedford Free Public 
Library is a town landmark that was designed by Bela Pratt. 

You needn't have read Moby Dick to begin a tour of New 
Bedford, but a little imagination about the whaling era will 
be helpful if you choose to walk along the wharves to get a 
sense of the city's history. The following are a few places 
to stop on your visit: 

Moby Dick Trail, consisting of 
30 attractions located in New 
Bedford and Fairhaven, is 
New Bedford's contribution to 
the New England Heritage 
Trail. The city section of the 
trail represents New Bedford's 
history and architecture dur- 
ing the early and mid-19th 
century. Landmarks in New 
Bedford's Waterfront Historic 
District, the downtown area, 
and a selected residential sec- 
tion reflect the height of her 
whaling days. The information 
centers in the city offer a bro- 
chure which outlines the route 
and describes the sites. 
The Old Whaling Museum on 
Johnny Cake Hill is run by 
the Old Dartmouth Historical 
Society, a non-profit organiza- 
tion that has assembled within 
the varied rooms of the build- 
ing, memorabilia from the 
height of New Bedford's whal- 
ing era. 

The museum has one of the 
most outstanding collections 
of scrimshaw in the country. 
Exhibits include prints, paint- 
ings and the C.S. Raleigh pan- 
orama on whaling. (Monday 
through Saturday, 9 a.m. to 5 
p.m.; Sunday, 1 to 5 p.m.; Oc- 
tober through May, closed 
Monday. Adults $1.50; chil- 
dren 750.) 

The Seaman's Bethel, across 
the street from the Whaling 
Museum, was founded in 1830 
for the purpose of saving sea- 
men's souls. Melville's pew is 
marked from his Sunday visits 
there. Moby Dick records that 
rare was the "moody" fisher- 
man who did not darken its 
door before leaving for the 
Indian Ocean, the Pacific, and 
terrors unknown. 
New Bedford Public Library at 
Pleasant and Williams streets 
was part of an endowment 
given to the city by Sylvia Ann 
Howland in 1846. It opened in 
the building now used as City 
Hall, but later moved across 
the street. Its present facility, 
designed by Russell Warren, 

was built in 1856 with stalls on 
the lower level for an open 
market. People could simply 
drive their carriages into the 
booths and purchase vegeta- 
bles and fruits. Upstairs, town 
officers held their meetings. 

Today, the Melville Whaling 
Room is housed on the third 
level of the library, honoring 
the whaling industry and its 
most eloquent spokesman. The 
room contains ledgers, logs 
and legends of whaling days. 
Models and ivory, treasures 
from the Orient and the first 
edition of Moby Dick make this 
a worthwhile venture. 

Outside, in the library yard, 
stands the Whaleman Statue. 
Done by Bela Pratt (1867- 
1917), this seaman with har- 
poon in hand captures in ani- 
mation the whalers' motto, the 
verbal logo of New Bedford's 
height: "A dead whale or a 
stove boat." (Monday through 
Friday, 9 a.m. to 9 p.m.; Satur- 
day until 5 p.m. Admission 

Fort Taber, located on Clark's 
Point within the gates of Fort 
Rodman, was built from de- 
signs by Robert E. Lee. Ironi- 
cally, the fortress was used to 
oppose his forces in the Civil 
War. On April 27, 1861, three 
40-pounders were mounted 
on the sand battery to ward off 
the threat of shore cruisers. 

With the impetus of Bicen- 
tennial historical interests, the 
fort is undergoing renovation. 
Buttonwood Park, on the west 
end of the city, was named 
for the buttonwood trees that 
grew along the bay for hun- 
dreds of years. Now the park, 
with its tennis courts and gar- 
den, offers a zoo, and plans to 
expand the facilities to include 
an area where children can 
pet tame animals. Old-fash- 
ioned paddle boats offer rides 
in the park on fair weather 
afternoons. Other parks in 
New Bedford include Marine 
Park, Brooklawn Park, Hazel- 
wood and Acushnet Park. 



In the winter of 1115-1116, Henry Knox trekked across 
Massachusetts carrying cannon to General Washington's 
troops near Boston. During the Bicentennial years, towns 
along the route celebrate Knox's feat and invite you to 
relive his historic journey. 

When Henry Knox set off from Bos- 
ton in November, 1775, to fetch the 
captured British cannon from Fort 
Ticonderoga in the New York col- 
ony, he probably never dreamed 
that 200 years later the event would 
become a cause celebre. Not that 
his brave contribution to the Revo- 
lutionary War effort was not duly 
recognized at the time. General 
George Washington honored the 
daring young bookseller and artillery 
expert from Boston by making him 
Colonel of the Regiment of Artil- 
lery. Later, he was promoted to 
General and, when the time came 
for President Washington to choose 
officers for the United States Gov- 
ernment, Knox was his natural 
choice for Secretary at War. 

Trek Not Remembered 

But for some reason, Knox's 
historic trek, carting 50-odd pieces 
of heavy artillery across upstate New 
York and the entire breadth of Mas- 
sachusetts, never gained the promi- 
nent place in American Revolu- 
tionary folklore that it rightfully 
deserved. Anyone could tell you 
that Paul Revere rode a horse to 
Lexington or Betsy Ross sewed the 
first American flag, but few indeed 
could recount the significance of 
Knox's exploits against formidable 
odds in the cold winter of 1775-76. 
Yet his efforts, and the support given 
to him and his band by the many 
townspeople he turned to for help 
on the way from Lake George to 
Boston, have an extremely important 
and lasting place in the annals of 
the Revolution. 

Knox proved that sheer will and 
determination, mixed with a large 
amount of physical effort, team- 

work and support from the citizenry 
could overcome seemingly insur- 
mountable conditions. For all this, 
he is honored in history and remem- 
bered especially during the nation's 
Bicentennial celebration. Justly 
sharing the remembrance and the 
honor with him are the residents 
of the 34 Massachusetts towns and 
cities along the route where Knox 
and company pulled, dragged, bul- 
lied and shoved the cannon, mus- 
kets, horses and oxen that came to 
the aid of General Washington and 
his troops outside of Boston. 

Noting The Route 

Known now as the Knox Trail, 
the Massachusetts part of the route 
begins in the Alford-Egremont area 
where Knox entered the Berkshires 
on January 10, 1776, one day over 
a month after departing from Fort 
Ticonderoga with 60 ton of the 
most useable store of artillery cap- 
tured from the British by Ethan 
Allen and his Green Mountain Boys. 
Continuing for approximately 150 
miles across the state, the trail 
weaves in and over the Berkshires 
(we took Route 71 to 23), around 
and across the Connecticut River 
(Route 20 at Russell to Route 67 
at Palmer), and through the peace- 
ful towns of Worcester County 
(Route 9 from West Brookfield to 
Shrewsbury; Route 20 to Marlbor- 
ough). It then goes eastward into 
Framingham where Knox, and the 
"noble train" promised to Washing- 
ton, arrived on January 24th, ex- 
hausted in body but exalted in spirit. 
The route continues through Way- 
land, Sudbury, Weston, Waltham 
and Watertown, into Cambridge, 
where Washington greeted Knox 

and prepared to dispatch the ar- 
tillery through Brookline to Boston. 

The ultimate resting places for 
the cannon that had traveled over 
300 miles of often trackless terrain, 
snow-covered mountains, frozen 
rivers and muddy forests, were the 
hills surrounding Boston Harbor. 
From there, on the evening of March 
16, 1776, the revolutionaries were 
able to command a view of all the 
British fortifications below. Unable 
to reach the colonists' positions by 
artillery fire either from land or sea, 
General William Howe made the 
decision to abandon Boston. British 
troops quietly boarded the ships on 
March 17, ready to sail from the 
harbor, taking 900 loyalists with 
them, including Knox's parents-in- 
law. This event has been annually 
observed in Boston as Evacuation 

That March day in 1776 was 
truly a time of great celebration for 
all Bostonians who had managed to 
gain their freedom from the British 
three months before the signing of 
the Declaration of Independence. 
Yet the days and months prior to 
the event had not always been so 
joyful. Knox, his brother William, 
and the small band of soldiers, vol- 
unteer civilians and hired teamsters 
who had undertaken the trek across 
New York and Massachusetts had 
often been discouraged by the chal- 
lenges that faced them at almost 
every turn of the road. Even before 
they had crossed into Massachusetts, 
one of the cannon being carted 
across the Mohawk River on a 
wooden sledge broke through the 
ice and crashed into the freezing 
waters below. The gun finally was 
recovered and the men continued on 
their way, only to be stopped many 
times by unseasonable weather. 

Journey Is Hazardous 

Knox had written to General 
Washington from Lake George on 
December 17th that the artillery 
would be in Boston in "16 or 17 
days." But the days came and went, 
and the courageous troops had not 
even crossed the New York border. 


With the Berkshire Mountains still 
ahead of them, they finally forged 
through the snow into Massachu- 
setts to begin four of the most haz- 
ardous days of the entire journey. 
From Alford, to North Egremont, 
on to Great Barrington, Monterey 
and Otis, the sleds bearing their 
heavy load moved slowly through 
the densely wooded mountains, cut- 
ting paths where no roads existed. 

Yet ahead lay treacherous Glas- 
gow Mountain separating Blandford 
from the present town of Russell. 
The men, some of whom were regu- 
lars from the New York militia, rec- 
ognized the hazards of the descent 
and hesitated to push on. The hired 
teamsters also feared for their fives 
knowing that the unwieldy cargo 
could come crashing down upon 
them as they made their way down 
the icy slope. They refused to 
move. Here again, as had happen- 
ed before and would happen again 
many times, Knox was forced to rely 
on the help of the local farmers to 
provide the additional teams of men 
and oxen that could persuade the 
drivers to press on. 

In mid-January, the cold and 
weary party arrived in Westfield. 
Knox apparently had ridden ahead, 

preparing food and shelter for every- 
one after the frightening ordeal. 
Partially out of a sense of gratitude 
to the town for its welcome greeting, 
and perhaps out of a need to let off 
steam, Knox agreed to fire one of 
the cannon, called "Old Sow," in a 
noisy salute to the task ahead. Re- 
juvenated, the band pushed on to 
West Springfield and Springfield, 
across the Connecticut River. 

Locals Show Faith 

Again, the weather turned out 
to be the biggest opponent. Warm 
winds caused the snow to melt and 
the muddy, slushy terrain beneath 
the runners of the sleighs made the 
going slow and difficult. Sometime 
before the dispirited band arrived 
in Wilbraham, Monson and Palmer, 
the oxen drivers from New York be- 
came irreconcilably homesick. Their 
contribution thus far had been in- 
valuable and, in good conscience, 
Knox had no other choice but to let 
them return home. Once more, the 
undaunted Bostonian turned to local 
citizens who again showed their 
faith in the revolutionary cause by 
coming forth with a fresh supply of 
animals and a new group of hired 
drivers to continue the journey. Thei 

ground finally hardened again, and 
on they moved through the Brook- 
fields (the present towns of Warren, 
West Brookfield and East Brook- 
field). Making good time, they 
passed through Spencer and Leices- 
ter, on to Worcester. 

Knox's wife, the former Lucy 
Flucker, daughter of the Royal Sec- 
retary of the Province before the 
Revolution, had fled to Worcester 
with Henry the day after the Battle 
of Concord. Described as "lovely, 
plump and extremely fond of Hen- 
ry," Lucy was only 18 years old in 
July, 1774, when she defied her 
parents and married Knox, then only 
24 and second in command of the 
impressive Boston Grenadier Corps. 
Although Knox was devoted to the 
gentle and faithful Lucy, and ap- 
parently knew how unhappy she 
was on her own in Worcester, there 
is no record that he paused long 
enough in carrying the cannon across 
Central Massachusetts to pay his 
wife a visit. 

Knox Reaches Boston 

Through Shrewsbury, North- 
borough, Marlborough and South- 
borough, the sled train carrying 60 
tons of artillery plodded on, arriv- 
ing jubilantly in Framingham some 

Henry Knox led an incredible expedition, using oxen to haul cannon from the Berkshires to Boston. 


300 miles and 47 days after leaving 
Fort Ticonderoga. Knox went ahead 
to deliver some of the smaller muni- 
tions to Washington. Meanwhile, 
the townspeople west of Boston set 
to work to line the roads with bales 
of hay so that the larger cannon 
would not be detected by the British 
as they were pulled along the final 
route to Boston. 

That the journey was completed 

so successfully is a tribute to Knox 
and his men, as well as to the hun- 
dreds of people along the route who 
aided the team with supplies, shel- 
ter, food and encouragement. It is 
an argument of history as to whether 
Knox approached the local citizenry 
dressed as a soldier or as a civilian. 
But whatever the case, people 
across the state responded with en- 
thusiastic support. 


Two hundred years later, in 
honor of the nation's Bicentennial, 
the people of the communities along 
the trail traversed by Knox are again 
being asked to respond. A joint 
program is planned to honor the 
General, as well as the 1 8th century 
townspeople who assisted in moving 
the men and the munitions on their 
way. A series of projects has been 
undertaken by the Massachusetts 
Bicentennial Commission and the 
towns on the route as a way to em- 
phasize both the historic contribu- 
tions of the past and the importance 
of communities in the present. 

The Bicentennial salute to 
Knox and his route is intended to 
bring about historical awareness, 
community projects and an invita- 
tion to people throughout the state 
and the nation to come and explore 
the beauty of Massachusetts along 
the Knox Trail. A slide show pres- 
entation on the trail will be available 
in 1975. In addition, a live pup- 
pet show about Henry Knox has 
been created by the Poobley Greegy 
Puppet Theater for elementary 
school children throughout the state. 
Information on both these programs 
can be obtained from the Massachu- 
setts Bicentennial Commission, 10 
Tremont Street, Boston 02108. 

One permanent legacy to Knox 
and his contributions to the United 
States is the establishment of the 
Knox Trail Historical Society, char- 
tered by the Commonwealth of Mas- 
sachusetts in 1974 as a non-profit 
organization, under a grant from 
the State Bicentennial Commission. 

Intended to encourage scholarly re- 
search about the trek from Fort 
Ticonderoga and the people who 
participated in it, the Society plans 
to publish a series of monographs 
of use to young students and his- 
torians alike. It will also encourage 
celebrations surrounding the historic 
journey, starting in New York and 
continuing into Massachusetts on 
January 8, 1976, with a re-enact- 
ment of the trip. Local citizens from 
many of the 34 towns along the 
route will dress in period costumes 
and assist in carrying the cannon, 
hauled by oxen and horses, through 
the portion of their town that 
marked the way for General Knox. 

Each town along the way hopes 
to plan some special event to 
mark the passage of the cannon. 
As of this writing, several specific 
programs are being scheduled and 
many others are in the planning 
stages. These include a "Cannon 
Ball" town dance to be held in 
Westfield to commemorate the city's 
party for the trekkers held two hun- 
dred years ago on January 14, 1776. 
The city of Palmer will sponsor a 
state-wide patchwork quilt contest 
for children from all the high schools 
in the 34 Knox Trail cities and 
towns. Students will be asked to 
submit individual patches having 
to do with the town's part in the 

The town of Leicester plans 
to activate a unit of Minutemen to 
carry the cannon during the re- 
enactment, and to serve thereafter 
as a permanent drilling and per- 

forming unit for social and civic 
occasions. Spencer will greet the 
1976 Knox cannon-bearers with a 
town supper and a rest stop at the 
Massasoit Hotel, formerly Jenks 
Tavern, where Washington really 
slept — so insist the local historians. 
In Marlborough, the town will dedi- 
cate public land, to be known as the 
Bicentennial Park, containing a 
plaque honoring Knox's journey 
through the region. In Framingham, 
where Knox and his troops prepared 
for the clandestine entry to Boston, 
the arrival of the train of cannon 
will be greeted with appropriate 

Visitors are invited and encour- 
aged to join in the local festivities all 
along the trek. A complete schedule 
of events can be obtained in the fall, 
1975, from the Knox Trail Histor- 
ical Society, c/o Massachusetts Bi- 
centennial Commission, 10 Tremont 
Street, Boston 02108. 

The Society also is happy to 
provide information for anyone in- 
terested in becoming a member. 
Whether your preference is histor- 
ical research or participation in the 
reenactment of events, your active 
membership is invited. In addition to 
the other activities planned, the 
Society is negotiating to sponsor the 
design of a first-day issue postal 
cover that will be stamped and can- 
celled in each of the 34 towns on the 
the day the procession passes by. 
(For further information about 
membership and programs, write to 
the society at the above address.) 

The Commonwealth of Mas- 
sachusetts also will participate in 
a lasting tribute to General Knox by 
assisting in the marking of a His- 
toric Route which stretches from one 
end of the state to another along the 
trail. Long-range plans include the 
setting up of a bike path. In certain 
areas, such as North Egremont in 
the southern Berkshires, it is known 
precisely where the heroic party tra- 
versed; a dirt road bears the name 
of General Knox Lane to this very 
day. In Central Massachusetts, in 
West Brookfield, a line of maple 
trees beyond the old Peregrine 


White homestead (now the Salem 
Cross Inn) and up the Old Bay Path 
of Foster Hill, indicates approx- 
imately where Knox would have 
come across the meadows. In other 
areas, it can only be surmised 
where the artillery train passed. 
Nevertheless, the route of the Knox 
Trail will try to adhere as much as 
possible to the general path followed 
200 years ago. A map of the his- 
torical route can be obtained after 
January, 1976, by writing to the 
Massachusetts Bicentennial Com- 

Whether you go by bicycle, 
by foot, or by car up and down the 
Knox Trail, you'll want to stop 
often to see the many sights of 
historic interest and natural beauty 
all along the way. On your travels 
through the part of the Knox Trail 
in the Berkshires, stop off in Great 
Harrington at the Historical Com- 
mission's newly acquired Dwight 
House, the oldest house in town, 
being restored and refurbished as a 
museum in honor of the nation's 
birthday. The town libraries in 
Egremont and Otis are also under- 
going face-liftings in time for the 
Bicentennial, with archives rooms 
and artifacts on display. 

Further east, stop by the 
Blandford town hall to purchase a 
copy of Favorite Recipes from Hill- 
top Kitchens, a collection of old 
recipes from local housewives being 
compiled in time for two special 
Bicentennial events in 1975. (Check 
the Calendar of Events.) 

Moving on, stop at the Stanley 
Park and Carillon, in Westfield 
where the English and Flemish bells 
of the 96-foot high carillon are 
played for summer concerts. At any 
time of the year, head for the many 
fine art and science museums lo- 
cated in Springfield around Chest- 
nut and State streets. (See Visible 

Go off the Knox Trail for a 
bit and wander down the lazy, wind- 
ing roads around Wilbraham and 
Monson. Once back on the route, 
stop for a walk along the nature 
trail in the delightful Lucy Stone 

Park in the center of Warren, named 
for the famous suffragette who 
came from the town. Between War- 
ren and the Brookfields is the long- 
est line of unbroken post markers 
along the old Boston Post Road 
once the main road from New York 
to Boston. The story goes that 
Benjamin Franklin himself laid out 
the stone markers so that riders for 
the postal service could check the 
distances from town to town. One of 
these markers can be easily found 
on the town common in West 
Brookfield. You'll want to stop 
there anyway, as it is one of the 
loveliest greens in the entire state. 

Continuing down the road, be 
sure to stop at the old cemetery on 
Route 9 west of Leicester. Buried 
there is Colonel William Henshaw, 
adjutant to General Washington in 
the Continental Army. It was Hen- 
shaw who first suggested at a meet- 
ing of the Continental Congress in 
1774 that, in addition to the militia 
trained by the British to fight In- 
dians, there should also be a body 
of colonists ready in each town "to 
march upon the minute." Thus, 
the term "Minutemen" was born. 

The town green of Leicester 
contains a huge stone and bronze 
marker inscribed with the names of 
the 43 Minutemen and the 33 mem- 
bers of the Standing Militia who 
marched under Colonel Henshaw to 
Lexington and Concord. 

Also present at the battle of Con- 
cord was another man who later 
was to move to Leicester and live 
there for 23 years. He was Peter 
Salem, a black slave from Framing- 
ham, who enlisted as a private in 
Captain Simon Edgel's Colonial 
Company. Salem was at Bunker Hill 
as well, where his heroism was re- 
corded for posterity by Samuel 
Swett, the earliest chronicler of the 
battle: "Among the foremost of the 
[British] leaders was the gallant 
Major Pitcairn, who exultingly cried 
'the day is ours,' when Salem, a 
black soldier, and a number of 
others, shot him through and he 
fell . . ." 

After the war, Salem wove cane 
for a living in Leicester and per- 
formed other odd jobs. He died in 
Framingham in 1816, where a mon- 
ument was erected to his memory in 
1882. During the Bicentennial years 
in Leicester, it is hoped that the site 
of Peter Salem's cabin off Pleasant 
Street (called Peter Salem Road) 
can be authenticated and marked. 

No trip along the Knox Trail 
would be complete without a stop 
in Worcester to see such sights as 
the world-renowned Worcester Art 
Museum and the famous American 
Antiquarian Society, founded in 
1812 by Revolutionary War pub- 
lisher Isaiah Thomas. (See Visible 

East of Worcester, in Shrewsbury, 
is the 1 8th-century home of General 
Artemas Ward, the military com- 
mander under whom Knox first 
served in Roxbury. In 1925, Ward's 
descendant and namesake bequea- 
thed the house and a $3 million 
trust fund to Harvard University to 
maintain the residence as a museum. 
(Guided tours from May 15 to 
October 15, Monday through Fri- 
day, 10 a.m. to noon and 1 to 4 p.m. 
Admission free.) 

Further along the Trail in 
Northborough, take a look at the 
lovely Unitarian Church on the town 
green, once the First Parish Congre- 
gational Church. Recognized as 
one of the finest examples of early 
19th-century American architecture, 
the building contains a steeple de- 
signed by Charles Bulfinch and a 
bell cast by Paul Revere's foundry. 
In Cambridge, on the Common, you 
can find the precise spot where 
Knox reported to Washington that 
the cannon were in Framingham. 

The trail provides the historic 
link for all these spots and many 
more you'll discover in every one of 
the 34 towns where Knox once 
traveled. Wander the route your- 
self and talk about it to your friends. 
The Knox Trail Historical Society is 
depending on you to make Henry 
Knox a living legend instead of a 
footnote in a history book. LJ 




From the Berkshires 
to Cape Cod 


Imagine for a moment that the map of Massachusetts 
is a huge carpet. Lay it on the floor, close your eyes, 
step anywhere at all upon it. Then take two or three 
steps in any direction, stop, and look where you've 
landed. Chances are you'll find yourself at a place in 
Massachusetts that urges you to come to visit — a 
place of historical interest, or natural beauty, or 
exciting programs, or quiet meditation. There probably 
is no spot in the entire state that won't put you within 
a short distance of one or more of those attractions. 
Depending on your own mood, you can decide whether 
today is the day you'd like to learn or look or do. 

We tried a random stroll over the map of 
Massachusetts, and the results were both delightful 
and exhausting. We proved that it is possible to 
choose any region, city, or town in the entire state as 
a starting point and branch out from there to find some- 
thing different and interesting to do. No matter the 
season, and no matter if you have a day, a week, or a 
month for touring, you can find a new adventure each 
time you go. To help you plan your trips, we've di- 
vided the state into six regions: Western, Central, 
Northeastern, Metropolitan Boston, Southeastern, and 
the Cape and the Islands. Within each region, we've 
suggested certain towns and certain routes that we 
found satisfied our varying moods. We list them not as 
a definitive guide but as suggestions of places we think 
you might want to visit also. 

Naturally we haven't been able to give special 
attention to every city and town in the entire Com- 
monwealth. Some of that is intentional, especially in 
areas where you're already quite familiar with the 
sights and services offered. Certain other areas 
are mentioned only briefly because their attractions, 
views, and byways have already become so popular 
that they have almost reached the saturation point for 
visitors and visitor safety. If you do decide to go to 
these heavily-touristed areas, think about planning 
your sightseeing trip at a time when most other people 

would be somewhere else. For instance, try the main 
cities (such as Boston) on a summer weekend, sched- 
ule your visit to the Cape Cod area on a less-trafficked 
Monday or Tuesday, or try going there on a balmy 
day in the spring or a brisk day in the fall. And, no 
matter the season, do yourself — and the commuters 
— a favor: leave on your journey after nine in the 
morning and return after six at night. 

Certain parts of Massachusetts may not be spe- 
cifically mentioned in our guide simply because we 
took a right turn off the main road instead of a left, and 
found ourselves with enough to do to keep us busy 
for several days. But that in no way should discourage 
you from taking the left turn. Chances are you'll find 
just as many things to do in different towns, on differ- 
ent roads, and at different times. What we want to do 
is whet your appetite for exploring certain places in 
the state you might otherwise have not considered. 

As you will see from the following pages, each 
area is rich in history and in its own contribution to 
the beauty and vitality of Massachusetts. So take our 
suggestions and branch out from there. Discover for 
yourself historic markers, weathered statues, colonial 
burial grounds, venerable museums run by local his- 
torical societies, old houses and homesteads, country 
inns, and antique shops, city industrial tours, county 
fairs, art exhibitions, and local parades. 

Create your own Bicentennial tribute to Massachu- 
setts. Visit the places you've always wanted to see 
and the places you've never dreamed of going. Re- 
gional tourist and development councils and local 
chambers of commerce are always happy to help 
direct you to accommodations and attractions in their 
part of the state no matter the time of year. Along with 
the local Bicentennial Committees, they can also keep 
you informed of up-to-the-minute special activities and 

Enjoy Massachusetts as you wish America a very 
happy birthday. 


I < 



Soon after the Puritans landed in eastern Massachu- 
setts in 1630, carrying with them the charter of the 
Massachusetts Bay Company, individual English set- 
tlers began moving as far westward as the fertile banks 
of the Connecticut River. Explorer Henry Hudson had 
already sailed up the Hudson River to the site of 
Albany as early as 1609, laying claim to the entire area 
for Holland. His claim covered much of present-day 
New York and part of what is now Connecticut. The 
major settlements of New Netherland were made in 
1624 at Fort Orange (now Albany) and in 1626 when 
Dutchman Peter Minuit paid the Canarsie Indians $24 
worth of trinkets for what is now Manhattan Island. 
But other Dutch adventurers also moved upward and 
eastward along the Housatonic Riyer in Western Mas- 
sachusetts and the river valleys around the present 
city of Hartford. Their trapping and fur-trading busi- 
ness was a going concern by the time Englishmen 
arrived in the Hartford area in 1635 and 1636 to estab- 
lish permanent Puritan settlements. 

It was then still more than 30 years before the 
Treaty of Breda, in which the Dutch formally would 
give up ownership of New Netherland to the English. 
Nevertheless, most of the Dutch in that part of Con- 
necticut accepted the Englishmen's assumption of 
control. Dutchmen continued to operate their various 
trapping and fishing enterprises relatively unencum- 
bered in the part of Massachusetts closest to what is 
now the New York border, but there was no real at- 
tempt by Englishmen to settle the most western part of 
the state in the 17th century. 

The Founding of Towns 

The area around the Agawam and Connecticut 
Rivers (subsequently called Springfield) was wilder- 
ness enough. First settled in 1636 by a dozen English 
Puritan families under the leadership of William Pynch- 
eon, the Springfield settlement was later taken over 
by Pyncheon's son John when the father's theology 
proved too threatening to his Puritan colleagues. In 
1653, John Pyncheon and two other Springfield resi- 
dents, Elizer Holyoke and Samuel Chapin, again felt 
the wanderlust. They petitioned the Massachusetts 
General Court for permission to "erect a plantation 
about fifteen miles above us on the River of conetiquat 
if it be the will of the Lord. . ." At the same time, a 
similar request was made by 23 Connecticut settlers 
and one from Dorchester, Massachusetts, to "plant, 
possess, and inhabit Nonotuck." The area they all re- 
ferred to was the "excellent Land and Meadow and 
tillable ground" on both sides of the Connecticut River 
from South Hadley northward to Deerfield. 

The three Springfield men were given permission 
to negotiate for purchase of the land with the Nono- 
tuck Indians, and to parcel out the two plantations 
formed among both groups of petitioners. On Septem- 
ber 23, 1653, the area comprising the present towns 
of Northampton, Easthampton, Westhampton, and part 
of Hatfield and Montgomery was deeded by the Indians 
in exchange for "one hundred fathum of Wampam by 
Tale and for Tenn Coates" and a few trinkets. Not 
quite the bargain that Manhattan was, the land never- 
theless proved to be extremely fertile and, in 1654, the 
first settlers moved to Northampton. 

Meanwhile, other communities began springing up 
in the area, attracted also by the rich Connecticut 
River farmland. Hadley was settled in 1659 by John Web- 
ster and the Reverend John Russell, who left Connec- 
ticut because of religious dissension. For some reason, 
the town seemed to draw all types of people on the 
run. Two of the men involved in the regicide of King 
Charles I, Edmund Whalley and William Goffe, fled 
to America when the monarchy was restored in Eng- 
land after the Cromwellian period. In 1664, they sup- 
posedly came to Hadley where they were hidden out 
for 15 years by the Reverend Russell. Author James 
Fenimore Cooper wrote a fictionalized account of what 
happened to the two fugitives in Hadley in a story 
called, The Wept of Wish-Ton-Wish. 

Hatfield was permanently settled in 1661, just a 
year before the county of Hampshire was established. 
Dedham residents migrated to Deerfield, Hadley 
settlers moved to Sunderland. And a group of families 
from Northampton and Hadley moved up river to North- 
field. Westfield became a popular stopping-off point 
on the way to Connecticut. 

Indians Clash with Settlers 

Then, suddenly, the lives of all the brave English- 
men who had come to the Western wilderness were 
imperiled by the threat of total annihilation by the In- 
dians during King Philip's War against the colonists in 
1675. In rapid succession, Indian raids took their dev- 
astating toll in such places as Deerfield, Sunderland, 
and Northfield. Whole communities fled in terror, and 
several of the towns were abandoned for many years 
long after Philips warriors were defeated by colonial 
soldiers. Again, during Queen Anne's War (1702-1713), 
frontier settlements were seriously endangered by 
bands of attacking French soldiers and Indians from 

Yet, after the first of what came to be known as 
the French and Indian Wars, settlements began to 
spring up again. Sometimes, as in the case of North- 
field and Sunderland, towns were refounded where 
communities had existed before. In other instances, 
new towns were founded on land parcelled out to sol- 
diers who had given exceptional service to the Crown 
during the wars. For example, Colonel John Ashley 
of Westfield went to the southern Berkshires to help 
found the town of Sheffield, incorporated in 1733. 

Stockbridge was settled by four white families, in 
1734, under a grant from the General Court to estab- 


Although they were often only a few miles from a town, new 
settlements were risky ventures. Fortunately, unexpected visitors 
often turned out to be friends. 

lish a mission for the Housatonic Indians. Tyringham, 
including the portion that is now Monterey, was pur- 
chased from the same Indians in 1735. These native 
Americans of Western Massachusetts were the sur- 
vivors of the Mohican tribe of the Algonquins who 
had once roamed from New York state into the Housa- 
tonic Valley. In 1664, they moved their council from 
Albany to what is now Stockbridge, soon after losing 
their pre-eminence to the Mohawks and others called 
"The Six Nations." Their descendants, under Chief 
Konkapot, lived in peace with the colonists when they 
came to the Berkshires many years later. 

Berkshire County Established 

By 1740, there were still only 14 incorporated 
towns in all of Western Massachusetts, with isolated 
patches of settlement in places such as Ware, Pelham, 
Blandford, New Marlborough, Bernardston, Tolland, 
Greenfield, Charlemont, and Great Barrington. But 
much of the area was still undeveloped, no doubt be- 
cause of the previous years of trouble with the French 
and Indians. All that changed rapidly, however, 
around mid-18th century, when population settlement 
had become sufficient to warrant the establishment of 
a separate Berkshire County in 1761. Its shire town 
Pittsfield was incorporated the same year, followed 
soon after by West Hoosac, called Williamstown, near 
the frontier outpost of Fort Hoosac, now North Adams. 

Cummington, like so many of the hill towns be- 
tween the Connecticut River Valley and the Berkshire 
Mountains, had been a vast wilderness. Described by 
Helen H. Foster (co-author with William Streeter of 
Only One Cummington, prepared for the local Bicen- 
tennial), the area was "a virgin forest of hemlock trees, 
chestnut, maple, birch and oak, ash trees, beech, pine 
and spruce." Living among the springs of sparkling 
water were a nomadic, peaceful group of Indians called 
the Nipmucks. The English ventured out to the area 
around Chester, Chesterfield, Cummington, Worthing- 
ton, and Huntington only when it became clear that the 
French and Indian War was drawing to a close. At that 
time, with the Paris Peace Treaty of 1763 under nego- 
tiation, parcels of land in the region were sold off to 
help raise money drained away by the costly fighting. 

Land Speculation by River Gods 

Additional development in the most Western part 
of the Massachusetts Colony came about, also, as 
the result of land speculation by men in the Northamp- 
ton, Hatfield, Hadley area. Many of them had become 
known as "river gods" because of their wealth and 
the power they commanded up and down the Connecti- 
cut River. With the noteworthy exception of Joseph 
Hawley Jr., of Northampton, who also did not specu- 
late in land except for a small venture in what became 
Williamstown, most of the "river gods" were stead- 
fastly loyal to the royal governors who gave them 
patronage in return. Men such as Israel Williams, 
John Worthington, and Oliver Partridge early on had 
acquired from the Crown huge tracts of land. 

While most of the "river gods" continued to pro- 
fess Tory sentiments throughout the 1760's and early 
1770's, it was clear that the Whig party, supported by 
Hawley, had become the majority party all over West- 
ern Massachusetts. In July, 1773, citizens of the south- 
ern Berkshires met together at the home of Colonel 
Ashley to draw up 14 resolutions against British tyr- 
anny, commonly called the "Sheffield Declaration of 
Independence." (That declaration, however, was 
against the British royal charter, not against the king.) 
When the port of Boston was closed, following the 
"tea party," of December, 1773, Westerners contributed 
relief funds and supplies to Boston's poor. Town lead- 
ers also appointed Committees of Correspondence to 
work with the Whigs. Finally, county conventions were 
held to protest Britain's Intolerable Acts. 

The first of these conventions took place in Stock- 
bridge in July, 1774, calling for self-reliance and the 
"non-consumption of British manufactures." A month 
later, a crowd of 1500 people assembled at the Great 
Barrington Court House to prevent the court from sit- 
ting because the judges were the "creatures" of an 
unjust governor. The Courts did not sit again in Berk- 
shire County until 1781 and in Hampshire until 1778. 

With the outbreak of the Revolution, even some 
of the most die-hard Loyalists, such as Williams, 
Partridge and Worthington were converted — by 
choice or by force — to the Patriot cause. For ex- 
ample, Israel Williams and his son were made to 


spend the night in a smoke house in Hadley until they 
were "smoked into Whigs." Companies of Minutemen 
from all over Western Massachusets answered the call 
in April, 1775. In fact, one 69-year-old general, Seth 
Pomeroy of Northampton, even insisted on entering the 
Battle of Bunker Hill. And the Mohican Indians of Stock- 
bridge served valiantly under their leader, Captain 
Daniel Nimham, as the only Indian tribe enlisted on 
the American side in the Revolution. The unit of 
Mohicans, voted a blanket and a ribbon per man by 
the Provincial Congress meeting in Lexington on April 
1, 1775, marched with other companies to Concord 
later that month. They were also present at Charles- 
town and, afterwards, fought so bravely at White Plains 
that a monument commemorates their valor. 

On the civilian front, Berkshire residents led the 
continuing fight for the cause of constitutional govern- 
ment, gaining for themselves the name "Berkshire 
Constitutionalists." And political figures, such as Caleb 
Strong of Northampton (who eventually became Gover- 
nor of Massachusetts) participated first in the state 
constitutional convention and, later, in the national 
Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. 

Peace and Tranquility Come to the Berkshires 

Following the war and the attainment of inde- 
pendence, the hoped-for peace and tranquility under a 
new government still eluded many of the citizens of 
Western Massachusetts. Farmers who had served in 
battle up until the last shots, in 1781, returned to their 
homes and farms to find high taxes and high mortgage 
payments due. Seeking relief against the action of 
the courts, which they felt ruled unfavorably against 
them, the farmers first rose up in protest against the 
Hampshire County Court in 1782, led by Samuel Ely. 
Repulsed by the militia guard, the men continued to 
express their dissatisfaction. 

In 1786, a three-day convention was held in Hat- 
field to decide what action the aggrieved farmers could 
finally take. The result was Shays' Rebellion, started 
by a group of musket-wielding farmers who attacked 
the County Courthouse in Northampton in August, 
1786. Led by Daniel Shays of Pelham and Luke Day of 
West Springfield, the rebelling forces went on to at- 
tempt an attack on the federal arsenal at Springfield 
in January, 1787. The attempt failed, and Shays and 
his men began their retreat. It ended on a snowy Feb- 
ruary day in Petersham, with General Benjamin Lincoln 
surprising the remaining rebels into surrender. 

Yet the protest that had resounded around the 
Commonwealth was still felt as far away as Virginia. 
George Washington, himself, upon hearing of the re- 
bellion argued that reforms were needed in the new 
government if it ever were to succeed in preventing 
such disarray in the future. "If the Constitution is de- 
fective," he wrote, referring to the turmoil in Massachu- 
setts, "let it be amended, but not trampled upon." 
At the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 
May, 1787, the weak Articles of Confederation finally 
were replaced by a strong Constitution. With the fed- 
eral government eventually assuming payments of the 
farmers' war debts, and relaxing the laws on debtors, 

the issues leading to Shays' Rebellion were put to rest. 
Yet the actions of the Western Massachusetts farmers, 
unwittingly or not, had helped to create a permanent 
legacy in the form of a strong federal Constitution 
and government. 

In the 19th century, the western part of the state 
finally found its long-awaited peace. Hampden County 
split from Hampshire in 1812 and its county seat, 
Springfield, continued to grow as a manufacturing 
center. Mill towns began to flourish in Holyoke and 
Chicopee, spurred on by the welcome addition of 
masses of immigrants in the late 1800's. Franklin 
County was established in 1811, with Greenfield its 
major agricultural and industrial center. Hampshire 
County soon was to become synonymous with higher 
education, with Northampton continuing its traditional 
role as a crossroads of ideas. And the Berkshires, 
with its incomparable scenery at every season of the 
year, became a haven — as it still is today — for writ- 
ers, artists, musicians, actors, theologians, inventors, 

Twentieth-century Western Massachusetts resi- 
dents feel uniquely blessed in living in an area that 
encompasses such extraordinary natural beauty and 
so much commitment to education, the arts, and the 
preservation of the environment. There is a spirit in 
this part of the state that reflects both the deepest 
values of America and Americans and the constant 
need to question, reform and question again. 

For the activity-minded, Western Massachusetts 
has a plan for all seasons and a special project for 
each month. There's apple-picking and maple-sugar- 
ing, the best skiing in the state, and the best foliage- 
viewing. There's music under the stars in the summer 
and in the concert halls in the winter. There are plays 
to see, boats to rent, horse shows to attend, dinosaur 
tracks to explore. There are museums to visit and 
places to tour — and, best of all, there are spots of 
unbelievable beauty that are simply places to dream. 

Berkshire County has a special Bicentennial Co- 
ordinator who can answer all your special questions 
about detailed programs for 1975-1976. Write the Berk- 
shire County Bicentennial, William Miles, Executive 
Director, 107 South Street, Pittsfield, Massachusetts 
01201. For Hampshire County events, write the Hamp- 
shire County Bicentennial Commission, County Court- 
house, Northampton, Massachusetts 01060. 


Mr. John V. Geary, Chairman 

107 South Street 

Pittsfield, Massachusetts 01201 

(413) 443-9187 


Ms. Patricia Fritz 

Charlemont, Massachusetts 01339 

(413) 339-4962 or 625-2104 


Ms. Dorthy Potter, Exec. Dir. 

333 Prospect Street 

Northampton, Mass. 01060 

(413) 586-0321 



Deerf ield: Where the Whigs and the Tories Drank 
on Opposite Sides of the Street 

When word of the Boston Tea Party 
reached Deerfield, most of the people 
in town responded sympathetically to 
the news. But not the Reverend Jona- 
than Ashley, pastor to the Deerfield 
parish for the past 40 years. Showing 
his continued loyalty to the King and 
his repudiation of the patriots' actions 
at Boston Harbor, Ashley held a tea 
party in his own home. The next day, 
he dispatched his son to the Tory par- 
son's home in nearby Greenfield to pre- 
sent a pound of tea to the gentleman's 
wife. In all probability, Ashley then 
stopped by what is now known as the 
Old Indian House, operated at the time 
as a tavern, to report his deeds to Tory 

The majority of Deerfield residents 
would no doubt have been appalled by 
their minister's act. It smacked of open 
defiance of the Whigs' resolution to 
boycott the importation and use of tea 
until the British rescinded both the tax 
on the item and the attempt to control 
its distribution. Chances are, town pa- 
triots gathered at Salah Barnard's tav- 

ern (now the Frary House) to discuss 
how they could help their friends in 
Boston who would bear the British wrath. 
Both the Barnard Tavern, and the Sax- 
ton Tavern across the way, served as 
the meeting places for the Whigs in 
the Deerfield community. As in other 
towns that straddled the main roads 
from Albany to Boston, the weekly ar- 
rival of the post riders brought news 
of increasing tensions between the col- 
onists and their British overseers. Local 
Whigs and Tories lined up against each 
other when they met on the street and 
thrashed out issue after issue in their 
respective meeting places. 

On July 28, 1774, Deerfield patriots 
brought a Liberty Pole into town to be 
set up the next day, flying the Taunton 
Flag that had come to be the symbol 
of the cause. During the night, Tory 
residents assembled secretly and sawed 
the pole in two. Undaunted, young 
Whigs erected another, across from the 
present site of the Deerfield Inn, and 
proudly unfurled the banner reading 

Less than a year later, 50 Minutemen 
from Deerfield and 50 from nearby 
Greenfield, marched towards Boston 
after hearing of the first shots fired at 
Lexington. In June, 1775, Deerfield 
citizen Captain Joseph Stebbins Jr., 
son of one of the richest farmers in 
Hampshire County, led a regiment of 
local Minutemen and other Western 
Massachusetts troops into battle at 
Bunker Hill. War was no longer some- 
thing to be talked about. The Revolu- 
tion was on, and Deerfield men went on 
to participate in battles at Saratoga as 
well as in other engagements. People 
at home again took up the role they 
had played in the French and Indian 
Wars of previous years, that of supplier 
of food and fodder for the troops. In 
the summer of 1775, Colonel Benedict 
Arnold, then still very much on the side 
of the Americans, stopped in Deerfield 
to arrange for food shipments to be 
sent to patriot forces who had recently 
captured Fort Ticonderoga. 

Following independence, the once- 
divided town united to found Deerfield 

Reconstructed in 1929, the Old Indian House can be visited today. The original door is on display at Memorial Hall. 


One of the many authentic buildings in Deerfield is the Wilson Print Shop on Village Street. 

Academy, established in 1797 as a 
place for superior education for both 
boys and girls — an innovative step 
toward equality. (Later the school ac- 
cepted boys only.) At the same time, 
a small museum was planned within 
the main building, making it one of the 
oldest museum structures in the United 
States. When the school moved in 1876 
to new quarters on the other side of the 
Common, the entire old building was 
taken over by the Pocumtuck Valley 
Memorial Association and re-opened as 
Memorial Hall. (April to November, 
daily, 9:30 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Sunday 1:30 
to 5 p.m. Adults $1; children 500.) 

Of particular interest to visitors to- 
day is the original Indian House Door 
which partially withstood the attack on 
the village by the French and Indians in 
1704. On display at the museum, the 
door and some other fragments are all 
that remain of the original home Ensign 
John Sheldon built for his family in 
1698. When the French, under the com- 
mand of Hertel de Rouville, led a band 
of regular soldiers accompanied by 142 
Canadian Indians against the then- 

isolated English settlement of Deerfield, 
even the sturdily-built Sheldon house, 
located within the town's stockade, 
gave in to the constant onslaught by 
tomahawk and gun. At day's end, nearly 
half of the population had been killed, 
and another 112 Deerfield settlers were 
taken captive and marched through the 
snow to Canada. 

The door of the old Sheldon house, 
with its hole in the center, was never 
repaired, probably as a lasting reminder 
of the 1704 massacre. Later serving as 
the Tory tavern run by David Hoyt, the 
house was put up for sale by a Hoyt 
descendent in 1848 who offered the 
building and property for a small sum 
if anyone would promise to maintain 
the building in its historic state. The 
first attempt in this country at historic 
preservation through public subscrip- 
tion, it nevertheless failed to gain 
enough sponsors. The house was photo- 
graphed, and then it was dismantled. 
In 1929, the Old Indian House was re- 
constructed, and the reproduction can 
be visited today. (April to November 
9:30 a.m. to noon and 1 to 5 p.m.; Sun- 

day 1:30 to 5 p.m.; closed Tuesday. 
Adults 750; children 250.) 

Many other houses in the mile-long 
main street can also be toured. In 
1962, Deerfield was named a National 
Historic Landmark and by 1971, could 
boast of having opened 11 different 
museums in the restored houses. In 
addition, the Deerfield Inn, dating from 
1884, was re-established as a working 
inn to support more restortation. 

Every day at 12:30 from May to 
November, there is an introductory slide 
show and talk given by Historic Deer- 
field, Inc., a non-profit foundation, to 
acquaint visitors with the restoration 
projects. Individual entry fees vary from 
$1 to $1.50 per house, each of which is 
filled with treasures and decorative arts 
of the 18th and 19th centuries. (Open 
all year; mid-May to mid-November 
daily, 9:30 a.m. to noon and 1 to 4:30 
p.m.; Sunday 1:30 to 4:30. Hours 
slightly shorter in winter. For more infor- 
mation write to Historic Deerfield, Deer- 
field, MA. 01342.) 

Before leaving Old Deerfield, be sure 
to stop behind the Old Indian House 
at the Bloody Brook Tavern, now used 
as a pottery studio. Dating from the 
mid-18th century, the log house once 
stood in South Deerfield where it de- 
rived its name from a bloody and tragic 
incident in 1675. Not too long after 
the first settlers arrived in Deerfield 
from Dedham, King Philip, chief of the 
Wampanoag Indians in the eastern part 
of the Massachusetts colony, decided 
to wage war against all white men. 
When the arena of battle spread to 
Western Massachusetts, colonial sol- 
diers were sent to guard the towns 
along the Connecticut River. One day 
in September, 1675, when Captain 
Thomas Lothrop of Essex County and 
his company of 84 soldiers and 17 
Deerfield farmers were carrying food 
and supplies from Deerfield to the sol- 
diers in Hadley, they were set upon by 
attacking Indians. People claim King 
Philip had observed them from atop 
Sugarloaf Mountain, and swarmed down 
with a raiding party of about 700, killing 
76 Englishmen along the banks of the 
Muddy Brook. Their blood, so the story 
goes, "made the earth wet and turned 
the unwilling waters red," thus giving 
the area the name Bloody Brook. 

The site of the Deerfield massacre is 
marked by an obelisk in the present 
town of South Deerfield, just a short 
ride away. Picnic facilities are located 
atop Mount Sugarloaf from which the 
view of the valley below is magnificent 
and parallels that of watchful King 
Philip. Go any time of the year to ap- 
preciate the sights and the history. 



Hitting the Trails in Western Massachusetts 

If you visit Western Massachusetts you 
will probably want to spend a number 
of days in each of the four counties, 
Hampshire, Hampden, Franklin and 
Berkshire. Maybe you'd prefer to take 
a day trip to one or two special places 
of interest. Or, perhaps you'd like to 
settle in one place and take side-trips 
from there. Or maybe you'd just like 
to come back again and again. What- 
ever way you plan your visit, there's 
enough to do to keep you busy practi- 
cally every day of the Bicentennial years. 

Whether you start your trip in the 
most western part of the state and 
move eastward, or in the three eastern- 
most counties of the region and move 
westward, this is truly a case in which 
getting there is half the fun. Once you 
take time to get off the turnpike, there 
is a great variety of trails to follow — or, 
with the aid of a road map, you can 
take alternative routes and blaze your 
own path. 

There are so many things to do along 
the trails that it is impossible to mention 
them all in the following pages. So, we 
recommend that you use our sugges- 
tions as guidelines for investigations 
of your own. 

The Berkshire Trail: Route 9 
from Northampton to Pittsfield 

The Berkshire Trail covers approxi- 
mately 40 miles, but it can take you an 
hour, a day or several days, depending 
on how much you want to see. The 
trail starts either in Pittsfield or North- 
ampton and follows Route 9 from 
Hampshire County to Berkshire County 
or vice versa. There are ski areas open 
along the. route in winter and signs for 
maple sugaring in the spring. The foli- 
age is extraordinarily beautiful in the 
fall and, in summer, waterfalls cascade 
down to slate and soapstone ledges 
below, inviting you for a cooling off at 
Cummington's Windsor Jambs, Chester- 
field's Gorge, South Worthington's Cas- 
cades or West Worthington's Falls. 

The town of Haydenville, located be- 
tween Northampton and Williamsburg, 
has a converted old mill along the 
banks of the winding Mill River. It 
houses a sheltered vocational workshop 
for the area's handicapped, and is an 
excellent example of how a resource 
from the past which has outlived its 
usefulness can be made into something 
positive for the present. Passing 

through Williamsburg with its crafts and 
antiques shops, you can stop in Goshen 
for a visit and have a picnic, a walk or 
a swim at the D.A.R. State Forest and 
Camping Grounds. 

Cummington further on as Route 9 
climbs toward the hills, is just a short 
ride from the main road. Picturesque 
and serene, it is easy to understand 
why the Office of War Information 
picked Cummington during World War 
II to be the focus of a movie it sent 
around the world portraying life in a 
small New England village. 

Poet William Cullen Bryant was born 
in Cummington and spent most of his 
early years there. The Bryant Home- 
stead, both a Massachusetts and a Na- 
tional Historic Landmark, is Dutch co- 
lonial and decorated as it was when 
Bryant, at only 16 or 17, wrote Thana- 
topsis. Considered to be the first great 
poem written in America when it was 
published in 1817, the lines reflect the 
poet's reverence for the natural beauty 
around him. (June 15 to October 15, 
daily except Monday, 2 to 5 p.m. Adults 

Into the Berkshires at Windsor, you 

can stop at the Observation Tower and 
look at Mount Greylock, the highest 
mountain in the state. Or you can con- 
tinue on to Dalton, a papermaking cen- 
ter since the beginning of the 19th 
century, to visit the Crane Museum on 
South Street which shows the develop- 
ment of the paper industry. 

The family-owned paper company de- 
veloped a number of interesting uses 
for paper, many of which are on display 
in the small stone museum building 
just behind the factory. They range 
from paper to tighten around bullets, 
developed in the Civil War, to the 
paper-collars of the 1870's, the biggest 
fashion throw-away of the time. A tour 
of the museum takes 45 minutes and is 
a worthwhile history lesson in the de- 
velopment of one Massachusetts in- 
dustry. (June to September, Monday 
through Friday, 2 to 5 p.m. Admission 

The Berkshire Trail from Dalton con- 
tinues into Pittsfield, where you'll want 
to stop to see some of the town's 
places of interest. Be sure, also, to 
continue west on Route 20 to the Han- 
cock Shaker Village (see page 72). 

The Crane Museum in Dalton contains numerous exhibits relating to the history of paper 
manufacturing. On display is an ad from an 1801 edition of the Pittsfield Sun, reporting 
that the mill would buy rags "from every woman who has the good of her country and the 
interest of her own family at heart." 


The Mohawk Trail: 
Route 2 from Orange 
to Williamstown 

You can pick up the Mohawk Trail 
along Route 2 at Orange, or else catch 
it in Greenfield at the intersection of 
Routes 2 and 91, after spending the 
day in Historic Deerfield. This is a trip 
that should definitely not be rushed — 
both for safety in driving and because 
the views commanded are among the 
most spectacular you will ever see. The 
two-lane highway meanders along the 
Deerfield River as it runs north to 
Vermont, cutting into outcrops of rock 
here, a bank of foliage there. Past the 
ski areas and state forests of Shel- 
burne and Shelburne Falls, the trail 
moves on to the town of Charlemont, 
picturesquely hovering on the hillsides 
among flea markets, antique shops and 
souvenir stores that line the road. 

Right before the Mohawk Indian 
Bridge, leading to the park of the same 
name and on into the Mohawk Trail 
State Park, is a sign marking the "Shun- 
pike." Dedicated to travelers in 1797 
who forded the Deerfield River rather 
than pay turnpike tolls at the bridge, 
it is a monument to the Yankee spirit 
of independence that in 1810 finally 
resulted in free travel along the Massa- 
chusetts roads. 

As the Deerfield River branches 
north, the Mohawk Trail arches out of 
the Pioneer Valley and into Berkshire 
County along the Cold River towns of 
Savoy and Florida. The speed limit is 
reduced to 25 or 30 miles per hour, 
but you wouldn't want to go any faster. 
Every turn of the climbing road cuts 
into breathtaking views of huge ever- 
greens rising trom the river like over- 
stuffed upholstery, leveling off for a 
time into stretches of white birch, then 
up again into the plush, green, velvety 

Past the Monroe State Forest and 
Lookout and the Savoy Mountain State 
Forest, the trail starts its descent. Down 
it goes, around sweeping curves over- 
looking the misty valley below, with 
wooded viewing platforms along the 
way. The road hairpins along for a 
mile reaching the penultimate Horseshoe 
Curve semicircling in mid-air, then lead- 
ing down straight to North Adams. 

If you're still in the mood for scaling 
the heights, you can continue up Mt. 
Greylock to the War Memorial. But we 
suggest you stop for a while and catch 
your breath at the restored Windsor 
Mill on Route 2 where the Hoosac Com- 
munity Resource Corporation of North 
Adams has set up a crafts and perform- 
ing arts center. The Visitor's Center at 
the mill can help you plan your time in 

North Adams as well as throughout the 
northern Berkshire area. (See page 
107.) For a look at what's new in the 
city you'll want to wander around the 
newly-restored Monument Avenue His- 
toric District. 

And, for a look at what is as old 
as time itself, go north on Route 8 for 
about a mile and a half to the Natural 
Bridge. The rock formation of the 
bridge has been estimated as being 550 
million years old, formed when deposits 
of underwater seashells were left there 
by marine life. (May 30 to October 30. 
Adults 750; children under 12, free.) 

Further west along Route 2, at the 
end of the Mohawk Trail by the New 
York-Massachusetts-Vermont border is 
the lovely town of Williamstown. The 
archetypical New England college com- 
munity, the town was incorporated in 
1765 in the name of Ephraim Williams 
Jr., who had left money to establish 
a free school that ultimately became 
Williams College. (See page 109.) 

The town has benefitted greatly as a 
cultural center from the presence of 
the college. Its Museum of Arts, on 
Main Street, has a noted collection of 
world art and the Adams Memorial 
Theatre presents student-produced 
plays all during the academic year. 
During the summer months an equity 
company, connected with an apprentice 
school, operates in repertory, attracting 
visitors — and rave reviews — from 
near and far. The Sterling and Francine 
Clark Art Institute, on South Street, 
houses one of the finest collections of 
19th century French and American art 
in the country. It also owns excellent 
Italian, Flemish and Dutch paintings 
from the 14th to 17th centuries, Old 
Master prints and drawings, sculpture 
and English and American silver. The 
museum was built in Williamstown in 
the early 1950's after Mr. and Mrs. 
Clark, who had long resided in Paris, 
decided that the college town pos- 
sessed all the educational advantages 
and natural beauty to foster a fine art 
collection. (Daily except Monday, 10 
a.m. to 5 p.m. Admission free. During 
July and August a 3 p.m. tour is sched- 
uled every day except holidays. Special 
tours are planned for children each 
July 5 and 6, at 10:30 a.m., to coincide 
with the town's Summer Festival, 
sponsored by the Williamstown Board 
of Trade. Bicentennial exhibits are 
being planned by the Clark Art Institute 
for 1975-1976; write for a schedule.) 

Town residents for several years 
have participated in an Integrated Arts 
Curriculum for elementary school chil- 
dren in Williamstown, North Adams and 
Lanesboro, providing ancillary services 
for other Berkshire communities as well. 

As an outgrowth of the program's suc- 
cess in teaching children to appreciate 
art through experiencing it in many 
ways and in many fields, townspeople 
have proposed the establishment of a 
Children's Museum in Williamstown. A 
permanent Bicentennial gift to the en- 
tire Western Massachusetts region, the 
educational museum would be patterned 
after the Boston model which encour- 
ages children to learn visual and lan- 
guage arts through touch, feel, and in- 
volvement with the exhibits. It would 
serve additionally as a resource center 
for the entire area, combining music 
and drama teaching techniques with 
arts and crafts training. 

Each July, the Integrated Arts Project 
sponsors a two-week program for chil- 
dren in grades 2 to 6, scheduled to 
coincide with the Williams Summer 
Institute for families. During the Bi- 
centennial summers, the Children's 
Museum — Integrated Arts Project will 
continue its sessions with a theme de- 
voted to colonial arts. Children from 
everywhere are welcome, so if you plan 
a vacation in the area this is a marvel- 
ous opportunity for your children to 
combine graphic and creative arts 
while learning history. Write to the 
Berkshire Hills Conference, P.O. Box 
1170, Pittsfield 01201, which serves as 
an information clearing house for these 
and other area programs. 

With Williamstown as the terminal 
point of the Massachusetts Mohawk 
Trail, you'll probably want to head 
south along the Hoosic and the Housa- 
tonic Rivers to explore the next trail, 
the Westenhook. 

The Westenhook Trail: A Linear 
Park Through the Berkshires 

A special Berkshire project inaugurated 
in time for the Bicentennial celebration, 
the Westenhook Historic Trail will run 
from north to south (or vice versa) 
along the valley of the Housatonic 
(Westenhook) River. The route was 
originally the path of the Stockbridge 
Indians, later becoming the boundary of 
Dutch feudal manors in the 1600's and 
English settlements in the 1700's. De- 
signed to acquaint visitors to the Berk- 
shires with the history, natural beauty 
and recreational and cultural facilities 
of the region, the modern-day trail will 
follow a line along Routes 8 and 7 from 
North Adams to Ashley Falls. The ribs 
of the trail, however, are as important 
as the main spine, and you are urged 
by all 31 towns that form the Westen- 
hook Trail Association to get off the 
major routes and explore the entire 
area. Maps and details are available 



from the Berkshire Hills Conference, 
P.O. Box 1170, Pittsfield, MA. 01201. 

The following are a few of the high 
points along the trail, mostly those of 
historical interest. They are included 
merely as an indication of the interest- 
ing places that await you. All kinds of 
stops are possible along the trail. There 
are those that include skiing, fishing, 
foliage-viewing or hiking (particularly 
along the Appalachian Trail). Or, you 
can plan your summer tours around a 
concert at Tanglewood in Lenox, a 
dance performance at Jacob's Pillow in 
Becket, a series of musical programs 
in New Marlborough, a baroque con- 
cert at Albert Spaulding's Aston Magna 
near Great Barrington or an evening at 
the theater at the Berkshire Playhouse 
in Stockbridge. 

Devotees of art will want to spend 
time in Williamstown at the Williams 
College Museum of Art and the Sterling 
and Francine Clark Art Institute and 
then go down to Pittsfield to the Berk- 
shire Museum of art, science and local 
history. Other must-sees include the 
residence and study of sculptor Daniel 
Chester French at "Chesterwood," the 
collection of Norman Rockwell paint- 
ings and drawings at the Old Corner 
House in Stockbridge, the Hancock 
Shaker Village west of Pittsfield and 
the Crane Paper Museum in Dalton. 

The literary Berkshires is everywhere 
along the trail, especially in Pittsfield 
where Herman Melville wrote Moby 
Dick in 1850-51 and Longfellow and 
Oliver Wendell Holmes passed their 
summers. Nathaniel Hawthorne's cot- 
tage still stands on the Tanglewood 

grounds in Lenox, and many of 
Catherine Sedgwick's papers can be 
seen at the Lenox Library. Mark Twain 
used to spend time in Monterey and 
Parson Edmund H. Spears, who wrote 
It Came Upon A Midnight Clear, was a 
native of Sandisfield. Novelist Edith 
Wharton summered in the Lenox house 
and gardens she designed herself; 
Shakespearian actress Fanny Kemble 
held a salon in the same town for well- 
known literary figures. More recently, 
contemporary novelists Norman Mailer 
and James Gould Cuzzens have been 
among the hundreds of writers to gain 
inspiration from the Berkshire Hills. 
Longfellow perhaps summed it up best 
when he wrote in a letter: "I have a 
longing for the Berkshires. Let me see if 
I cannot bring my mind into more 
poetic mood by the sweet influence of 
sun and air . . ." 

For a historic ride down the Westen- 
hook Trail, stop in Williamstown and 
North Adams, and then head immedi- 
ately south on Route 8 to the town of 
Adams, first settled in 1762. Entering 
the town from the north, turn right at 
Friend Street, originally the Pontoosuk 
Indian Trail. At the corner of Friend 
and Maple Streets stands the Quaker 
Meeting House, erected in 1782 and 
used until 1840 when many of the 
Quaker members moved further west. 
The one-room structure, with its 
wooden benches and broad-beamed 
floors, has not been changed at all 
since its construction. The interior is 
generally closed to the public, but each 
year on the first Sunday in September, 
at 3 p.m., a meeting for worship is held 


New England cheese was an 
article of outstanding importance in 
trade 173 years ago. On New Year's 
Day in 1802, a Cheddar that weighed 
1235 pounds was presented with 
much eclat to President Thomas Jef- 
ferson while the East Room floor 
supported a great tonnage of digni- 

The cheese was the gift of the 
people of Cheshire, then, as now, 
mainly Democrats. Elder Leland and 
Darius Brown accompanied the gift. 
After the clergyman had made the 
presentation and the cheese had 
been cut with much ceremony, 
Jefferson sent a segment of it back 
to Cheshire with a letter of thanks. 

Elder Leland was selected to make 
the presentation because he had 
been acquainted with James Madi- 
son at the time he was writing the 
Constitution for the new nation. In 

the manuscript Elder Leland found 
no mention of a guarantee of 
religious liberty. This was because 
Madison feared that Massachusetts, 
with a state church, the Puritan 
church, and Virginia, with an estab- 
lished church, the Episcopal Church 
of England, would not accept the 

Elder Leland insisted that the doc- 
ument should include what Madison 
had omitted. By prearrangement 
Madison met Leland just outside of 
Orange, Virginia, at Gum Springs. 
They discussed the matter several 
hours. The clergyman was untiring 
in his demand that the Constitution 
should include religious liberty, free 
speech and a free press. Madison 
finally agreed and after several polit- 
ical devices had been called into 
play the Amendment was adopted. 

(Courtesy of Frank W. Lovering) 

by the Adams Society of Friends 
Descendants. Everyone is then invited 
to attend. 

But even if you're not able to be 
in Adams on that date, stop by the 
Meeting House anyway. The exterior 
itself is worth seeing, and the burial 
ground surrounding it is both pic- 
turesque and touching. Now main- 
tained by the town of Adams, the grassy 
hill in front of the structure contains 
the unknown and unmarked graves of 
the early settlers, buried at a time when 
the Quakers did not use gravestones. 
Further down and around the hill are 
markers from the later 1800's. The story 
of the local Quakers' role in Revolu- 
tionary times is poignantly told by a 
simple plaque inscribed on a large rock, 
a few steps from the Meeting House. 
It reads: "In memory of the members 
and associates of East Hoosack Society 
of Friends who, laying aside their 
religious scruples, took up arms in the 
war for independence in defense of 
their homes." 

Continuing down Maple Street to the 
statue of President McKinley (who used 
to visit an Adams friend), cross over 
Route 8, turning left, and about 100 
feet later, turn right on to Hoosac 
Street. On the corner of Hoosac and 
Summer Street is a lovely Polish Catho- 
lic Church of yellow brick Gothic de- 
sign, built in 1904 around the time large 
groups of immigrants moved to the 
town. Continuing along Hoosac Street, 
turn right at East Street and continue 
for about a half mile to the clapboard 
home in which Susan B. Anthony was 
born on February 15, 1820. The house 
is private, but a plaque marks the site 
which has become a place of pilgrim- 
age for modern-day women who stop to 
honor one of the earliest and most 
important crusaders for women's rights. 

From the Anthony birthplace, it is 
possible to take a back road to the 
town of Cheshire by continuing down 
East Road to Route 116. Turn right at 
Route 116 for three-tenths of a mile to 
Wells Road and left on the Pumpkin 
Hook turn-off. Then continue for four 
miles to Cheshire where a concrete 
Cheddar cheese press is located on the 
right just after you pass the railroad 
tracks crossing into town. The huge 
cheese press commemorates the fact 
that the Elder John Leland, a local 
preacher who lived from 1754 to 1841, 
was able to deliver every vote in the 
town of Cheshire for President Thomas 
Jefferson, despite the fact that almost 
every other Massachusetts pulpit op- 
posed him. In honor of the town's sup- 
port, a huge Cheshire cheese weighing 
1,235 pounds was delivered to Presi- 
dent Jefferson in the East Room of the 



"Resolved that Mankind, in a state 
of Nature, are equal, free, and inde- 
pendent of each other, and have a 
right to the undisturbed Enjoyment 
of their lives, their Liberty and 
Property. " 

Every red-blooded American rec- 
ognizes the familiar ring of the Dec- 
laration of Independence adopted in 
Philadelphia on July 4, 1776. Right? 
Wrong! The above is the first of four- 
teen resolutions "twice Reade dis- 
tinctly" at a town meeting in Shef- 
field, Massachusetts, on January 12, 
1773, and unanimously adopted. 

Just 40 years after their first town 
meeting, a distinguished group of 
inhabitants gathered at the home of 

Col. John Ashley, Sheffield's fore- 
most citizen, to draw up a series of 
resolutions protesting British op- 

Eleven men, "viewing with the 
deepest sorrow the Design of Great 
Britain . . . gradually to deprive us 
of invaluable Rights and priv- 
iledges," drafted a document which 
has long been known in Sheffield as 
the First Declaration of Independ- 

As a matter of cold fact, the 
Sheffield resolutions were not a dec- 
laration of independence at all. 
Rather, the committee started out 
most respectfully in the florid lan- 
guage of the day by "professing, as 
with Truth we do, the most emicol- 
able Regard and Attachment to our 
most gracious Sovereign" and then, 
"with that Deference and Respect 
due to the Country on which we are 
and always hope to be dependent," 
they submitted their fourteen reso- 

lutions, in which the language was 
remarkably similar to that of Jeffer- 
son. Although Sheffieldians like to 
think of their document as a fore- 
runner of the national declaration, 
the truth is that it is highly unlikely 
that the work of the unskilled 
Sheffield scribe ever reached the 
halls of Philadelphia. Both docu- 
ments undoubtedly derived their 
ideas and their phraseology from 
English writers, notably John Locke, 
whose natural-rights philosophy 
prevailed throughout America, Eng- 
land and France. The declaration 
was, nevertheless, a remarkable 
document which is on display in the 
town hall. If you visit Sheffield and a 
resident brings up the subject of the 
Declaration of Independence — you 
would do well to remember that 
today Sheffield residents believe 
that their forebears drafted the First 
Declaration of Independence. 

(Courtesy of Lillian E. Preiss) 

White House on January 1, 1802. 

Back on Church Street to Route 8, 
the Westenhook Trail continues south 
to Dalton and Pittsfield. South of Pitts- 
field, pick up Route 7 to Lenox, Lee, 
and Stockbridge, where guests in the 
Berkshires have stayed quietly and com- 
fortably for many years. Lee is the home 
of the famous lime and marble quarries 
that provided marble for the Capitol 
Building in Washington, D.C. Lenox, the 
home of Tanglewood, is a constant 
mecca for vacationers. During the sum- 
mer music festival in July and August, 
a favorite Saturday morning activity is 
to pack a picnic lunch and head for 
the open symphony rehearsal. For $3 
per person, music lovers of every age 
can sit in the shed or relax on the 
lawn while listening to such eminent 
conductors as Leonard Bernstein or 
Eugene Ormandy lead the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra through a preview of 
an evening or Sunday matinee per- 
formance. The town of Stockbridge, 
one of the earliest Berkshire communi- 
ties, should be the focus of at least a 
whole day of sightseeing. (See page 

South of Stockbridge, the Westen- 
hook Trail leads down to Great Barring- 
ton, site of the first open resistance to 
British rule in 1774. Throughout the 
Bicentennial years, residents of Great 
Barrington and the village of nearby 
New Marlborough will celebrate a 
series of historic re-enactments per- 
taining to the Revolutionary period. 
The town of Great Barrington also has 
an important place in the history of 

the civil rights movement. Once the 
pulpit of abolitionist Dr. Samuel Hop- 
kins, the town also was the birthplace 
of NAACP founder W.E.B. DuBois a 
century later. Plan to visit Great Bar- 
rington in time to hear the noonday 
chimes of the Beineke Carillon in the 
Episcopal Church, and wander down 
the shaded streets that inspired so 
many people to dream and to act. 

Outside of town, off Route 71 on the 
way to Egremont, is the Albert Schwei- 
tzer Friendship House. Established in 
1966, it contains a library for students, 
a screening room for a movie about 
Dr. Schweitzer's work in Lambrene, and 
a place for study and meditation. In 
the town of Egremont, the Free Library 
is getting a facelifting in time for the 
Bicentennial. Built between 1820 and 
1830, the building was subsequently 
used as an academy. It now will house 
an archives room devoted to the history 
of this southern Berkshire town. One of 
the first recorded mixed marriages be- 
tween an Indian and a white in Massa- 
chusetts occurred in Egremont more 
than 200 years ago when John Konka- 
pot Vanguilder married the sister of the 
local tavern owner. 

At the base of the Westenhook Trail 
are the towns of Sheffield and Ashley 
Falls. The land was purchased from the 
Housatonic Indians in 1724, and resi- 
dents from Westfield moved out as 
early as 1725. Colonel John Ashley's 
House is located off Route 7A on a 
170-acre tract of land. Supposedly the 
oldest existing house in Berkshire 
County, the homestead dates from 1735. 

(Memorial Day to Columbus Day, 
Wednesday to Saturday, 1 to 5 p.m. 
Adults $1, children 25(£.) It was here 
that the "Sheffield Declaration of In- 
dependence" was probably drafted in 

A short walk or ride away from the 
Ashley House takes you to another part 
of the reservation, the National Natural 
Landmark known as Bartholomew's 
Cobble. A huge limestone cropping 
formed by glaciers, it contains over 
200 species of plant life, including 40 
different species of ferns. (April 15 to 
October 15 when the warden is on 
duty. Adults $1; children under 12, 

There are two covered bridges in 
the immediate area. Cross over one 
and you'll be on the road to New Marl- 
borough and then to Sandisfield, pur- 
chased from Chief Konkapot in 1739 for 
three barrels of cider and 30 quarts of 
rum. Once a stagecoach stop on the 
Hartford to Albany road in the 18th 
century, the town ceased to be a travel- 
ers' crossroads and financial center 
when the Western Railroad passed it by 
in 1840. Today, Sandisfield and its 
neighboring towns of New Boston and 
Tolland are secreted away in the Berk- 
shires, seemingly content to be out of 
the mainstream of traffic. 

The towns we've mentioned here 
hopefully will encourage you to start 
blazing trails all through Western Mas- 
sachusetts. Stop at local chambers of 
commerce or information centers and 
pick up some trail maps; it's up to you 
to take it from there. 



Chesterwood: The Studio and 
Estate of Daniel Chester French 

Daniel Chester French did not start his 
training as a sculptor until he was 19. 
While fooling around one day in the 
family garden at Concord, the story 
goes, he carved a turnip into a frog. 
The work showed such promise that 
his father went right out and bought 
him 200 pounds of clay with which to 
practice. He also hired artist May 
Alcott ("Amy" in Little Women) to be 
his first teacher. 

French obviously showed a lot of 
talent to everyone else, as well as his 
own father. Just three years after his 
training began, in 1872, family friend 
Ralph Waldo Emerson suggested that 
the young man be commissioned to de- 
sign a statue to be erected in 1875 for 
the centennial of the Concord Fight at 
North Bridge. Using himself, a cast of 
the Apollo Belvedere, and his father's 
hired hand as models, French executed 
the statue of the "Minute Man," one of 
the most famous pieces of American 
sculpture ever made. Before it was 
unveiled to stand permanently in Con- 
cord by Emerson's "rude bridge that 
arched the flood," French departed for 
Europe to pursue further artistic train- 
ing. He returned in 1876 to the acclaim 
of his countrymen. 

Commissions followed rapidly ever 
after. French set up studios in Wash- 
ington, D.C., his native Concord, and 
New York City, producing such well- 
known works as the statue of John 
Harvard in Harvard Yard and busts of 
his mentor Emerson and of Concord 
teacher Bronson Alcott. In 1896, he 
and his wife were vacationing in the 
Berkshires when they were shown a 
150; agre farm for sale within view of 
the Housatonic River and Monument 
Mountain, just a few miles from Stock- 
bridge. Immediately falling in love with 
the idyllic setting, they purchased the 
property as a summer home and named 
it "Chesterwood." 

French's studio and barn have been 
open for viewing since 1955. In 1967, 
the estate was deeded to the National 
Trust for Historic Preservation. Margaret 
Cresson, French's daughter, continued 
to live in the main house until her death 
in 1973 and, since 1974, the house, too, 
has been welcoming visitors. Com- 
pleted in 1901, the home is a two- 
story Georgian Revival structure, de- 
signed by architect Henry Bacon, who 
earlier designed French's adjacent 
studio. Bacon is most well-known for 
his architectural rendering of the Lin- 

coln Memorial in Washington. In fact, 
it was because of Bacon's long friend- 
ship with French, as well as his undis- 
puted talent, that the sculptor was com- 
missioned to do the statue of the 
"Seated Lincoln" that is the focal point 
of the dramatic memorial. 

Visitors touring the house will have 
a chance to observe the family heir- 
looms and American and European an- 
tiques that were collected by the French 
family. The furnishings are basically 
the same as they were at the time 
French died, in 1931, at the age of 81. 
They reflect the exquisite taste and 
demeanor of the man himself. Every- 
thing about him reflected refined ele- 
gance, from the foyer of the studio with 
its Oriental rug and antiques, sculp- 
tured fireplace, and library, to the 
beautiful period gardens which he care- 
fully laid out and interspersed with his 
own castings. 

The work room of the studio is a 
30-foot stucco and frame cube, with 
30-foot double doors to permit huge 
sculptures to be moved with ease. In 
answer to French's need to be able to 
see his works in progress from both in- 
door and outdoor light, architect Bacon 
also designed a railroad track under the 
flooring beneath the modeling table. 
The huge doors could then be opened, 
and the table rolled out, so the current 

effort could be viewed from a different 
perspective. The tracks are still there, 
as are the sculptor's tools and many 
of his working models. Most impressive 
are the huge plaster casts showing 
two different versions of his "Seated 

Children will particularly enjoy the 
"please touch" table in the studio, de- 
signed to acquaint visitors with the 
tools of the sculptor's trade. Behind 
the barn, now used as an exhibition 
gallery, is another invitation to children 
to try their hand at French's art. Piles 
of wet clay are put there daily, inviting 
would-be creators to try their skill. The 
entire estate, from the picnic tables 
and the nature trails to the gardens 
filled with sculpture and the displays 
designed for children, reflects the atti- 
tude of those who run "Chesterwood," 
that art is a part of the environment and 
should not be viewed only in a museum 
setting. (Memorial Day weekend through 
October, daily through September and 
weekends in October; 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
Adults $1, students 500, children 250.) 
Special features of the summer visits 
are demonstrations by a sculptor-in- 
residence and candlelight tours (Mon- 
day and Wednesday in July and August, 
8 to 10 p.m.). Chesterwood is two miles 
west of Stockbridge off Route 183; fol- 
low signs. 

Children are especially welcome at Chesterwood. A "please touch" table offers various 
exhibits explaining the craft of sculpture. Above, a group of young visitors gathers to 
look at the Seated Lincoln, one of French's most famous creations. 


Hoosuck Community Resources Corporation: 
Turning North Adams Around 

The ingredients were simple: an old 
mill no longer in use, a commercial 
street adjoining an urban renewal area, 
a city fighting its way up from years of 
economic decline. What was needed 
was the proper catalyst to blend 
everything into a mixture that could 
utilize the existing resources and open 
up new possibilities, new visions, and 
new jobs. The city of North Adams in 
the northern Berkshires provided the 
basics. The Hoosuck Community Re- 
sources Corporation served as the cata- 
lyst. And the end product promises to 
be a combination of the skills and tal- 
ents of artists and craftsmen, architects 
and educators, business people and 
community leaders, all concerned with 
making North Adams a center for ar- 
tistic and commercial restoration. 

In 1972, a group of citizens from the 
North Adams area joined together to 
set up the non-profit Hoosuck Com- 
munity Resources Corporation, aimed 
at revitalizing the city both physically 
and economically. 

The Corporation's first task was to 
acquire a physical place where its ac- 
tivities could be focused. This was 
accomplished in 1973, with the pur- 
chase of the old 19th century Windsor 
Print Mill, abandoned since the 1960's. 
Located on Route 2 in the center of 
town, right along the Mohawk Trail, the 
mill provided the perfect location for a 
producing and performing arts center 

— and all its spin-off programs — that 
could attract hundreds of visitors to 
the North Adams area. The building 
itself includes 150,000 square feet, sur- 
rounded by a courtyard. It is estimated 
that, once restoration is completed, it 
will be able to house 20 to 30 small 
businesses relating to such historic 
crafts as weaving and woodworking, 
ceramics and metal-work, stained glass- 
making and blacksmithing. 

About 10 percent of the floor space 
will be devoted to activities related to 
the performing arts. Plans call for the 
construction of a large multi-purpose 
theatre and a smaller auditorium for 
dance performances and other musical 
and theatrical events. A resident dance 
and theatre company are part of the 
future program. 

One of the most important parts of 
the entire project is the establishment 
of the Guild School, providing training 
in craft skills on a number of levels. 
These range from instruction for pre- 
school children as part of a compre- 
hensive day care program, to courses 
designed to help the elderly and the 
handicapped citizens of North Adams 
re-enter the economic market. 

The Windsor Mill restoration will 
probably continue through the end of 
1976, but even before completion, the 
mill will serve as a Visitors Center for 
the entire region. Staffed by the Cham- 
ber of Commerce, the center will con- 

duct tours through the mill and the 
town. It will also facilitate touring ar- 
rangements all over the northern Berk- 
shires area. 

Only a short walk from the Mill is the 
Eagle Street Restoration Project, an- 
other operation of the Hoosuck Corpo- 
ration. Designated as a nationally rec- 
ognized Historic District, the 19th 
century commercial and residential 
area is in the process of being revital- 
ized. An extensive program of exterior 
renovation is being combined with a 
plan designed to introduce a pedestrian 
mews connecting Eagle Street and the 
historic Monument Square area. A stroll 
around the business district offers a 
view of a transformation that is both 
aesthetically exciting and economically 
encouraging. It is easy to see why 
North Adams has recently been de- 
clared an All-American City by the Na- 
tional Municipal League. 

The Hoosuck Community Resources 
Corporation is an outgrowth of the 
city's resolve to look to its own capa- 
bilities, its own location, its own his- 
tory, and its own talents in order to 
turn itself around. The projects con- 
ceived in time for the Bicentennial will 
be of benefit to the entire area for many 
years to come. As such, they uniquely 
combine all three national goals of the 
country's celebration: festival, heritage, 
and horizon. 



Stockbridge: Name-dropping in the Berkshires 

John Sergeant first came to the Berk- 
shire wilderness in 1735 to serve as 
missionary to the Housatonic Indians 
and ever since, the town of Stockbridge 
has boasted of distinguished visitors 
and residents. Each seems to have left 
some important mark on the area, a 
mark which the townspeople are eager 
to share. In summer, local school chil- 
dren conduct tours along Main Street 
pointing out some of the fascinating 
history and relating folklore on just a 
few short blocks. The tour starts at the 
Stockbridge Library and takes about 
one hour. (July and August, Thursday 
through Saturday. Admission 50(4.) 

If you're visiting in Stockbridge when 
the tours are not scheduled, stop by 
the Historical Room in the library and 
get a mimeographed copy of some of 
the places you should look for on your 
own walk. It's worth spending some 
time in the Historical Room, anyway, 
to see its collection of Indian relics and 
memorabilia pertaining to some of 
Stockbridge's most noted citizens. 
Also in the room's vast archives of 
Berkshire history is a list of men from 
the region who served, under the com- 
mand of Colonel John Paterson, in the 
Continental Army during the Revolu- 
tionary War. Along with the names of 
former Englishmen is a list of 59 Stock- 
bridge Indians who, commanded by 
Daniel Nimham, were the only native 
Americans to fight as a tribe during 
the War of Independence. In 1774, 
delegates from various Berkshire 
County towns had met in Silas Pepoon's 
tavern in Stockbridge (now the Red 
Lion Inn on Main Street) to protest the 
use of articles imported from England. 
Responding to the Intolerable Acts im- 
posed by Parliament, local citizens re- 
solved to support the patriot cause. 
This resolve was in effect when war 
broke out, and it is said that Stock- 
bridge sent more men to fight in the 
Revolution than in any war since. 

The Historical Society has expanded 
its collection to the Old Corner House 
across the street from the library. A 
late 18th century Georgian home, it was 
recently restored by local residents to 
preserve the history of the past and the 
art of the present. (Daily except Tues- 
day, Thanksgiving, Christmas and New 
Year's, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Adults $1; 
children under 12, 250.) 

Among the many items of historical 
interest on display is the portrait of 
Agrippa Hull, done by an unidentified 
artist in 1848 after an earlier daguerro- 
type. Hull, a black man, was born in 
Northampton in 1759 and brought to 

Stockbridge as a youngster by a former 
servant of Jonathan Edwards. Hull en- 
listed in Colonel Paterson's brigade in 
1777 as one of a number of blacks who 
served in the Berkshire Company. After 
two years, he became orderly to Polish 
hero General Tadeusz Kosciuszko. The 
friendship between the two men con- 
tinued long after the close of the war. 
Other exhibits at the Old Corner 
House pertain to the famous clerics 
who have lived in Stockbridge from 
the time of John Sergeant and Jonathan 
Edwards in the 18th century to David 
Dudley Field in the 19th and Reinhold 
Niebuhr in the 20th. Periodic displays 
also feature memorabilia from the fa- 
mous Field family of Stockbridge whose 
descendants still live in the town. The 
Reverend Field had six sons, including 
Cyrus Field, who helped lay the first 
trans-Atlantic cable and consequently 
arranged for the first message from 
Europe to be sent to Stockbridge. Son 
Stephen Field was appointed to the 
U.S. Supreme Court by President Lin- 
coln, and still another son, David Jr., 
was noted for his work in legal reform. 
Grandson Stephen Dudley Field invented 
the first trolley car, had it built in Stock- 
bridge, and then contributed money to 
a fund to keep tracks off the main 
street of his beloved town. 

On permanent exhibition is a collec- 
tion of original paintings by Norman 
Rockwell, including his famous "Four 
Freedoms," first published in the Satur- 
day Evening Post in 1943. 

Two houses in Stockbridge have 
been declared National Historic Sites: 
Naumkeag and the Mission House. 
Naumkeag was the estate of the late 
Joseph Choate who served as U. S. 
Ambassador to Great Britain. Designed 
in 1885 by Stanford White, the house 
is furnished with fine Victorian antiques 
and is landscaped with formal gardens. 
(Summer months, daily except Monday, 

10 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. Admission $1.50; 
gardens only 750.) 

Ambassador Choate's daughter, Miss 
Mabel Choate, inherited her father's 
love of history and love for the town. 
In 1931, in memory of her parents, she 
had the old Mission House on Prospect 
Hill moved to Main Street where it 
could be toured by the public. 
(Memorial Day to October 15, daily ex- 
cept Monday, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Sunday 

11 a.m. to 4 p.m. Adults $1; children 
under 14, 250.) 

The Mission House, considered in the 
1700's very elaborate for a salaried 
man in a wilderness town, was built by 
John Sergeant. After his marriage to 

Abigail Williams, whose family came to 
Stockbridge in 1738, Sergeant's life be- 
came a bit more elegant. Abigail had 
the carved wooden door brought from 
Connecticut, and the furniture was of the 
finest Queen Anne style of the day. The 
walls of the house were stained with a 
mixture of egg yolk, buttermilk, and 
brick dust to obtain the proper hue. 

Several of the original items owned 
by the Sergeants are on display in the 
house today, including the Bible given 
to the Indians in 1745. John Sergeant 
and Abigail are buried in the old burial 
ground down the block. 

The family plot of 18th-century lawyer 
and statesman Theodore Sedgwick also 
occupies a prominent place in the 
cemetery. Sedgwick was a young at- 
torney in Stockbridge in the 1780's when 
Mum Bett (nee Elizabeth Freeman), a 
runaway slave, asked him to help her 
claim her liberty under the Bill of Rights 
of the new Massachusetts Constitution. 
She had worked as a slave until one 
day having been struck and scarred, 
she ran away. Mum Bett sought Sedg- 
wick's help soon after the warrant for 
her return was issued. She had heard 
some men talking about the new law 
which said everyone was born free and 
equal, and she wanted that law to 
apply to herself as well. Sedgwick took 
the case, successfully defending her 
fight for freedom against Colonel Ash- 
ley, her former employer. In 1781, the 
Colonel was ordered by the Great Bar- 
rington Court to pay 30 shillings in 
damages to the former slave. 

The Bill of Rights to abolish slavery 
was thus established in Massachusetts, 
and Mum Bett went as a free person 
to be housekeeper to the Sedgwicks 
for many years. She is buried in Stock- 
bridge with her adopted family. 

Summer visitors to Stockbridge are 
offered a special treat merely by walk- 
ing through the town around 5:30 p.m. 
Every evening at this time the Field 
Children's Chimes are ringing. Erected 
by David Dudley Field Jr. in 1879, they 
were meant to be played at sunset each 
day "from apple blossom time to frost." 


Crossroads of Ideas: 

Education in 

Hampshire County 

In 1775, before Hatfield native Colonel Ephraim Wil- 
liams Jr., went out to do battle in the French and 
Indian War, he wrote a will leaving a sizable sum of 
money to establish a free school in Western Massachu- 
setts. On September 8, 1755, Williams was caught in 
an ambush on the shores of Lake George, and died 
shortly thereafter. His will had suggested that the 
school be established somewhere west of Fort Massa- 
chusetts (Fort Hoosac) where the colonel was sta- 
tioned, provided that the area be given the name 
Williams Town. 

Colonel Williams had designated his cousin Israel 
Williams to be one of the executors of the trust. In 
1762, Israel decided it was high time that something 
was done with the money, something perhaps a bit 
more ambitious than his relative had anticipated. In 
that year he brought together such Hampshire County 
leaders as John Worthington, Oliver Partridge, Joseph 
Hawley, the Reverend Jonathan Ashley and several 
other ministers to establish a corporation designed to 
bring a "Queen's College" to the Western county using 
funds, in part, from Ephraim's estate. Ashley, Par- 
tridge and Worthington had attended Yale, and the 
latter, especially, was very much opposed to the liber- 
ality of Harvard, the only school then offering higher 
education in Massachusetts. Worthington, who was 
such a strict Sabbath-keeper that he didn't even allow 
a bed to be made on Sundays, was aghast that at Har- 
vard many activities went on seven days a week. 

Led by Israel Williams, who himself had gone to 
Harvard, the men journeyed to Boston to present their 
application to the General Court. 

But it was all to no avail. Even though the royal 
representative in Massachusetts, General Bernard, fav- 
ored the plan, his Council sided with the view of the 
Harvard overseers that the granting of a charter to a 
college in the West would be "greatly prejudicial to 
Harvard." The province of Massachusetts simply could 
not support two colleges, they argued, even if the new 
one did not have university powers. 

After the set-back to the cause of higher educa- 
tion in Hampshire County, residents of West Hoosac 
in newly-formed Berkshire County decided not to take 
any chances of losing Ephraim's legacy. In 1765, when 
the town was incorporated, it carefully chose the name 
Williamstown, pursuant to the will's instructions. In 
1791, a secondary school known as Williams Academy 

was founded with the endowment and, two years later, 
it reorganized as Williams College. Western Massachu- 
setts finally had its own school of higher education, 
though Hampshire County residents still had to wait 
until 1821, with the founding of Amherst College, to 
get a college of its own. It was then that such men 
as Noah Webster, of dictionary fame, and Samuel 
Fowler Dickinson, grandfather of poet Emily, got to- 
gether to start an independent liberal arts college. 
Originally, it was intended for "the education of indi- 
gent young men of piety and talents for the Christian 
ministry" (preferably as missionaries). Nevertheless, 
Amherst College received a charter from the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts, in 1825, in which any test 
of religion for students and teachers was prohibited. 

Shortly afterward, in 1837, the Connecticut River 
Valley added still another educational institution to its 
midst. This time, even more daring than the establish- 
ment of schools such as Amherst and Williams "way 
out west," the school that was started was intended 
for the higher education of women. Mary Lyon, 
native of the small Franklin County town of Buckland, 
had worked diligently against extraordinary odds to 
receive an education of her own. It was a time when, 
as one Massachusetts town admitted, females were 
considered "a tender and interesting branch of the 
community much neglected in the public schools." 
Miss Lyon devoted her life to making up for this ne- 
glect, despite the ridicule and indifference that greeted 
her as she attempted to raise money for her project, a 
school for girls "comparable to Harvard and Yale for 
the young men." Starting with the first contributions 
from housewives in Ipswich where she taught school, 
her massive fund-raising efforts led to the founding 
of "Mount Holyoke Female Seminary" in South Hadley. 

Though the seminary did not receive its charter 
as a college until 1888, a year before it was renamed 
Mount Holyoke College, it had clearly established the 
precedent of higher education for women, making the 
institution the oldest continuing school of its kind in 
the United States. 

About the time that education for women was 
becoming an established fact in Hampshire County, 
another educationally revolutionary movement was 
underfoot to combine academic studies with the sci- 
entific improvement of agriculture. In 1826, Theodore 
Sedgwick of Stockbridge had issued a study to the 
Massachusetts legislature, calling for a school with 
utilitarian training and an experimental farm, the fore- 
runner of the land-grant college proposals of 40 years 
later. But the recommendation did not receive funding. 

A number of years passed, and finally the General 
Court reached a decision to establish a Massachusetts 
Agricultural College. The school opened in 1867 in the 
town of Amherst, with local citizens supplying the 
money for buildings. 


Later, in 1931, it became the Massachusetts State 
College, greatly broadening its curriculum to answer the 
demand of the urban industrial population and labor 
movement that urged low-cost college education for all 
the qualified students in the Commonwealth. By 1947, 
following the end of World War II, the General Court 
passed a bill to expand the college into the University 
of Massachusetts. Since that time, the university has 
grown enormously both in numbers and prestige. 

Northampton by the mid-1800's had become well- 
known as a center for innovative social and educational 
ideas. Many gifts of public buildings, charitable trusts 
and even the Clarke School for the Deaf had been given 
to the town. But the most famous gift of all was Sophia 
Smith's grant of her entire fortune to found a college 
for women in Northampton. A resident of Hatfield 
(where Miss Smith's homestead on Main Street can be 
visited by the public), Sophia's money came from her 
brother, Austin, who left his fortune to her to do with 
as she wished. Largely influenced by her pastor, John 
M. Greene, she set up Smith College, which became the 
first women's college to be chartered in New England. 
(Vassar in New York State had been chartered in 
1861.) Fourteen students from six states assembled in 
the chapel on September 16, 1875, to mark the col- 
lege's opening. 

By the turn of the 20th century, college life in 
Hampshire County was an essential part of the pulse- 
beat of the Connecticut River towns. Attractive to 
scholars, writers and thinkers from all over the country, 
the area also managed to keep in residence some of the 
recent graduates of the surrounding schools. These 
included Amherst graduate Calvin Coolidge, who settled 
in Northampton to practice law in the 1890's. As 
mayor of the city in 1910, he went on to become 
governor of Massachusetts in 1919, Vice President of 
the United States under Warren Harding in 1920 and, 
following Harding's death in 1923, 30th President of 
the United States. 

Since the 1930's, the colleges in Hampshire County 
have conducted informal student and faculty exchanges. 
In 1951,. the first formal cooperative arrangement 
established the Hampshire InterLibrary Center. Co- 
ordinated academic programs, in many fields, on both 
the undergraduate and graduate levels continued 
through the 1950's, culminating in the decision to 
establish a fifth college in the area which could take 
advantage of the existing resources of the other four. 
Hampshire College, founded in 1965, was the out- 
growth of that decision. Located in the town of Amherst 
on the road to South Hadley, the new college admitted 
its first class in the fall of 1970. And Five-College co- 
operation has increased and expanded even more. 
Bicentennial Programs 

Of particular interest to visitors coming to Hamp- 
shire County during the Bicentennial years is the cen- 
tennial celebration at Smith College. Special exhibits 
will be presented both at the new Fine Arts Center 

and at the library, featuring photographs of Smith then 
and now. Hatfield Hall will display period rooms show- 
ing the college's history, and the excellent collection of 
papers of distinguished women, including Margaret 
Sanger, will be exhibited in the Sophia Smith Archives. 
Bordering on the pond called "Paradise" after Jenny 
Lind's rapturous description, the campus offers a col- 
lection of trees of all species, a botanic garden, and a 
greenhouse which welcomes guests all year round. 

Mount Holyoke College, with 1900 students and 
an 80 acre campus, also is eager to welcome visitors 
to its campus any time of year. In honor of the nation's 
200th birthday, the Mount Holyoke College Laboratory 
Theatre will devote its entire production schedule in 
1975 and 1976 to American plays representing the his- 
tory of American theatre. The Art Gallery, which is 
open all summer long, will feature an exhibition of 
American paintings showing the history or the taste of 
collectors over the past 200 years. Starting in May, 
1975, the show will run until autumn, 1976. 

Amherst College, with 1300 students, is proud of 
its association with such leading American poets as 
Emily Dickinson and Robert Frost. A visit to the col- 
lege can reacquaint you with both, starting with a look 
at the collection of Frost manuscripts and memorabilia 
at the Frost Library. Emily Dickinson's home was pur- 
chased by the College in 1965, a year after it was 
designated a national historical site. Her birthplace 
and her home for most of her life, the residence can be 
visited by appointment each Tuesday from 3 to 5 p.m. 
(Call the Office of the Secretary at Amherst College, 
(413) 542-2321, to make arrangements.) On the 
campus, two museums are open to the public. The 
Pratt Museum houses one of the world's finest collec- 
tions of dinosaur tracks, and dinosaur and other ver- 
tebrate specimens. The Mead Art Museum contains 
notable contemporary and classical collections. 

The University of Massachusetts is offering a wide 
range of Bicentennial courses in its Department of 
Continuing Education, ranging from the history of the 
Pioneer Valley to a course in colonial beermaking. The 
many-faceted University Arts Council will continue its 
series of orchestral and chamber music, dance and 
Third World presentations throughout 1975, culminat- 
ing in the fall with the opening of a new Fine Arts 
Center. For program dates, write to Frederick Stein- 
way, Director, Fine Arts Center, University of Massa- 
chusetts, Amherst, or call (413) 545-0444. 

Visitors to the five college area should also plan 
to stop at Hampshire College for a look at the very 
essence of modernity in a college campus. Modular 
housing and well-designed classroom buildings inter- 
mingle with the old red barn and other vestiges of the 
farm that existed on the property a scant ten years ago. 
Tours of Hampshire, as well as each of the other 
schools, can be arranged by calling the Information 
Center at each college. LJ 




New settlers in Plymouth and the Massachusetts Bay 
Colony gradually began to move westward, attracted 
either by the desire for more farmland or by the possi- 
bilities for establishing missions among the Indians. 
In some cases, such as the Ipswich dissidents who 
went to the Quaboag Plantation (now the Brookfields) 
in 1665 or the Scotsman who was banished by Oliver 
Cromwell and founded Carlisle in 1650, the primary 
motive was simply the need to get away from one's 
neighbors. This "westward" Central Massachusetts 
area encompasses what is now Worcester County, the 
largest county in the Commonwealth, much of Middle- 
sex County, and some of Hampden County. Middlesex 
communities sprung up in the 1600's, with settlements 
in places such as Framingham, Concord, Sudbury, 
Groton, Wayland, and Weston becoming early farming 
centers as well as frontier outposts. 

For a time, after 1650, these communities existed 
side by side with the "Praying Indian" villages, estab- 
lished by preacher John Eliot as homes for the Chris- 
tian Indians converted by him and a few helpers. Eliot 
was an Englishman who came to America in 1631, 
learned the Algonquian language of the eastern Ameri- 
can tribes, translated both the New and the Old Testa- 
ments into Algonquian, and managed to convert more 
than a thousand Indians — mostly from the Massachu- 
setts and Nipmuck tribes — and settle them in their 
own Christian communities. The first and largest of 
these was the Natick Plantation, established in 1651, 
followed soon after by settlements in Tewksbury, Acton, 
Marlborough, Littleton and Uxbridge. By 1674, there 
were more than 14 of these villages, each self- 
governing to an extent and each with its own school. 

Loss of Land Frightens Indians 

Settlements by Englishmen further west in the 
central part of the colony away from a major waterway, 
were more sporadic in those earliest years. Yet small 
communities did exist in such Central Massachusetts 
places as Lancaster, founded in 1643, and the Brook- 
fields, where John Eliot first visited the Quabaug In- 
dians in 1655. In 1661, at the time of the death of 
Chief Massasoit of the coastal Wampanoags, who had 
been a true friend of the white men upon their arrival 
at Plymouth, the prospects for expanded settlement 
seemed like an attractive and fairly safe idea. But by 
the 1670's this growing movement into the interior 
began to be viewed with alarm by King Philip, son of 
Massasoit. It was his feeling that land had been taken 
unfairly from the Indians who never really were made 
to understand the concept of land ownership as inter- 
preted by a white man. Fearing that the loss of terri- 
tory meant that the Indians would soon be displaced 
forever by the colonists, King Philip brought together 

his own Wampanoags with Pocassets, Nipmucks, 
Sakonnets, and even his old enemy, the Narragansetts, 
to wage war against the settlers. 

In 1675 the fighting broke out in Swansea (near 
Fall River) and, within a short time, it had spread to 
communities across the Bay Colony. The Connecticut 
River Valley towns of Deerfield and Northfield were 
terrorized and abandoned, and the central Massachu- 
setts settlements of Brookfield, Lancaster, and Groton 
similarly were wiped out. Even the '"Praying Indian" 
towns were considered suspect, and the Christian con- 
verts were forced to migrate without food or shelter to 
centers where they could be watched. Within a year, 
at least half of the 90 English settlements in New Eng- 
land that existed at the time of the war's beginning 
had been struck by Indian raiders, and casualties were 
high. Yet no one could be victorious. After defection 
by the Sakonnet tribe. Philip's own wife and son were 
captured in a raid and sold into slavery. King Philip 
was shot to death in August, 1676, thus bringing to a 
close the first real attempt by an Indian alliance to turn 
back the tide of colonization. 

Resettled Towns Destroyed Again 

Most of the residents of the "Praying Indian" vil- 
lages had been dispersed so far afield during the war, 
and under such awesome conditions, that the large 
majority of them never returned. The towns were slowly 
reoccupied by English settlers who also began branch- 
ing out into other areas such as Townsend, settled in 
1676, Boxborough, founded in 1680, and Oxford, where 
land was purchased from the Nipmucks in 1682. Hard- 
ships were continual, especially toward the latter part 
of the 17th and early part of the 18th century. It was 
then that the French, in Canada, began to offer local 
Indians a reward if they would help France's cause 
in its European war with the English by destroying 
England's settlements in America. Towns such as Lan- 
caster, destroyed by King Philip, were rebuilt only to 
be burned again in 1696 and in 1704 by Canadian war- 
riors. Groton, too, destroyed in 1675 and rebuilt shortly 
thereafter, again had to defend itself against Indian 
attacks in 1694 and 1707. 

Despite all these trials and tribulations, nothing 
could stop the colonists from securing a foothold in 
Central Massachusetts. Though temporarily deterred 
by the events of Queen Anne's War (the portion of the 
French and Indian Wars spanning 1702-1713), Worces- 
ter settlers established a permanent community in 1712. 
The town now known as Oxford was settled in 1713. In 
rapid succession, other communities sprang up, in- 
cluding Auburn in 1714, Shirley in 1720, Shrewsbury 
in 1722, Fitchburg in 1730, and Athol, settled by the 
son of the Duke Of Atholl in 1735. Continued on page 112 


Americans f- — Liberty or Death !-«Join or Die ! 

Or, American ORACLE ot Liberty. 

Vol V 

\V HUCKSTER, Wednesday* Mat 5, 177/j. 

i\unR. a 1 <), 

The Massachusetts Spy, an important political publication, pleaded the cause of the Revolution throughout its history, from 1770 to 
1776. Publisher Isaiah Thomas, responsible for a number of anti-British pamphlets, was forced by the Tories to leave Boston and flee 
to Worcester. There he continued to operate his pro-Revolutionary publishing activities for a number of years. 

By the time of the Revolutionary War, Central 
Massachusetts communities dotted the landscape, and 
towns such as Brookfield and Sturbridge served as 
major rest spots for the stage coaches and Conestoga 
wagons that headed south and west on the "great 
thoroughfare." Several of the old inns in these towns 
still exist today, reminders of a time when townspeo- 
ple flocked to their public rooms to hear travelers give 
news of the big cities. Other reports came from the 
magazines and political pamphlets that circulated 
throughout New England and the rest of the colonies. 

The century following America's independence 
from Great Britain saw the larger cities and towns of 
Central Massachusetts turn from agricultural centers 
to industrial and commercial complexes. Much of this 
industrialization was made possible through the in- 
ventions of the region's own native son, Eli Whitney, 
born in 1765 in Westborough. Through his develop- 
ment of the cotton gin and his discovery of a way to 
make interchangeable firearm components, many in- 
dustries could apply these same principles and meth- 
ods to more efficient production. 

Though many parts of Central Massachusetts saw 
farms replaced by factories as the 19th and 20th cen- 
turies moved on, the region still has managed to retain 
a bucolic charm all its own. The present-day traveler 
speeding along the Massachusetts Turnpike need only 
get off the road, going north or south, to discover the 
hundreds of lakes and woods, state forests, camping 
grounds, wildlife management areas, and well-stocked 
waters for inland fishing that abound in the central 
part of the Commonwealth. Go out on your own and 

find the many unexpected pleasures the region has 
to offer at any time of the year. 

You'll find out-of-the-way towns with lovely village 
greens untainted by the years. Back roads around 
Quabbin Reservoir, the largest man-made recreation 
area in the state, can take you to restful spots with 
unforgettable views of the pastoral scene. Side roads 
throughout the region introduce you to acres and acres 
of blossoms in the spring and ready-for-harvesting 
apples in the fall. Certain orchards allow you to par- 
ticipate in the picking, along with the regulars, right 
in the shadow of the spot (around Leominster) where 
John Chapman, "Johnny Appleseed" himself, was born 
at the end of the 18th century. So get off the turnpike 
and start your wandering through Central Massachu- 
setts. It may be days, or even weeks, before you want 
to find the next toll booth. 

For literature and information on Central Massa- 
chusetts, stop at one of the following offices run by 
the Massachusetts Tourist Council: 



Mrs. Jean Connelly, Office Manager 

Mechanics Tower — Suite 350 

100 Front Street 

Worcester, Massachusetts 

(617) 753-2924 


Mr. John Archmoody 

Old Sturbridge Village 

Sturbridge, Massachusetts (617) 347-3362 



Through Every Middlesex Village and Farm 

Neither Paul Revere nor his horse were 
able to sound the alarm in "every Mid- 
dlesex village and farm" in order to 
warn the patriots that the British were 
marching towards Concord. When Re- 
vere, accompanied by William Dawes 
and Dr. Samuel Prescott, passed from 
Lexington to Lincoln, he was stopped 
by a British patrol, thus putting an end 
to his midnight ride of the 18th of April, 
1775. Revere was captured, Dawes fled, 
and only Dr. Prescott was able to carry 
the message on to the Concord militia- 
men. History does not record the story 
of how the word of the British advance 
was carried on past Concord to such 
other Middlesex communities as Acton, 
Bedford, Reading, Littleton, Woburn, 
Sudbury, Groton, to name just a few. 
Nor does poetry shed much light on 
the events. But the fact of the matter 
is that someone managed to get through 
to the waiting Minutemen and, within 
hours of the dawn shootings at Lexing- 
ton Green, companies of men were 
marshaling on their respective town 

Before the events of April 19th had 
passed forever into history's memory, 
troops of patriots from the surrounding 
towns joined the citizens of Concord 
and Lincoln and succeeded in pushing 
the British, wounded in body and spirit, 
back to Boston. The costs were high 
for the Minutemen as well. But the 
shot "heard round the world" at North 
Bridge in Concord committed them to 
a cause that would not be resolved 
until every British soldier had left the 
shores of America. 

A visit to the towns surrounding 
Concord gives ample evidence of the 
lasting contribution made by local citi- 
zens to the fight for freedom and inde- 
pendence. For instance, the "flag to 
April's breeze unfurled," memorialized 
by Ralph Waldo Emerson in his poem, 
Concord Hymn, first sung at the com- 
pletion of the Battle Monument in 1837, 
is the Bedford flag. Carried by Cor- 
net Nathaniel Page at the fight at Con- 
cord Bridge, the banner is now pre- 
served and proudly displayed at the 
Bedford Public Library. In nearby 
Acton, a monument on the town green 
honors Captain Isaac Davis, the first 
American to die at Concord when 400 
provincials, captained by Major John 
Buttrick, attempted to cross the cause- 
way leading to "the rude bridge that 
arched the flood." Advised to hold 
their fire, the Americans were struck 
first by British volleys. Captain Davis 

lay mortally wounded as his compan- 
ions rallied and returned the shots. 
Littleton's Liberty Square was the drill- 
ing ground for its Minutemen, and 
markers distributed throughout the area 
commemorate the heroic actions of 
the townsmen who joined the battle. 
Obviously, any trip to honor the patri- 
ots who stood up to the British at Lex- 
ington and Concord could well include 
a stop at some of these other towns 
where the response of the citizens was 
vital to the success of that most mem- 
orable day. 

Minute Man National Historical Park 
in Concord, administered by the U.S. 
Department of the Interior, has for many 
years been the focal point of pilgrim- 
ages to the site of the battle that 
launched the American Revolution. 
Comprised of 750 acres in three units, 
the park includes stops at Fiske Hill 
for a picnic or an interpretive walk 
(daily, weather permitting, 8 a.m. to 
sunset) and a Battle Road Information 
Station (Monday through Friday, 8 a.m. 
to 5 p.m.), located on Route 2A on the 
road traversed by the British as they 
marched on from Lexington to Concord. 
Further on down the same road, the 
park's second unit is at The Wayside, 
once the residence of the Alcott's, Na- 
thaniel Hawthorne, and Margaret Sid- 
ney. The home honors the period in 
the 19th century when Concord was 
the center for literary and philosophical 
ideas. (June through August, daily, 10 
a.m. to 5:30 p.m.; April, May, Septem- 
ber and October, Thursday through 
Monday. Adults 750; children under 16, 
free.) The third unit is at the North 
Bridge where archaeological excava- 
tions and sites marked by tape re- 
cordings and diagrams interpret the 
events of April 19, 1775. The world- 
famous statue of the Minuteman by 
Daniel Chester French stands at the 
foot of the causeway leading to the 
bridge where once echoed the cry: "If 
we die, let us die here." 

Concord native Ralph Waldo Emerson 
penned the words of poetry carved 
upon the statue. Grandson of the Rev- 
erend William Emerson who, from his 
pulpit, strongly advocated resistance 
to the British, Emerson grew up at The 
Old Manse, in the very shadow of the 
spot where his grandfather joined "the 
embattled farmers" in their fight. Cam- 
bridge poet James Russell Lowell con- 
tributed the sensitive lines etched upon 
the gravestone of British soldiers who 
fell alone in battle in a strange land: 

"They came 3,000 miles and died, to 
keep the past upon its throne. . ." 

In anticipation of the Bicentennial 
celebration, the National Park Service 
has plans to construct a new Visitors 
Center which is scheduled to open 
along Route 2A in late summer, 1975. 
Intended to be the prime focal point 
for exhibits and audio-visual programs, 
the center will show a continuous film 
re-creating the Revolutionary history 
of the area. At the time of this writing, 
discussions were underway to estab- 
lish a park and ride service for tourists 
wanting to tour the Lexington-Lincoln- 
Concord area. If the program is devel- 
oped for 1975, cars can be parked at 
Hanscom Field and buses will then de- 
part regularly for all the attractions 
along the Minuteman route. Signs for 
parking will be well-marked and, as 
this is a very heavily-trafficked route at 
all times of the year, visitors are urged 
to use the bus service. (For specific 
information about extended hours at 
Minute Man Park, special concerts and 
programs, and possible new transpor- 
tation services, call (617) 369-6993.) 

Visitors to Middlesex County should 
also take advantage of the opportunity 
to visit the headquarters of the Massa- 
chusetts Audubon Society, Drumlin 
Farm, on Route 117 in Lincoln. A real 
working farm situated on 220 acres, it 
has a collection of native birds and 
animals as well as those expected to be 
found on a farm. The farm's primary 
purpose is educational, demonstrating 
proper care of animals, crops, and the 
environment. Slide shows are pre- 
sented frequently and special programs 
can be arranged for visiting school 
groups. (Daily except Monday, 9 a.m. 
to 5 p.m. Adults $1, children 500; 
Audubon Society members free.) 

Another attraction for tourists in Mid- 
dlesex County is Sudbury, a town suffi- 
ciently proud of its history to merit a 
matching grant from the State Bicen- 
tennial Commission to help establish 
a "Heritage Park." Almost one-fourth 
of its total population in 1775 served 
with the patriotic forces fighting for 
independence. The town continued to 
have a noble record of service in the 
next century as well, with the home of 
Israel Brown (now private) used as an 
Underground Railroad Station for run- 
away slaves en route to Canada. 

On Route 20 in South Sudbury, mid- 
way between Marlboro (off Route 495) 
and Waltham (off Route 128), is the 
late 17th century inn made famous by 


In 1875, Concord and Lexington hosted a centennial celebration, commemorating 
the 100th anniversary of the American Revolution. The towns were visited by so 
many people that, according to some accounts, crowds were frozen, starved and 
otherwise inconvenienced. Above: the sign that welcomed people to Lexington. 
Center: a crowd gathers in Concord during the celebration. Below: preparations 
are made in 1876 to serve a banquet to hungry guests in the Concord dinner tent. 

■■' V . 


.... . 7f * ' 

-*■* .«-_, "V^i 

Courtesy of David B. Little 

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poems, 
Tales of a Wayside Inn. Now known as 
the Wayside Inn, it was originally called 
Howes Tavern at the time Colonel 
Ezekiel Howe led Sudbury farmers to 
Concord. Later named the Red-Horse 
Inn, it provided hospitality to Longfel- 
low who happened by there only twice 
in the mid-1 9th century. Nevertheless, 
he decided to make it the poetic set- 
ting for a group of friends who gathered 
to tell stories, similar to the framework 
used by Chaucer in Canterbury Tales. 
The first poem in the series, supposedly 
recounted by the landlord, a man de- 
scribed as "grave in his aspect and 
attire ... a man of ancient pedigree," 
was the ever-popular Paul Revere's 
Ride. Longfellow thus succeeded in 
gaining further immortality for the inn 
which had already hosted such illus- 
trious guests as Generals Washington 
and Lafayette and Henry Knox. 

The main building was restored in 
1958 under a grant by the Ford Founda- 
tion. Fourteen years previously, Henry 
Ford himself had deeded the entire 
Wayside estate as a non-profit histori- 
cal and literary shrine. (Daily, 9 a.m. 
to 5 p.m. Admission 500.) On the 
grounds of the inn there are also sev- 
eral other buildings open to visitors, 
including the Martha-Mary Chapel, a 
reproduction of a classic New England 
church, and a working grist mill (April 
to November, 9 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.; ad- 
mission 100) which produces flour and 
meal ground daily by millstones pow- 
ered by a waterfall. 

A favorite stopping place on the 
Wayside grounds for children of any 
age is the Redstone Schoolhouse, fa- 
mous as the setting for the poem 
Mary Had a Little Lamb. Originally 
located in the town of Sterling, where 
it was used as a schoolhouse from 
1798 to 1856, the one-room structure 
was purchased by Henry Ford in 1927 
for $35.50. He had it moved to Sud- 
bury where it was used as a public 
school classroom for local children 
until 1951. The "Mary" of the popular 
nursery rhyme was Mary Elizabeth 
Sawyer who attended the school in 
Sterling in the early 1800's. Her class- 
mate John Roulston later wrote the 
first 12 lines of the poem, preserving 
the lamb's adventures for history. 
Sarah Josephine Hale added to the 
literary aspects of the tale. 

You'll find that your entire ride 
through Middlesex County will be con- 
stantly filled with all kinds of interest- 
ing reminders, both literary and his- 
torical. So get on your steed — like 
Paul Revere of old — or your bicycle, 
bus, or car, and head out "to every 
Middlesex village and farm." 



Mountain Greenery: 
Wandering Tours of Village Greens 

A leisurely way to explore Central Mas- 
sachusetts is to set out upon an epi- 
curean tour of snjall towns in the area. 
Pack a picnic, round up your family or 
friends, get in the car and head for any 
one of a dozen or more beautiful village 
greens — just for the sheer pleasure of 
it all. You might, for instance, want 
to try a day-trip including stops in 
Pelham, in the eastern-most part of 
Hampshire County, and Petersham, 
Phillipston, Royalston and Ashburnham, 
all in the northwestern part of Worces- 
ter County. 

Start your exploring on the green 
in the town of Pelham, first settled in 
1739. The Town Hall, refurbished for 
the nation's Bicentennial celebration, 
was built just four years after settle- 
ment, and has been in continuous use 
ever since. That, and the adjacent 
Congregational Church, built in 1839, 
and the old burying ground behind it, 
laid out at the time of Pelham's begin- 
nings, are jointly considered a Massa- 
chusetts Historic Landmark. 

A brief walk through the town's old 
cemetery is a history lesson in itself, 
and some of the information gleaned 
in Pelham can be applied to tours of 
old burying grounds throughout the 
state. For instance, a stone reading 
"In memory of" does not necessarily 
mean that the remains actually are in- 
terred at that spot. The party so desig- 
nated may well have died at sea, or on 
a return trip to Europe, but he or she 
can still be "remembered" by the 
hometown folks. Stones reading "Here 
lie the remains" are a sure sign that 
the person was buried light there, and 
you can usually tell his or her height 
by the foot stones at the opposite end 
of the grave site. Most of the Pelham 
citizens of old, it appears, hovered right 
around the five-foot mark. 

Gravestone markers tell you a lot 
about the personalities of the people, 
as well as their physical dimensions. 
For example, the wife of Pelham's 
Deacon McMillan outlived him by 14 
years, from 1797 to 1811, but her eter- 
nal fidelity could never be in doubt. 
Buried next to him, her stone simply 
reads "The Widow McMillan." Slate 
markers were used almost exclusively 
in Massachusetts until the mid-19th 
century when granite began to be im- 
ported from Vermont. So if you pass a 
cemetery from the road, you can tell 
almost instantly whether it dates from 
a period that captures your poetic, ar- 
tistic, or historic eye. 

After emerging from the Pelham bur- 
ial ground, be sure to read the marker 
at the side of Town Hall which firmly 
attests to the town's secure position in 
post-Revolutionary history. The plaque 
pays tribute to native son Daniel Shays, 
the Revolutionary War captain who had 
been honored by Lafayette at Saratoga. 
Less than a decade later, however, he 
was forced to use his home town as a 
refuge from government troops who 
sought to stop his rebellious ways. 
Shays was one of a number of people 
who banded together in the mid-1780's 
to try to gain financial relief from the 
burden of post-war inflation on the 
huge debts contracted for farmlands. 

The grievances of the farmers, pri- 
marily former soldiers from the western 
part of the state, reached their peak in 
1786-87. Companies of these men, in 
open rebellion against the state, tried 
to prevent county courts from conven- 
ing to enforce foreclosures on their 
property in the absence of mortgage 
payments. A number of prominent men 
participated in these various insurrec- 
tions around Massachusetts, but most 
of these have long been forgotten. 
Shays, on the other hand, commanded 
the largest insurgent force assembled 
at one time and, in addition, attempted 
the most daring act of all when his 
band tried to seize the federal arsenal 
at Springfield. As a result, he seems to 
have garnered the lion's share of his- 
tory's credit, or blame, for the farmers' 
uprising. Pelham residents would ar- 
gue that Shays' role was indeed lauda- 
ble, and the plaque noting the spot 
where Shays and half of his troops 
encamped from January 28 to February 
3, 1787, attests to that fact. His rebel- 
lion, it reads, was "against unjust 
laws," and the stand Shays took is 
proudly commemorated by the towns- 

Further north on Route 202 (called 
the Daniel Shays Highway) and east on 
Route 122, in Petersham, another 
marker casts an entirely different light 
on Shays' action. There, a plaque in 
front of the Petersham Historical So- 
ciety honors General Benjamin Lincoln 
who, so the inscription reads, routed 
Shays' "rebellion against the Common- 
wealth." Lincoln, in command of the 
army of Massachusetts, marched his 
men all night in sub-zero weather and 
snow from Hadley, a distance of 30 
miles, to catch Shays' retreating forces 
by surprise. Refusing to concur with 
Shays' appeal for amnesty for his men, 


The Bicentennial Commission of 
Townsend is considering the possi- 
bility of displaying 13 underground 
tombs recently uncovered at The 
Hillside Cemetery in this town. 

The 13 tombs, accidentally un- 
earthed by Cemetery Sexton Paul 
King, have particular historical sig- 
nificance in that three Revolutionary 
War veterans and three War of 1812 
veterans are buried in them. The 
tombs also exemplify a unique burial 
convention in New England. 

Cemetery records indicate that 
one of the War of 1812 veterans bur- 
ied in the tombs was Colonel Walter 
Hastings, a graduate of Harvard Uni- 
versity, who commanded 3,000 Mid- 
dlesex County troops stationed at 
Fort Warren, now Fort Winthrop, 
and who remained in command of 
the troops until the end of the war. 

The three Revolutionary War vet- 
erans entombed are Samuel L. 
Stone, who served as a lieutenant in 
that war and established the first 
school system in Townsend; Ber- 
nard Pratt, and Zackery Hildreth. 

Also buried in the underground 
vaults is a Daniel Adams, one of the 
first deacons of the Townsend Con- 
gregational Church and a justice of 
the peace. His son, Dr. Daniel 
Adams, delivered the eulogy at 
George Washington's funeral in 

Inside the vault underground 
rooms were found, measuring seven 
feet in height, ten feet in length, and 
eight feet in width. Sturdy level walls 
of brick and granite construction 
buttressed the burial rooms. Solid 
marble steps provided a balanced 
entrance. A glass viewing-plate may 
be erected in front of the tombs, 
thereby making it less difficult for 
grave enthusiasts to view a rarity in 
New England burial customs — the 
underground tomb. 

(Courtesy of Bruce Goyette) 



Lincoln had forced them to retreat to 
Petersham where, on February 4, 1787, 
he achieved "this victory for the forces 
of Government." "Obedience to Law is 
true liberty," continues the plaque, 
leaving no doubt about where the peo- 
ple of Petersham stood in the historic 
encounter in their town. 

The Petersham Green, containing 
markers with the names of local citi- 
zens who died in many wars past, sits 
in the center of town, surrounded by 
old houses, a library, a country store, 
churches, a convent, and the town hall, 
restored after a fire several years ago. 
It looks exactly like a small New Eng- 
land town should, full of quiet charm 
and dignity. Local children have been 
studying the history of its early settle- 
ment in preparation for the Bicen- 
tennial, and can proudly recite that 
Aaron Whitney was chosen first minister 
of Petersham in 1738. That was an im- 
portant event, they tell you, because a 
settlement had to have a permanent 
building and a settled minister before 
it could be incorporated as a town. In 
many of these small towns, the building 
served as both the church and the 
meeting hall. But following the state 
constitutional amendment of 1833, 
which officially separated church and 
state, many such communities had to 
build either separate town offices or 
separate churches. Such was the case 
in Petersham and, also, in Pelham and 
Sturbridge, to name just a few. As you 
wander around the Commonwealth, 
you'll find a lot more examples of this 
concrete separation of church and state, 
considered an inalienable right by peo- 
ple of all religions. 

If you've had enough history, then 
you can get away from it all in the 
nearby outdoor splendor of the Feder- 
ated Women's Club State Forest and 
bird sanctuary or at one of the recrea- 
tion spots at Quabbin Reservoir. Or if 
you'd like to combine history and na- 
ture, then the area offers that package 
as well. 

Continue north on Route 32 until 
you reach the Fisher Museum of For- 
estry, part of the Harvard University 
Forest. The museum is a delightful 
change of pace at any season. The 
story of the development of land use 
in central New England is told through 
a series of dioramas which were con- 
structed by the famous Guernsey and 
Pitman studios in Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, from 1931 to 1941. The first 
section of these Harvard Forest models 
portrays the history of land in the re- 
gion from its pre-colonial wooded state 
in 1700, through its peak as farmland 
around 1830, to its farm abandonment 
in 1850, and, finally, to its reversion to 


In 1787, Daniel Shays led an attempt to seize the federal arsenal in Springfield. He and his 
men sought relief from debts on their farmland which had soared due to post-war inflation. 

white pine forests and, later, hard- 
wood trees. The second and third 
sections of these models illustrate the 
forestry practices developed at the 
Harvard Forest. They also include pres- 
entations on wildlife management, con- 
trol of soil erosion, and scenes of 
terrible destruction wrought by forest 
fires. Every leaf of every tree in the 
model is made by hand, with silver 
wire as a base, and the scenes are as 
picturesque as they are educational. 

To hold the interest of young visitors, 
someone wisely has constructed a set 
of games which appear throughout the 
display. These vary from "tests" to 
find eight different animals in one 
woodland scene — a favorite task for 
a pre-school child— to more sophisti- 
cated questions for a 10-year-old about 
problems of conservation. The museum 
is well worth an hour's stop and, if 
you'd like to spend more time, there are 
a series of nature trails within the 


forest. (Daily, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Ad- 
mission free.) 

On your way again, heading for Roy- 
alston, you can either continue north 
on Route 32 towards Athol and the 
Tully Dam Recreation Site, or you can 
take a side road through Phillipston to 
go past the Otto River State Forest on 
Route 68. 

Phillipston was originally called 
Gerry, in honor of Marblehead native 
Elbridge Gerry, governor of Massachu- 
setts from 1810 to 1812, and President 
Madison's vice president from 1813 to 
1814. As a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence and a delegate to the 
Federal Constitutional Convention of 
1787, Gerry had become quite a hero 
in the state. Consequently, the people 
in this Central Massachusetts village 
voted to name their town for him. But 
soon after, they changed the name. 
Their antagonism stemmed from Gerry's 
support for an 1812 bill to divide the 
Massachusetts legislature into election 
districts which physically resembled a 
salamander and politically were de- 
signed to detract from the voting power 
of the federalists. Gerry might have 
lost a town's name for his actions, but 
he is remembered in history as the 
creator of the "gerrymander," a prac- 
tice which existed until the Supreme 
Court struck down its legality in 1962. 

The town of Royalston, located on 
Route 68 in the northwest corner of 
Central Massachusetts, is a hill town 
of extraordinary grace and beauty. A 
patchwork quilt of white frame, late 
18th century houses and wide green 
lawns, the area takes you back in time 
and space to the days when patriots 
such as John Hancock and James Otis, 
author of the 1764 tract The Rights of 
the British Colonies Asserted and 
Proved, were early proprietors. The 
Town Hall and First Congregational 
Church stand behind the center green 
like a scene from a New England 
Christmas card, and the whole area in- 
vites you to bring along your camera 
and capture the view for yourself. The 
town has recently refurbished its his- 
torical society museum (open by ap- 
pointment). The Phinehas S. Newton 
Library welcomes visitors daily. 

As you drive east from the town 
towards South Royalston, you pass an- 
tique shops, in which you can browse, 
and lines of maple trees beside which 
you can stop to admire the view of the 
woods and hills beyond. Many houses 
along the road date from the 18th cen- 
tury but, in a number of cases, their 
original shape has long been obscured. 
Some people explain the architectural 
anachronisms of these homes with a 
story about a "front porch salesman" 

who came through the area around the 
turn of the 20th century. Apparently he 
did a land-office job of convincing local 
homeowners that a porch was the last 
word in modern elegance. You can 
watch for signs of the salesman's suc- 
cess as you travel all along the region's 
country roads and main routes. 

Ashburnham the last of the towns to 
be visited on this day of greens-watch- 
ing, is a community that is justly proud 
of its Revolutionary history and takes 
great pleasure in telling it. In the Old 
Town Hall, maintained as a museum by 
the Ashburnham Historical Society, 
books and records recite the story of 
the role of the townspeople in the 
events of April, 1775. On April 19th, 
even before the news of the shootings 
in Lexington and Concord, 38 Minute- 
men under the command of Captain 
Jonathan Gates left for Cambridge when 
they heard the British were moving to 
the interior. The next day another com- 
pany of men, under Captain Deliverance 
Davis, marched to join them, imbued by 
the passionate call to the militiamen 
issued from the Ashburnham green: 
"Every moment is infinitely precious. 
An hour lost may deluge your country 
in blood and entail perpetual slavery 
upon the few who may survive the 

Townspeople continued to support 
their fellow patriots to the east, with 23 
local men participating in the Battle of 
Bunker Hill. In addition, local families 
took in 12 boarders from Boston that 
summer, assigned as "worthy poor" in 
need of temporary support in the cool 
hills of Worcester County. Probably 
the first recorded history of a Fresh Air 
Fund, the Ashburnham boarders were 
picked by the Boston Committee of 
Safety and their safe passage was as- 
sured by General Gage himself. 

The Ashburnham Museum, opened in 
1965 to celebrate the town's own bicen- 
tennial, was constructed of material 
from the Second Meeting House, 
erected in 1791 and moved to its pres- 
ent site in the center of town from 
Meeting House Hill in 1836. In addition 
to documents and other historical ac- 
counts, the collection features a model 
school room of 1899, taken from a re- 
gional school, an 1878 bedroom, a 
colonial kitchen, and an 1890 parlor. 
Among the old toys and clothing also 
on display is a collection of quilts made 
by the sewing circle of the Congrega- 
tional Church before 1860. 

Atop Meeting House Hill, near the 
early 19th century cemetery, are the 
stone remains of a stray animal pound, 
built around 1794, and an old powder 
house, built in 1798. Local people in 
Ashburnham, as in all these small 

towns, are usually pleased to point out 
the sights and to spend some time 
swapping historical lore. 

However pleasant this particular 
route through Central Massachusetts 
might be, there's no need for you to 
confine your travels to these specific 
towns. Try, for example, a day of ad- 
venturing in the central part of Worces- 
ter County. Starting in Barre, on Routes 
32 and 62, admire the lovely colonial 
homes from the triangular green, take 
in a concert performed regularly in the 
summer since 1859 from the same cen- 
tral bandstand, visit the historical so- 
ciety (Sunday afternoon; admission 
free), or head for one of the nearby 
places of natural beauty such as Cook's 
Canyon Wildlife Sanctuary or Barre 
Falls Dam. 

Then drive east on Route 122 to 
Rutland, the geographic center of Mas- 
sachusetts and, in 1777, the center, as 
well, for British and Tory prisoners held 
captive by the Americans. Established 
under an act of the Continental Con- 
gress, the barricade and guard house 
detained Revolutionary War prisoners 
until 1780. A bronze plaque at the 
corner of Route 122A and Charnock 
Road now marks the location of the 
former prison camp, formally disbanded 
in 1833. 

Continue on your way, north up Route 
41, to Princeton, settled in 1743 and 
known since shortly thereafter as the 
town of the Lost Child of Wachusett. 
Five-year-old Lucy Keyes, so the story 
goes (and this is only one version!), 
wandered off after her older sisters to 
Wachusett Pond one day. The sisters 
returned home but, apparently, Lucy 
failed to come back. After the exten- 
sive search was long abandoned, Lucy 
was supposedly discovered years later, 
living happily as the "white squaw" of 
an Indian tribe in northern Vermont. 
The area around the pond where she 
first disappeared now has picnic sites 
and campsites, scenic drives, and even 
a ski slope operated by the Wachusetts 
Mountain State Commission. The roads 
are well-marked so, unlike Lucy, you 
should be able to find you way back. 

A third day of exploring will take you 
to Old Sturbridge Village (see page 
51). But plan to spend an extra day in 
the area as well, seeing the surround- 
ing towns of Sturbridge Center, Charl- 
ton and Souihbridge. All founded in 
the 1730's, the towns still retain their 
old greens and cemeteries, in addition 
to many of the fine homes and public 
buildings of the post-Revolutionary era. 
The towns now abound with tourist fa- 
cilities, craft shops and antique shops 
and museums. All are worth an exten- 
sion of your visit. 





John and Sebastian Cabot, Italian citizens who sailed 
under the British flag, explored the coast of North 
America as early as 1497 and gave England its claim 
to future colonization on the mainland. But it took 
more than a century for anyone actually to take ad- 
vantage of that claim. By 1602 Englishmen could be 
found on the shores of what is now Northeastern Mas- 
sachusetts, located particularly around the Gloucester 
area. They apparently were only summer visitors, how- 
ever, returning across the ocean in the fall with their 
abundant and profitable cargo of salted cod. Several 
years later the area was also visited by French ex- 
plorer Samuel de Champlain on one of his voyages 
north to Quebec. He, too, moved on, pausing long 
enough to give the bountiful and beautiful harbor at 
Cape Ann the appropriate title "Beauport." 

Expansion From Plymouth 

It took the example of the Pilgrims who left from 
Holland and landed 40 miles south of Cape Ann in 
Plymouth in 1620, to convince more permanent-minded 
settlers that the New England coast could offer year- 
round accommodation. Early arrivals to the Plymouth 
Colony, having once survived the rigors of the first 
harsh winter, began to expand their holdings in all 
directions. Within a few years, several of the early 
settlers had sailed northward and across the bay to 
establish a fishing colony in Annisquam, referred to 
earlier in Virginia colonist John Smith's diary as a 
"safe harbor." 

About the same time, John White, rector in Dor- 
chester, England, looked to America as a place where 
Puritanism could flower. Dedicated to ridding the 
Church of England of objectionable practices, the Puri- 
tan movement was at first purely religious. White or- 
ganized a group of Dorchester merchants led by colo- 
nist Roger Conant, to establish a permanent fishing 
settlement on Cape Ann. The group arrived in 1623 but 
within a few years, the enterprise had failed. A num- 
ber of the fishermen returned home while Conant and 
spiritual leader John Lyford moved west with a few 
stalwarts to the place the Indians called "Naumkeag" 
(incorporating the area now surrounding Salem and 
Beverly) settling there in 1626. By that, time, King 
Charles I had ascended the throne in England and 
already had begun to show signs of the tyranny that 
was to come. Religious Puritans, comprised largely 
of educated and prosperous Englishmen, responded 
to Charles' distaste of them by politicizing their move- 
ment. Though successful in electing a goodly number 
of their members to Parliament, Puritan leaders, such 
as John White, continued to encourage members to 
establish a Puritan retreat in New England in the event 
their cause was suppressed in the Old World. A group 
of men, including John Endicott, took up the challenge. 

A statue of Roger Conant, an early settler who explored Cape Ann 
in 1623 and led a group of people to "Naumkeag," stands at 
Washington Square West in Salem. 

In March, 1628, they purchased, from the Council 
of New England, a tract of land stretching from three 
miles to the south of the Charles River (now Boston) 
to three miles north of the Merrimac River (now New- 
buryport). Endicott, his family, and about 50 com- 
panions, representing the newly-formed "New England 
Company," landed in Naumkeag in late summer, 1628. 
The area was renamed Salem, from the Hebrew word 
"Shalom" (peace), following an ultimately amicable 
resolution to initial difficulties with Conant and his 
group of original settlers. Within a short time, Salem- 
ites had set up communities in nearby Saugus, includ- 
ing the area which several years later changed its 
name to Lynn. 

Establishing a Bible Commonwealth 

In March, 1629, a royal charter was granted to 
the new settlers' parent corporation in England, legally 
titling it the "Massachusetts Bay Company." The grant 
was indeed fortuitous for, just eight days later, Charles 
I announced his intention to dissolve Parliament and 
govern without it. A year later, in April, 1630, approxi- 
mately 900 Puritan adventurers set sail in 11 ships 


from Salem Harbor, under the leadership of their 
elected governor John Winthrop. Elected governor of 
the colony by the corporation free-holders, Winthrop 
carried the charter for the Massachusetts Bay Colony 
with him to America. The decision had already been 
made in England that this charter, for the first time 
would be executed in the New World. As of May, 1631, 
all members of the orthodox Puritan churches in New 
England were given the right to have a say in their 
government, through the election of a governor, deputy 
governor and deputies to a "general court." The type 
of community set up thus was elevated from that of a 
trading company to that of a Bible-Commonwealth. 
Puritan settlements sprung up throughout the charter 
area. Winthrop and a number of his followers moved 
south to Charlestown and then to Boston, for instance, 
while others moved northward to Ipswich and New- 
buryport. By 1640, more than 25,000 Englishmen had 
migrated to America, with over half of them establish- 
ing homes in Massachusetts. 

A Region of "Firsts" 

Pockets of early colonial history proliferate 
throughout Northeastern Massachusetts, and each of 
these areas seems to produce its own folklore. Local 
tradition has it, for example, that Georgetown, one of 
the "later" settlements in what is now Essex County, 
was not parceled out until Ezekiel Rogers, head of the 
Rowley grant, was sure that his friend Oliver Cromwell 
would be successful in his efforts to dethrone Charles 
I. Once assured that the land would not be needed by 
Cromwell for refuge, a deed of settlement was ac- 
corded to someone else. The story also goes that 
when property rights were established along the shore 
of Cape Ann, settlers were warned at once of a built-in 

Above high tide, man owns, 

Below low tide, God owns, 

Between high tide and low tide, 

The King of England owns! 

Northeastern Massachusetts is also a region 
known for its "firsts." The first wool-processing mill 
was built in Rowley in 1636 and the first cotton-mill in 
Beverly in 1787. That same year, the first covered 
wagon to head for the Northwest Territory left from 
Hamilton, carrying settlers from the Hamilton-Danvers 
area to Marietta, Ohio. The first cultivated New World 
orchard was planted by Governor Endicott in Old Salem 
Village (now Danvers) in the 1630's, and possibly the 
first Post Office appeared in Ipswich in 1774. Even the 
first man in America to oppose taxation without repre- 
sentation came from the Northeast and is now buried 
in the old grave yard in Essex. He was Reverend John 
Wise, who led the fight in Ipswich in 1687 against the 
tyrannical acts of royal governor Sir Edmund Andros. 
Andros was sent to the Massachusetts colony by 
James II, after the king's brother, the restored monarch 
Charles II, had finally succeeded in annulling the self- 
government provisions of the original Massachusetts 
Bay Charter. Andros incurred the wrath of the colonists 

by taxing towns and interfering with town meetings. 
He was finally recalled to England following the "Glori- 
ous Revolution of 1688" which brought William and 
Mary to the throne and a new, modified charter to the 
people of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. To this day, 
the town seal o f Ipswich bears the legend "The birth- 
place of American Independence," commemorating 
Wise's public denunciation of the tax levy. (Note: Citi- 
zens of Taunton had also opposed the Andros' levy as 
early as 1684, but they seemed to go about it in a 
quieter way.) 

The End of Religious Radicalism 

Another first in the northeastern area, of course, 
yet one that is hardly looked upon with the same 
historic respect — though certainly with great historic 
interest — was the introduction of mass witchcraft 
hysteria to America in 1692. All of Christian Europe 
during the 17th century was consumed with a belief 
in the supernatural powers of the devil, and in Puritan 
New England the fear of such wizardry similarly had 
produced a case here and there where a so-called 
witch was brought to trial. But nothing compared to 
the incidents in Salem which caused large numbers of 
people to be charged with sorcery and split the com- 
munity into accused and accusers. The witchcraft trials 
were brought to a halt when responsible citizens finally 
realized that the numbers and extent of the accusations 
precluded any relationship to truth and reality. With 
the closing of the trials there also came an end to the 
dominance of the religious radicalism of the Puritans 
which had caused so much torment to Quakers, Bap- 
tists, and other religious dissenters. 

From Newburyport to Gloucester to Marblehead, 
privateers harassed British ships trying to resupply 
Boston and made clear the strategic importance of 
that coast to the holding of the city in the early days 
of the war. In addition, companies of local men de- 
fended the shoreline or joined colonial forces at the 
Battle of Bunker Hill. The costs of the war were high, 
in both men and ships, as the old burial grounds in the 
area attest. But tales of individual acts of heroism are 
told to this day. 

The towns we suggest you visit in Northeastern 
Massachusetts will help acquaint you with some of the 
proud history of the region and, also, some of the not- 
so-proud. It all goes into making up the colonial, revo- 
lutionary, mercantile and industrial story of the area, 
as well as the region's art and poetry. So we include 
a bit of each. Again, we urge you to use our sugges- 
tions merely as a starting point from which you can go 
out on your own and discover many more things to 
see and do. 

The Massachusetts Tourist Council operates one 
main office in Northeastern Massachusetts. For in- 
formation on the region, call or write the following: 


Mr. John L. Farrell 

P.O. Box 756 

Salem, Massachusetts 01970 

(617) 631-0563 or 388-1603 



Side Trips in Northeastern Massachusetts 

There is enough to see and do in North- 
eastern Massachusetts to keep you oc- 
cupied for days or weeks. Visits to any 
of the following towns make interesting 
day trips and good starting places to 
begin your own exploring. 


In 1836, the Ballardvale Manufacturing 
Company in Andover experimented in 
silk manufacturing by planting mulberry 
trees and employing the services of sev- 
eral local families to raise silkworms. 
Although this industry was not long 
lived, the town has supported flax and 
linen manufacturing and a number of 
mills can still be seen today. Andover's 
major claim to fame, however, has been 
the Phillips Academy for boys, founded 
in 1778. The Addison Gallery of Art on 
the school's campus has 15 galleries 
and exhibits paintings, sculpture, furni- 
ture and glass. A ship model collection 
traces the era of sail through the steam 
engine. (Monday through Saturday 10 
a.m. to 5 p.m.; Sunday 2:30 to 5 p.m. 
Admission free.) 

The Merrimack Valley Textile Museum 
in nearby North Andover houses imple- 
ments, prints, photographs and docu- 
ments relevant to the growth of the tex- 
tile industry in Massachusetts. (Monday 
through Saturday, 1 to 5 p.m. Admission 
$1 on Sunday only, when demonstra- 
tions are given in spinning and weaving.) 

For additional information on local 
history, stop at the Andover Historical 
Society in the Deacon Amos Blanchard 
House at 97 Main Street. (Monday and 
Friday, 2 to 4 p.m. Adults 500; children 


A number of interesting legends are part 
of Amesbury's town history. In 1693, 
Goody Martin, a local resident, was sen- 
tenced and hanged as a witch in Salem 
and superstitious townsfolk claim that 
the witches' fires can still be seen on 
Barrow Hill. Since the days of the 
witches, however, Amesbury has had a 
number of citizens noteworthy for other 
reasons. Mary Baker Eddy, founder of 
the Christian Science Church, made her 
home in the town for a time. Her former 
home at 277 Main Street is open to the 
public. (April through October, week- 
days, 2 to 5 p.m. Admission 250.) 

The long-time home of John Greenleaf 
Whittier at 86 Friend Street contains 
manuscripts and such memorabilia as 
the poet's desk and other furnishings. 

(Tuesday through Saturday, 10 a.m. to 
5 p.m. Donations expected.) 

In the past, Quaker services have 
been held several Sundays in the sum- 
mer at the Rocky Hill Meeting House on 
Elm Street. Built in 1785, the structure 
still contains its original woodwork and 
interior painting. (June through October, 
Wednesday through Saturday, 1 to 5 
p.m. Admission $1. Apply at parsonage.) 


Founded in 1626, Beverly was the home 
of Roger Conant, the first governor of 
the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Near 
the site of Conant's house is the fa- 
mous Balch House at 448 Cabot Street, 
built in 1636 by John Balch. It is the 
oldest house in the United States about 
which there is written record. (Open 
mid-June to mid-September, 10 a.m. to 
4 p.m.; closed Sunday. Adults $1; 
children 500.) 

Another house of historical interest is 
Hale House built in 1694 at 39 Hale 
Street by Reverend John Hale, grand- 
father of patriot Nathan Hale and 
ancestor of Edward Everett Hale. (Open 
mid-June to mid-September, 10 a.m. to 
4 p.m.; closed Sunday. Adults $1; chil- 
dren 500.) 

At 117 Cabot Street, the Beverly His- 
torical Society maintains a museum in 
the Federalist brick mansion built by 
Captain John Cabot in 1781. The house 
contains the largest collection of un- 
published Revolutionary War documents 
in the nation. (Open June, July and 
August, Monday through Saturday, 10 
a.m. to 4 p.m.; September through May, 
Monday, Wednesday, Friday and Satur- 
day. Adults $1; children 500.) 

Another interesting place to visit is 
the Fish Flake Hill Historic District on 
the Beverly Harbor waterfront, a cluster 
of 19 Revolutionary War homes cur- 
rently being upgraded. Pick up or write 
for a copy of the historic trail brochure 
at the Beverly Chamber of Commerce, 
275 Cabot Street. 


Settled in the mid-seventeenth century, 
Haverhill has an interesting mixture of 
old and new. To fully appreciate the 
historic homes in the town, many of 
which are private and can be seen only 
from the street, walk along Sunmmer, 
Main, Water and Groveland Streets, or 
pause at the small town green to see 
the statue of Hannah Dustin, the woman 
who once scalped a number of Indians 

and has become a controversial figure 
in Haverhill's history. 

Two houses open to the public pro- 
vide an insight into the town's past. The 
John Ward House at 240 Water Street 
was built before 1645 and contains com- 
plete 17th century furnishings. The But- 
tonwoods, at the same address, was 
built in 1814 and contains a collection 
of Indian relics. In addition to these 
two houses, 240 Water Street is the 
headquarters for the Haverhill Historical 
Society. (Both houses open mid-Sep- 
tember to June, Tuesday, Thursday and 
Saturday, 2 to 5 p.m.; June to mid- 
September, Tuesday through Saturday, 
1 to 5 p.m. Adults 500; children 250; 
under 12, 100.) 

Admirers of John Greenleaf Whittier, 
the 19th century poet and abolitionist, 
will want to visit his birthplace located 
three miles from the center of town off 
Route 110. This 17th century farmhouse 
was the scene of his famous winter idyll 
Snow-Bound. (Tuesday through Satur- 
day, 1 a.m. to 6 p.m. Adults 500; chil- 
dren 250.) The Haverhill Public Library 
is worth seeing too, for its valuable col- 
lection of Whittier's first editions and 
other papers, particularly those con- 
cerned with the anti-slavery movement. 


Those interested in the history of the 
labor movement in America should take 
a ride to Lawrence, in the western part 
of Essex County. The city is one of the 
few places in Northeastern Massachu- 
setts which does not have a colonial 
history. Here the "wobblies" strike of 
1912 protested against intolerable work- 
ing conditions and led to a then sig- 
nificant one-cent per hour wage in- 
crease, even before labor's right to or- 
ganize was given legal basis. A walk 
around the Old Mill District from 
Union to Newbury Streets brings back 
a 19th century perspective of factories, 
workers' boarding houses and row 
houses, as well as the churches and 
stores that serviced the area when Law- 
rence was at the center of the Industrial 


Probably every artist, would-be artist, 
art critic or photographer longs to take 
a look at Rockport's famous Motif Num- 
ber One, an old fishing shed that has 
become one of the most painted and 
most photographed sites known to man. 
As a result, however, Rockport, once a 


sleepy fishing village, has become a 
bustling, crowded tourist town where 
residents, artists and day-trippers vie for 
walking space and especially for park- 
ing space. There's very little of the 
latter, so if you do go, consider taking 
the train or bus. And if you really want 
to see the town, its shops, restaurants 
and art exhibits from a relatively un- 
peopled view, we suggest you plan your 
visit in the off season months, Septem- 
ber to May. 

If you have to see Rockport in the 
summer, it is strongly recommended 
that you leave your car at the peripheral 
parking lot on Route 127, just out of 
town. The fee is $2 and a shuttle bus 
runs every 15 minutes. 

The Rockport Art Association at 12 
Main Street is a good place to begin a 
tour of the town, especially if you are 
planning to visit local galleries and any 
artists residences open to the public. 
The Association has changing exhibits 
and can offer suggestions for places to 
go. (Weekdays 9:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.; 
Sunday 1 to 5 p.m. Admission free.) 

Two other places of interest are the 
Old Castle in Pigeon Cove, and the 
Sandy Bay Historical Society and Muse- 
um at 40 King Street. (July and August, 
daily, 2 to 5 p.m. Admission free.) 


The town of Saugus, located mid-way 
between Salem and Boston (on Route 1) 
features a reconstruction of the iron- 
works that was active from 1646 to 1670 
along the banks of the Saugus River in 
the section of Lynn known as Hammer- 
smith. Restored under a million-and-a- 
half dollar grant from the American Iron 
and Steel institute, the Saugus Iron 
Works at 244 Central Street is now ad- 
ministered as a National Historic Site by 
the National Park Service. Several times 
each day, the water wheels, bellows 
and forge hammer operate just as they 
did in the 17th century when John Win- 
throp Jr., son of the Massachusetts gov- 
ernor, could proudly boast of a produc- 
tion figure of eight tons of iron a week. 
The reconstruction of the integrated 
ironworking plant, including its enor- 
mous blast furnace and rolling and slit- 
ting mill, is based on archaeological ex- 
cavations and other traces of the orig- 
inal works. After watching the plant in 
noisy operation, you might want to visit 
the quieter Ironworks Museum and the 
Ironmasters House, a restoration of a 
residence built in 1643 by one of the 
plants' owners. (Mid-April through Oc- 
tober, daily, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Grounds 
open all year. Admission free.) 


Several ships bore the name Hannah during the Revolution. Below is one artist's con- 
ception of the Marblehead schooner that became involved in a never-ending dispute. 

On June 17, 1926, Secretary of the 
Navy Curtis Wilbur attended a cere- 
mony commemorating the birth of 
the American Navy in Marblehead, 
Massachusetts. In October of 1935, 
Beverly, Massachusetts, plotted a 
coup by inviting Secretary of the 
Navy Claude Swanson to celebrate 
Navy Day at "The Birthplace of the 
American Navy" — Beverly. When 
Swanson accepted, selectman John 
0. Stevens of Marblehead rekindled 
an always hot issue by asserting that 
Beverly's claim was supported only 
by the fortuitous mooring of a 
Marblehead vessel in a Beverly 
"crick" in the fall of 1775. 

The facts are: On September 2, 
1775, George Washington commis- 
sioned Capt. Nicholas Broughton — 
a Marbleheader — and the Hannah, a 
Marblehead schooner, into the ser- 
vice of the United States of North 
America; the commission states that 
Captain Broughton was to proceed 
on board the Hannah at Beverly 
where it was being outfitted; Captain 
Broughton accepted his orders, put 
to sea from Beverly, and brought in 
his first prize three days later. 

The dispute concerned which 
town the Hannah represented, so the 
two disputants enlisted their Con- 
gressman, Piatt Andrew, to arbitrate 
the issue. He moved quickly, refer- 
ring the question to Navy Secretary 

Secretary Swanson quickly 
launched an investigation, intending 
to settle the dispute permanently. 
However, what he discovered was 
that: On August 4, 1775, General 
Washington had requested that the 
Governor of Rhode Island send ships 
to Bermuda to capture British pow- 

der—which the sloop Katy did; and 
that on August 1, 1775, Major 
General Schuyler had ordered Com- 
modore James Smith to take com- 
mand of the sloop Enterprise at 
Crown Point on Lake Champlain, 
"for the service of the United 
Colonies"; and that in July of 1775, 
naval forces created by the states of 
South Carolina and Georgia had 
jointly captured a British supply ship 
carrying powder; and that on June 
12, 1775, Capt. Jerry O'Brian had 
sailed out of Machias, Maine, in the 
Unity and with a crew of farmers 
armed with pitchforks had boarded 
and captured a British naval sloop, 
the Margaretta. 

Swanson's decision was very poli- 
tic: "I find it impossible to decide. " 
It was not until 1969, when the 
Beverly Historical Commission pub- 
lished their definitive study of the 
question, "Washington's New Eng- 
land Fleet, " that some semblance of 
an answer was found. It was their 
conclusion, and the Department of 
the Navy concurred, that Beverly 
was the birthplace of General Wash- 
ington's Navy on September 2, 1775. 
The Navy Department designated 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as the 
birthplace of the Continental Navy, 
as it was voted by Congress, on 
October 13, 1775. 

With the addition of these two 
particular designations— "Washing- 
ton's Navy" and "Continental Navy" 
—Beverly and Philadelphia no doubt 
justly hold their titles. But in the 
view of many of the other "birth- 
places," a distinctive designation 
could be added to legitimize each of 
their claims. So the issue happily 

(Courtesy of Andrew Gray) 


Danvers: Historical Revival in Old 
Salem Village 


Just a few minutes drive from Salem, 
Danvers should not be missed on a tour 
of Northeastern Massachusetts. 

For many years following the witch- 
craft hysteria in the Salem area, the 
part of town known as Salem Village 
repeatedly petitioned the Massachusetts 
General Court for permission to change 
its name and become a separate town- 
ship. In 1752, the Court finally agreed 
to call the area the "District of Dan- 
vers," and five years later it was incor- 
porated as a town in its own right. The 
name change came about, many his- 
torians believe, because of the desire 
of the townspeople to rid the area of 
the stigma attached to the name of Sa- 
lem, since the witch trials had occurred 
there in the late 17th century. 

But, in more recent times, well over 
200 years since the name change, Dan- 
vers is endeavoring to rekindle the in- 
terest of both residents and visitors in 
those long ago days in Salem Village. 
No longer afraid of the stigma, the town 
has made an historical about-face and is 
eager to tell the story of its pivotal role 
at the time of tremendous upheaval in 
the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

More serious students of history can 
stop at the Danvers Archival Center, 
currently located in the Historical So- 
ciety Building at 13 Page Street. (Mon- 
day, Wednesday and Friday, 1 to 5 p.m. 
or by appointment, (617) 777-2821.) 
Part of the Danvers Public Library, the 
center has brought together the largest 
collection of books and manuscripts on 
witchcraft in the United States. 

Visitors more interested in seeing his- 
toric places can plan to visit the exca- 
vation site of the former parsonage of 
the Reverend Samuel Parris, the min- 

ister from whose home the first tales of 
witchcraft emanated. (His home was 
also the setting for Arthur Miller's fa- 
mous play The Crucible.) Located be- 
hind 67 Centre Street, the site has 
yielded thousands of items since the 
digging began in 1971, and all of these 
are being assembled as part of an in- 
terpretive center to tell of life in Salem 
Village around the tragic period of 1692. 
Several of these items give a different 
twist to history indeed! For example, as 
archivist and curator Richard Trask 
points out, the hundreds of fragments 
of wine bottles unearthed, as well as the 
clay pipes for tobacco, are a good indi- 
cation that life in Puritan New England 
might not have been so Puritanical as 
one might think! 

From the excavation area, you can 
walk around the historic district where 
more than 50 structures built before 
1830 are being dated and signed. 
Among the buildings along the way is 
Rebecca Nurse Homestead, home of 
the devoutly-religious woman executed 
as a witch in 1692. Her former house 
at 149 Pine Street and the burial 
grounds nearby are open to the public. 
(June 1 to September 30, Tuesday, 
Thursday and Saturday, 1 to 5 p.m. or 
by appointment, (617) 774-0496. Admis- 
sion $1.) Bicentennial plans call for the 
entire district to be fully mapped by 
early 1975 so you can wander there 
anytime of the year. Pick up a free map 
and guide of historic Danvers from any 
of the public buildings in town, or at 
the tourist booths at the Liberty Tree 
Mall, off Exit 24 from Route 128. 

Glen Magna Farms, off Route 1, is 
another place to stop on a tour of the 
Danvers area. The late 17th century 

farmhouse was purchased in 1814 by 
Captain Joseph Peabody, an East India 
merchant to protect his goods and 
family during the War of 1812. The 
house was bequeathed to the Danvers 
Historical Society, which, since 1963, 
has acquired both the central 11 acres 
of Glen Magna Farms and the surround- 
ing 140 acres. Designated as a conserva- 
tion area, it is a place of quiet beauty 
and inviting nature trails. 

Bicentennial plans call for Glen 
Magna to be a history center as well, 
including information about the Page 
House, now at 11 Page Street, that com- 
memorates the town's proud Revolution- 
ary history. Minuteman Captain Page's 
house was used in 1774 by General 
Thomas Gage when he came to Danvers 
to watch for "radical activity in the area." 

Glen Magna also plans to honor John 
Greenleaf Whittier, the poet who lived 
out his later years with his Danvers 
cousins at Oak, Knoll. With that home 
no longer standing, a room at Glen 
Magna will be devoted to the role 
Whittier played in the anti-slavery move- 
ment. Some of his papers pertaining to 
this period are already located at the 
Danvers Archival Center, along with the 
complete collection of abolitionist 
papers belonging to fellow reformer 
Parker Pillsbury. Whittier himself had 
once admitted that he "set a higher 
value on [his] name as appended to the 
Anti-Slavery Declaration of 1833 than 
on the title page of any book." The 
subject matter of the room to be dedi- 
cated to him would have pleased him 
well. (Since Glen Magna's plans were 
tentative at press time, call the Danvers 
Archival Center for open hours and ad- 
mission fees, (617) 777-2821.) 



Ipswich: A "Museum" Found in a 
City's Streets 

The drive to Ipswich up Route 133 from 
Gloucester or Route 1A from Salem 
leads you into a village green sur- 
rounded by historic homes and tower- 
ing trees. You can admire the pictur- 
esque setting of the South Village 
Green from the street, but if you hap- 
pen to be there any weekday except 
Monday from April to November, you 
can combine your admiration with a 
tour of two homes currently owned by 
the Ipswich Historical Society. 

The John Whipple House, built in 
1640 and added to 30 years later, still 
retains its original pine paneling, carved 
moldings, chestnut beams and huge 
fireplaces. Now containing a collection 
of 17th and 18th century furnishings, 
the house also features a 17th century- 
type garden, maintained by the Ipswich 
Garden Club, with more than 60 plants 
and herbs referred to in the early rec- 
ord of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 

Across the street from the Whipple 
House is the Thomas Franklin Waters 
Memorial, a large Federal house dating 
from 1795. It contains period furnish- 
ings and a number of treasures from 
the Orient brought home in the days of 
the China trade. (Tuesday to Saturday, 
10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Sunday 1 to 5 p.m. 
Admission to each house 750; children 
under 12, free.) 

Around the South Village Green many 
of the first settlers of the original Puri- 
tan colony of 1633 made their homes. 
Others settled along the present-day 
East Street and High Street area and 
even today, more than 40 homes built 
prior to 1725 are still standing and oc- 
cupied. Markers display the year of 
construction and, on occasion, other 
bits of information about the residents. 
A favorite of many visitors is the plaque 
found at 33 High Street, assuring that 
no one will forget the home of Anne 
Bradstreet, known as the first American 
poetess, who lived there from 1635 to 
1644. Fearing any future recognition of 
her rightful place in history, she had 
written in dismay: 

I am obnoxious to each carping 

Who says my hand a needle better 

A Poet's pen all scorn I should thus 

For such despite they cast Female 
wits. . . . 

Since most of the homes in town 
dating from the 17th and 18th centuries 
are now private residences, they are 

not open daily to the public. Some 
dwellings owned by the Society for the 
Preservation of New England Antiquities 
may be visited at specified times; for 
an up-to-date listing of visiting hours 
and information on private homes open 
on special holidays, pick up a free copy 
of the Historic Guidebook to Ipswich, put 
out by the Ipswich Chamber of Com- 
merce. This and other information on 
the town is available at Town Hall 
on South Main Street, or, from July 4 
to Labor Day, at the chamber's Infor- 
mation Booth at Market Square. (To 
get there from the South Village Green, 
take South Main Street across the 
Choate Bridge, built in 1764, the old- 
est stone arched bridge in English- 
speaking America, and continue to the 
center of town.) 

Among other sites in Ipswich is what 
is presumed to be the first post office in 
the United States at 42 North Main 
Street, dating from 1774. (May to 
November 1, 2 to 5 p.m.; admission 
free). Also, if you're looking at historic 
markers on High Street, seek out the 
marker to the Pillow Lace Industry 
which, in the days before the clam in- 
dustry, was Ipswich's commercial claim 
to fame for many years. Begun almost 
immediately after the town was settled, 
the making of lace by hand reached its 
peak in 1790 when annual production 
was 41,979 yards per year. 

MM | 

We suggest that a good way to tour 
Ipswich is by foot or by bike. The 
same sights can be seen from a car 
window, but if you want to stop, look 
and compare styles or take photos, 
then all that starting and stopping can 
be a real hazard to motorists who are 
whizzing by for other purposes. 

Each summer during the first week of 
August, thousands of visitors come to 
Ipswich for Old Ipswich Days, a seven- 
day festival which seems to involve 
everyone in town. Employees of local 
banks and shops dress in colonial cos- 
tumes and artists and other craftsmen 
display their wares on both town greens. 
A complete schedule of events is avail- 
able at the Information Booth. 

For people who prefer to enjoy the 
great outdoors, Ipswich has plenty to 
offer. Crane's Beach, located six miles 
from Ipswich on Argilla Road (east of 
South Village Green) is considered to 
be one of the best beaches in the north- 
eastern United States. In addition to its 
miles of white sand and dunes, it has a 
section of pine woods serving as a ha- 
ven to wild deer and other small animals. 
Castle Hill, the estate of the late 
Richard T. Crane Jr., a Chicago million- 
aire, is also located on the beach. It 
houses the Museum of the Constitution 
and Freedom, open all year. During 
July and August, a series of outdoor 
concerts is presented. (Call (617) 
356-4351 for information. Admission to 
Crane's Beach is $1.50 per car on 
weekdays and $3 per car on weekends.) 

< » i » iY i nil n wmM^^iv^Mi m < * 


Aaron Smith House, one of Ipswich's private homes, is located at 57 South Village Green. 



Down to the 
Sea in Ships 

Captains' mansions and ocean-view houses on Gloucester's rocky cliffs recall the area's halcyon days as a fishing port. 

On a cold night in December, 1839, 
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote in 
his Journal of the tragic news of yet 
more shipwrecks off the Cape Ann 
coast. Twenty bodies had been washed 
ashore near Gloucester, including one 
lashed to a piece of the wreck, and 
Longfellow resolved to "write a ballad 
upon this." Twelve days later he ful- 
filled this resolution by composing the 
immortal poem The Wreck of the 
Hesperus, making it impossible for 
any visitor to Gloucester to forget the 
chilling story of the fair young maiden 
found with "the salt sea . . . frozen on 
her breast" along the reef called Nor- 
man's Woe. 

You can start your visit to Gloucester 
at that very spot by turning off Route 
128 to Route 127 at one of the exits 
marked Magnolia. A lovely drive down 
Shore Road and Hesperus Avenue leads 
you first to Rate's Chasm, a 200 foot 
fissure within the rocks that gives you 
both a thunderous and exquisite view of 
the sea and beyond. A little farther 
down the road is the infamous Nor- 
man's Woe, the despair of many a 
storm-tossed sailor. 

Just a short distance away is the 
Hammond Museum, a medieval castle 
that was once the home of the famous 
inventor, John Hays Hammond Jr. Be- 
queathed after his death to the Roman 
Catholic Archdiocese of Boston, the 
castle contains masterpieces and his- 
toric treasures from all over the world. 
(Guided tours are given daily from 
June 1 to September 15 at intervals 
from 10 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. Early spring 
until late fall, open Sundays and holi- 
days, 1:30 to 4:40 p.m. Adults $1.50; 

children under 12, $1. Throughout the 
year, including Christmas season and 
Eastertime, special organ concerts are 
given within the castle's marble halls. 
For a concert schedule call (617) 283- 

Just before you enter Gloucester 
proper, take a sharp turn to the sea off 
Route 127 to Stage Fort Park, the site 
of the fishing station started by Dor- 
chester Puritans in 1623. Bring a pic- 
nic lunch or buy some steamers in 
town and bring them with you, take a 
walk, or just stand and gaze across the 
Gloucester Harbor. There you can view 
the lighthouse still operating at Ten 
Pound Island, so named because of its 
purchase price from the Indians when 
a wise Englishman must have realized 
the potential land value of the Cape 
Ann shore. You can also stand there 
and picture a time in the 1700's when 
more fleets came out of Gloucester 
than any other New England town. In 
fact, right before the American Revo- 
lution, 150 schooners employing 600 
men plied the seas from Cape Ann to 
the Grand Banks off Newfoundland, 
giving the area the title "fish pond of 
the world." 

Gloucester has known almost con- 
tinual importance as a center for fish- 
ing and fishermen from its early 17th 
century days, to its heyday in the 
1890's when the fleet had 374 vessels, 
to the current 90 commercial rig side 
trawlers that spend either a day, or 
several days, or a week or two bring- 
ing in the catch. A never-to-be-forgot- 
ten reminder of the thousands of men 
— Yankees, Scandinavians, Portuguese, 
and Italian — who sailed out to sea 

never to return again is the impressive 
Fishermen's Memorial, located along 
the harbor on the main boulevard of 
the city. 

The sculpture of the weather-beaten 
helmsman turning the wheel of his ship 
was created by Leonard Craske. 
Erected by the citizens of Gloucester 
in 1923 to commemorate the 300th 
anniversary of the settlement of the 
harbor, it is inscribed with a passage 
from Psalm 107: "They that go down 
to the sea in ships." Anyone who has 
read Kipling's Captains Courageous 
— or remembers Spencer Tracy in the 
movie version — will feel an instant 
rapport with Craske's impressive monu- 
ment. Each year, on Memorial Day, 
flowers are placed at the foot of the 
statue and blossoms are strewn upon 
the water to mark the graves of those 
many Gloucestermen from all back- 
grounds who have been lost at sea. 

Gloucester was once dependent on 
its own catch, and its own distribution 
and exportation of that catch, for its 
economic well-being. But the city has 
been forced, especially because of for- 
eign competition since World War II, 
to diversify its industry. Thanks to the 
experimentation of transplanted Brook- 
lyn-ite Clarence Birdseye, who discov- 
ered the process for blast-frozen foods, 
an alternate means of livelihood for 
many local residents has been found 
in the huge processing plants set 
along the industrial part of the water- 
front. Wander down along the side 
roads of the harbor and watch some of 
the ships unload their catch for proc- 
essing while others get ready to head 
out to sea. It's a colorful, noisy, and 



The "in" place for teenagers these 
days in Gloucester is a centuries-old 
cemetery located on a grassy hill 
overlooking the sea. The focus of a 
community-wide educational work- 
shop, the burial ground serves as 
classroom and laboratory where 
students gather daily to clear away 
weeds, document gravestones, as- 
semble artifacts, repair broken slate 
or granite, and record their finds. 

The cemetery project is the crea- 
tion of noted artist, sculptor, writer, 
dreamer Alfred Duca. Involved for 
years in programs around Boston 
designed to introduce young people 
to the creative arts, Duca conceived 
the idea of the Gloucester cemetery 
restoration as a way to "turn kids on 
to art and their environment." With 
the Bicentennial approaching, he 
sought a project that would involve a 
number of kids, a whole range of 
community resources and support, 
and a tie-in to the town's historical 
tradition. The resulting proposal, a 
town-backed program using stu- 
dents to restore colonial burying 
grounds, could both preserve the 
past and teach present and future 

The project was officially formu- 
lated as the Gloucester Community 
Development Corporation and, after 
a few lean years, it finally began to 
attract both attention and monies. 
Backed by groups ranging from the 
National Trust for Historic Preserva- 
tion to the Commonwealth of Mas- 
sachusetts, the cemetery project 
now permits school credits for such 
restoration-related subjects as his- 
toric preservation, archaeology, hor- 
ticulture and gravestone art. An 
alternative program to traditional 
studies, it is also proving to be a real 
alternative to students who might 
otherwise have dropped out of 

The town of Gloucester is proud of 
the training its young people are 
receiving, delighted with their new- 
found respect for art and history, 
and eager to share their experiences 
with other communities interested in 
setting up similar preservation pro- 
jects as part of a school's curricu- 
lum. Write to the "Gloucester Exper- 
iment." Box 15, Gloucester, MA 
01930, for information or assistance 
in starting programs in your own 

The names of Gloucester's fishing vessels have remained the same for generations 

very enjoyable way to spend part of 
an afternoon. And it helps to explain 
the importance of fish to a community 
that, so the saying goes, will even 
permit a wedding to be postponed if 
the mackerel are running. 

Admirers of art that has been in- 
spired by the sea will want to make a 
stop along Harbor Loop, off Main 
Street, at the Fitz Hugh Lane House. 
Once the studio and home of the noted 
19th century painter of seascapes, the 
house was recently acquired and re- 
stored by the city and is due to open 
to the public in 1975. Park in the lot 
near the Lane House and walk up 
Pleasant Street (to Federal Street) to 
the Captain Davis House, now the 
headquarters of the Cape Ann Scien- 
tific, Literary, and Historical Associa- 
tion (June 15 to September 15, Tues- 
day through Saturday, 11 a.m. to 4 p.m.; 
small admission fee.) One room of the 
house contains a collection of Lane's 
memorable scenes of the sea. Com- 
pare his view of the 1840's with the 
one you've had of Gloucester today. 
Then come back to Harbor Loop and 
see if you are lucky enough to find a 
summer concert scheduled on the 
wharf for that evening. In any event, 
stay in town for a marvelous seafood 
meal at any one of a number of fine 

Special events, like the concerts, 
abound in the area. The Chamber of 
Commerce Information Booth, on Route 
127 near the Fishermen's Memorial, 
has a weekly schedule of events and 
brochures on numerous side trips 
around the immediate area. It also 
has information on harbor tours, inns 
and guest houses, and places to shop. 
Chances are you'll want to see the 

Rocky Neck Art Colony or have a swim 
at Niles Beach. There are also a num- 
ber of other old houses and monu- 
ments to see, so be sure you have a 
map before you start. People involved 
in the tourist industry in Gloucester 
suggest that it might be a wise idea to 
enter the city almost in the reverse 
order we mentioned. In other words, 
stay on Route 128 to exits 9 or 11 in 
the center of town to avoid the possi- 
bility of hitting a traffic jam caused by 
a drawbridge that frequently goes up 
off exit 14. 

Whatever time of year you visit 
Gloucester, there is something special 
to do. Local residents particularly like 
Ravenswood Park in the fall and spring, 
with its 300 acres of forest land, na- 
ture trails, and beautiful vistas over- 
looking the sea. The 260-acre Eastern 
Point Wildlife Sanctuary is another 
pleasant, undeveloped area. During 
blueberry season or on a winter's day, 
wander through the deserted village of 
Dogtown Commons, a 20-square mile 
area in the center of the Cape which 
was a residence for 60 to 80 fam- 
ilies before the Revolution until 
after the War of 1812. On the site of 
this boulder-strewn moor, the rem- 
nants of a long-ago glacial deposit, 
are a series of numbered cellar holes 
marking the spot where families of fish- 
ermen once resided while their men 
went out to sea. Many of them never 
returned, and the poor widows and 
orphans, it is said, were guarded by 
ferocious dogs, thus giving the area its 
name. Now the area is well populated 
with foxes, raccoons, skunks and even 
otter. If you walk through on a snowy 
morn, you can spot a maze of tracks 
made during the night. 



Newburyport: Restoring the Past 
with the Future in Mind 

Anyone who takes pride in American 
architecture will be delighted to see all 
the construction styles in evidence in 
Newburyport, a picturesque town on 
the Merrimac River. The town reached 
its peak as a center for shipbuilding, 
commerce and fishing at the time of the 
Revolutionary War and the years follow- 
ing it. Successful importers, exporters, 
rum-makers and silver craftsmen dis- 
played their wealth in their homes, 
churches and public buildings. Today, 
this testimony to the extraordinary pros- 
perity that once blossomed in Newbury- 
port remains in its fine old buildings ex- 
emplifying Late Georgian, Federal, 
Greek, Colonial and Romanesque Revival 
and Victorian architecture. 

The Newburyport Economic Develop- 
ment Association has published A 
Walking Tour of Newburyport, a beau- 
tifully photographed guide to the city. 
Taking visitors from the Romanesque 
Revival Corliss Memorial Building (the 
YMCA Civic Center and drop-in center 
for tourists) the tour goes up State 
Street and down past the elegant Fed- 
eral mansions of the famous High 
Street, the fashionable place to live 
during the 1800's and ever after. In the 
summer months, stop at the Chamber 
of Commerce information booth on High 
Street and pick up the tour brochure 
and other information. At other times of 
the year, go to the chamber office at 21 
Pleasant Street. Here you can find out 
what historic places are open and 
when, and where to find other Revolu- 
tionary sites. 

If you come to Newburyport between 
May and October, you can visit the 
Cushing House at 98 High Street, now 
the home of the Historical Society of 
Old Newbury. Once the residence of 
Caleb Cushing who served as the first 
U.S. Ambassador to China, the Federal 
mansion displays the most elegant of 
early 19th century exterior and interior 
furnishings. (Tuesday to Saturday, 10 
a.m. to 4 p.m.; Sunday, 2 to 5 p.m.) 

Much of the Federal architecture in 
the town dates from the early 1800's 
when, in the wake of a disastrous fire, 
a Massachusetts law was passed re- 
quiring that downtown Newburyport be 
rebuilt of brick or stone. As a result, 
the Market Street area of town became 
one of the earliest attempts at urban 
renewal in America; its unified scheme 
made it the best example of Federalist 
seaport architecture anywhere. 


Shortly after the rebuilding, how- 
ever, the city fell on harder times. A 
brief resurgence of activity on the 
harbor came about in mid-century with 
the introduction of the clipper ships. 
But the activity could not last, due 
both to protective tariffs and the in- 
creased use of steam ships to replace 
the clippers. The city's troubles were 
compounded later by the formation of 
a huge sand bar at the mouth of the 
Merrimac River, closing the port to 
large, modern ships, and making the 
fishing industry the only viable sea- 
connected alternative in this one-time 
center of international commerce. 

As the 19th century gave way to the 
20th, the waterfront area gradually be- 
gan to shift from its former position as 
a bustling business center to a 22-acre 
section of half-deserted buildings and 
warehouses. In 1963, the city proposed 
an urban renewal project to demolish 
and rebuild the entire Market Square 
area and, in 1966, the project was 
federally funded. But the Historical So- 
ciety of Old Newbury demanded alter- 
natives. Some demolition had already 
taken place before the Society, working 
closely with the Newburyport Redevel- 
opment Authority, managed to stop all 
action. A few years later, a new pro- 
gram was approved and funded, com- 
bining restoration of the area with 
compatible new construction. At the 
same time, the buildings in the area, 
were placed on the National Register of 
Historic Places. 

The first parcel of land to be rede- 
veloped in the area, on Inn Street, was 
sold at cut-down prices to five indi- 
vidual local developers in the fall of 
1971. The results were spectacular. 
Once a street of run-down commercial 
structures leading from the center of 
town to the waterfront, Inn Street is 
now once again a showplace of Fed- 
eral-style architecture. Restored build- 
ings contain craft shops, boutiques and 
bookstores designed to attract visitors 
from near and far. Before the Bicen- 
tennial years are through, the entire 
area — including State Street and the 
waterfront — will be landscaped with 
plantings, benches, and a tot-lot. 

The city of Newburyport has gotten 
firmly behind the project in many differ- 
ent ways. Federal and city funds will 
be used to install an entirely new light- 
ing system, using an old gas-style 
street lamp outfitted with electricity for 

Inn Street buildings today have been re- 
habilitated and are occupied by small shops 
on the first floor, offices and apartments 
above. In the next stage of development the 
street and utility poles in front of these 
buildings will be replaced by a pedestrian 
mall which will include landscaping, benches 
and a fountain. 

modern use. The design of the lamp 
will also serve as the official logo di- 
recting visitors to the renewal area's 
various services. Private businesses in 
the downtown area have also joined 
into the restoration spirit, redoing fa- 
cades, walkways, and sitting-out areas. 

Another important cooperative ven- 
ture between the city and private citi- 
zens has been the rehabilitation of the 
old Customs House on Water Street. 
Built by Robert Mills in 1835, the build- 
ing fell into disuse at the turn of this 
century. Community efforts, here too, 
led to a massive restoration of the his- 
toric building, due to open by the win- 
ter of 1975-76 as a Maritime Museum. 
(Small fee to be charged.) Along with 
the Coast Guard Cutter, The General 
Greene, moored at nearby Riverside 
Park, the museum will relate the story 
of the U.S. Coast Guard since its 
founding in Newburyport in 1790. 

Each summer there's a special festi- 
val in Newburyport called Yankee 
Homecoming. (Check listings in local 
papers for the 1975 and 1976 dates.) 
And, one of the most popular places on 
hot days is the Parker River Wildlife 
Refuge located on Plum Island in nearby 
Newbury. You can spend an entire day 
wandering through the 4,650-acre ref- 
uge rich in salt marsh, barrier dunes, 
ocean beach and coastal wildlife. The 
area holds a limited number of cars, 
and spaces are usually filled up by 10 
a.m. in the summer. (Open during day- 
light hours all year. Admission free.) 


Photos by Jeff Cosloy 



Between the time of the Pilgrim landing in Plymouth 
in 1620 and the Puritan landing in Salem less than a 
decade later, individual adventurers attempted settle- 
ments in various parts of the shoreline of the region 
called Massachusetts. Long before the white men 
came, the Moswetuset Indians, for whom the colony 
was later named, had set up headquarters on a hum- 
mock that overlooked what is now the city of Quincy. 
Ruled by their chief, Chickatabot, the Indians were 
friendly toward the new arrivals, and sold them parcels 
of land from time to time. In 1622, Thomas and John 
Gray bought the Hull peninsula, establishing a com- 
munity in the area that subsequently housed Fort 
Revere. They were soon joined by such men as the 
controversial minister John Lyford, John Oldham, who 
was exiled from Plymouth, and Roger Conant, who 
later went from Nantasket to Gloucester Harbor and 

Settlements Around Boston 

Another Englishman, Robert Gorges, left for 
America with a number of similarly daring companions. 
The son of Sir Ferdinando Gorges, who had been given 
a grant of land in the New World by James I in 1605, 
Robert came to Weymouth in September, 1623, to capi- 
talize upon his father's claim. But after a cold and 
difficult winter, short of supplies and money, Gorges 
and most of his colleagues returned to England. Sev- 
eral others elected to stay, including William Black- 
stone, a young minister with a Cambridge University 
degree, a taste for farming and trading, and an equal 
taste for solitude. In 1625, he moved from Weymouth 
across the bay to the place the Indians called "Shaw- 
mut." He built a house there, overlooking what is now 
the northwest corner of Boston Common. Weymouth 
settler Samuel Maverick moved up to "Winnisimmet," 
now the city of Chelsea. 

The year 1625 also saw the establishment of a 
trading post in the current Braintree-Quincy area. 
Called Mount Wollaston after its founder, Captain Wol- 
laston, who left soon after for Virginia, the name was 
changed by Thomas Morton, who dubbed the area 
Merry Mount and crowned himself the "Lord of Mis- 
rule." Several years of wild revelry followed, with drink- 
ing, dancing and rioting very much the order of the 
day. When Morton erected a Maypole on May Day, 
1627, it was more than the serious Pilgrim colonists 
could bear. In 1628, Governor Bradford dispatched 
Myles Standish and eight men from Plymouth to arrest 
Morton, banish him to England, and disperse the settle- 
ment. Standish, himself not a member of the Pilgrim 
Church, was probably more outraged by Morton's au- 
dacity in selling guns to the Indians and trading rum for 

furs than he was by the bawdy behavior. John Endicott, 
Puritan Governor of Salem, no doubt was upset on all 
accounts. He personally journeyed to Merry Mount, so 
it is said, to cut down the Maypole himself. Neverthe- 
less, Morton later returned to America, where he once 
again incurred the wrath of Pilgrim and Puritan alike. 

Meanwhile, more conventional settlements con- 
tinued to be formed. Englishman Thomas Walford, who 
was thought to have been a blacksmith when Gorges 
first went to Weymouth, founded his home in "Misha- 
wum," later called Charlestown, along the banks of the 
Charles River. In 1630, when John Winthrop, governor 
of the newly-organized Massachusetts Bay Company 
and some of his party of Puritan settlers journeyed from 
Salem via Chelsea to Charlestown, they probably met 
and visited with Walford. Chances are he showed them 
the several small log houses that had been built by 
previous groups of traders, Salemites, or other new 
arrivals who had just passed through for a short time. 
One group of these newcomers had arrived a few 
months earlier on the ship Mary and John, which sailed 
from Plymouth, England, in March, 1630. Hearing that 
the grazing land at the nearby Indian resort of "Mata- 
pan" was of superior quality, they had moved on. 

Winthrop and a number of his followers decided 
that Charlestown well-suited their needs for a home 
and, in July, 1630, they laid the foundation for a Puritan 
Church in the town. The first month there can only be 
described as a disaster, with much sickness and death, 
due mainly to a lack of pure water. As described in a 
book prepared by the Massachusetts Department of 
Education for the Tercentenary of the Massachusetts 
Bay Colony in 1930, "the graves on the hillside grew 
faster than did the dwellings." 

But then, on a hot summer's day when things 
seemed most dismal, an Indian appeared at Governor 
Winthrop's home, carrying a letter from Blackstone, the 
lone resident of the area known as Shawmut or Tri- 
mountain (Tremont). "Worthy Mr. Winthrop," read the 
note, "it grieves me to know that there hath been so 
much sickness in your company . . . and that . . . there 
is dearth of good water. It is not so here, but there 
are good springs, and the country is pleasant to dwell 
in. If you will come hither with the Indian, I will show 
you the land. . . ." 

Boston Named in 1630 

Winthrop immediately went by canoe across the 
Charles River, talked with Blackstone, saw the springs 
of fine water, and agreed to purchase a portion of the 
land for the many new residents who were eager to 
set up their homesteads. According to Winthrop's 
Journal, his court of assistants met in September, 1630, 


On November 29, 1773, a crowd of more than 5,000 alarmed citi- 
zens met at Old South Meeting House to discuss the Townshend 
duty and the tax on incoming cargoes of tea. They were to meet 
here several more times during the next month, notably on Decem- 
ber 16, the day of the Boston Tea Party. Today, "Old South" is a 
landmark along the Freedom Trail in downtown Boston. 

and renamed the area "Boston" for the city in Lincoln- 
shire, England, where many of the settlers had come 
from originally. At the same time, they voted that 
Mattapan should be called Dorchester and another 
town along the Charles be named Watertown. The 
latter settlement became a bastion of civic and reli- 
gious democracy under John Oldham, Sir Richard 
Saltonstall, and the Reverend George Phillips. 

Puritans Had Undisputed Claim 

"By February, 1631," reads Winthrop's Journal, 
"the Plantations along the Bay were some eight or 
more: Boston, Watertown, Roxbury, Saugus [Lynn], 
Salem, Newton [Cambridge], Charlestown and Dor- 
chester." He also could have mentioned such nearby 
towns as Medford, Chelsea, Scituate, Hull, or Nantas- 
ket, where his wife Margaret and son John Jr. disem- 
barked from their ocean voyage in November, 1631. 
There, on the site of the present-day popular Nantasket 
Beach, they were greeted enthusiastically by everyone 
from Winthrop to Governor Bradford of Plymouth. 

Further settlements continued to develop after 1633 
when Bishop Laud became Archbishop of Canterbury. 
The increased harassment of Puritans under his orders 
led to even more immigration from England. Hingham, 
including the beautiful village of Cohasset where Cap- 
tain John Smith first landed in 1614, was settled per- 
manently around 1633 along the shore south of Boston. 
Other towns, including Salisbury, Newbury, and Ip- 
swich were founded on the north. By 1634, there were 
4000 Englishmen in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, 
with more than 20 villages on or near the shore. 

The Puritans in Boston had an undisputed claim to 
their land, with a royal charter from England as well 
as a deed of purchase from William Blackstone. The 
deed was further strengthened in 1634. By then, the 
first settler in Boston had seen enough of the restrictive 
Puritan life and decided it was not to his liking. He 
sold the balance of his personal land to be used by 
the town as the Common, packed up his library, and 
moved to Rhode Island. The land claim was given 
added weight when Chief Chickatabot was entertained 
at Governor Winthrop's home, on what is now Boston's 
Washington Street. After exchanging numerous gifts, 
including corn from the Indians and a suit of Western 
clothes from the white men, the Indian chief deeded to 
the Bostonians all the land on the bay peninsula. Rela- 
tions with the Indians continued to be good until the 
time of King Philip's War, more than 40 years later. 
Even then, the city was never attacked by Indians. 

Life in Boston during the time of the first Massa- 
chusetts Bay Company charter was difficult, strict, and 
challenging. But for those Puritans in charge of the 
day to day affairs, the colony probably operated more 
independently than it ever would in the future. As 
early as July 4, 1631, the first trading vessel was built 
and launched from the Mystic River. Called the Bless- 
ing of the Bay, the ship set sail for New York and Long 
Island to initiate Boston's future role as a center for 
fishing, trade, and commerce. Education began in 
Boston in the early years, as well, with the establish- 


ment of the Boston Latin School in 1635 as the first 
public school in America. Harvard College, the first 
university in the colonies, was founded in 1636 and. ad- 
mitted its first class two years later. In 1647, the Gen- 
eral Court ruled that "secondary as well as elementary 
education may be provided at public expense." 

It should be remembered, however, that girls were 
not admitted generally to Boston public schools until 
1789. Also, it was not until the 19th century that the 
ideal of true popular education became a reality under 
the leadership of Horace Mann, first commissioner of 
public education in Massachusetts. Nevertheless, to 
those 17th-century residents of the Bay Colony who 
adhered to the rigid religious and social order of the 
day, the rights they had to govern their own affairs — 
albeit frequently at the expense of others — were con- 
sidered of paramount importance. 

Yearning for Independence 

The first threat to this independence, so valued by 
the colony, had come in 1634 when King Charles I 
changed his mind about the self-governing charter he 
had granted to the Massachusetts Bay Company a year 
before the Boston settlement. The colonists responded 
to the King's demand for a return of the document by 
organizing a militia. Trouble at home was probably 
the chief reason that Charles did not continue to press 
the matter. But although not used for the purpose it 
was constructed, the beacon light placed upon the 
highest of the three hills in Boston to warn the citizens 
of the threat from England — the hill known ever since 
as "Beacon Hill" — was to cast its symbolic glow upon 
the populace all during the next half-century. And when 
the charter was rescinded by Charles II, in 1684, and 
Massachusetts became a royal colony, perhaps the 
light from the warning beacon was again kindled in the 
hearts of all those who yearned for the measure of 
independence that once was theirs. 

It certainly glowed again less than a century later 
in the wake of Britain's costly victory over France in 
the Seven Years' War. From that point, the colonists 
were faced with increased control by the mother coun- 
try and a spate of taxes imposed by a far away Parlia- 
ment. By 1775, following the highly unpopular Sugar 
Act, Quartering Act, Stamp Act, Townsend Duties, the 
Boston Massacre and the Intolerable Acts, the glow 
had become a fire. Fanned by such Massachusetts 
leaders as Samuel Adams and his Sons of Liberty, John 
Hancock, James Otis, John Adams, Josiah Quincy, 
Isaiah Thomas, Robert Treat Paine, and so many others, 
the sparks of the fire would soon become a full-scale 
conflagration when British soldiers faced American 
colonists on an April day in Lexington and Concord. 


Boston: A Birthday Party that Never Ends 


Ever since William Blackstone issued 
his invitation to John Winthrop to come 
across the Charles River, Boston resi- 
dents have been inviting people to par- 
take of the hospitality and charm of 
one of the nation's oldest and largest 
cities. During the Bicentennial years, 
especially, the city of Boston plays host 
to thousands and thousands of visitors 
who want to see and experience where 
the Revolution had its birth and the 
seed of independence its flowering. Un- 
der the Mayor's Office of the Boston 
Bicentennial, a nonprofit corporation 
known as "Boston 200" has been set 
up. Comprised of representatives of 
all of Boston's ethnic and professional 
communities, Boston 200 has been 
working for several years to make the 
city's celebration of the Bicentennial 
the biggest birthday party of all. 

Everyone is invited to come, every- 
one is invited to participate, and every- 
one is invited to start playing "City- 
game," a unique conglomeration of 
special exhibits, walking trails, theme 
tours, museum shows, neighborhood 
programs, and cultural events. 

To enjoy the two-year party to its 
fullest, and find out all the details of 
Citygame, get a copy of Boston: The 
Official Bicentennial Guidebook, pub- 
lished by E.P. Dutton and Company. A 
320-page paperback guide, with 64 
pages of trail maps, it is available for 
$1.50 from any of the Boston 200 Visi- 
tor Information Centers throughout the 
city. Or, you can write directly for a 
copy to Boston 200, P.O. Box 1775, 
Boston, Massachusetts 02114. 

Briefly, Citygame will help you 
plan your visit to Boston in a way that 
can cater to almost any interest you 
might have. There are many different 
walking trails, all accessible by MBTA 
(subway), ranging from a stroll around 
elegant Beacon Hill or historic Back 
Bay to an early morning walk and whiff 
around the waterfront area. And, of 
course, there's the old stand-by Free- 
dom Trail, long known to tourists for 
its exciting route winding from the 
Common through the historic streets of 
Old Boston. 

It will still take you to such memora- 
able spots as the "new" State House 
built in 1795 by Bulfinch (daily 9 a.m. 
to 5 p.m.), the statue of Boston native 
Benjamin Franklin, the Old State House, 
the site of the Boston Massacre of 
1770, the Old Corner Book Store, the 
Old South Meeting House, King's 
Chapel, etc. The route forms a figure 
8, intersecting at Boston's new City Hall, 


The Official 



For some suggestions on seeing Boston, pur- 
chase a copy of Boston's official Bicenten- 
nial Guidebook, available at visitor centers 
or by writing Boston 200, P.O. Box 1775, 
Boston, MA 02114. Price: $1.50 

laid out by I.M. Pei and designed by 
Kallmann, McKinnell and Knowles Ar- 
chitects. Using the City Hall Visitor 
Information Center at State and Con- 
gress Streets as a base, the Freedom 
Trail is divided geographically into two 
separate parts. One runs through Bos- 
ton center and the other goes from 
Faneuil Hall to the North End where 
you can see Paul Revere's House and 
the Old North Church. More hale and 
hearty walkers can continue on across 
the Charlestown Bridge to the U.S.S. 
Constitution and Bunker Hill Monument. 

In addition to the area trails, many 
special trails have been developed to 
help you appreciate the contributions 
that Boston and Bostonians have made 
in all walks of life. There's a medical 
trail, for example, and a literary trail, a 
trail noting achievements of women, 
and a trail marking the places of par- 
ticular interest to children. 

With the aid of a grant from the Mas- 
sachusetts Bicentennial Commission, 
Boston 200's Citygame has also de- 
veloped the Black Heritage Trail to 
show the important role of Boston's 
black population in the growth of the 
city and the nation. The walking part 
of the tour centers mainly around the 
Common and the Beacon Hill district 
where blacks lived from the time of the 
Revolution. Starting at the Tremont 
Street side of the Boston Common, visi- 

tors on the trail will want to stop to see 
the Crispus Attucks Monument. Erected 
in 1888 to the memory of Attucks and 
the other four men who died on King 
Street on a snowy evening in March, 
1770, the statue is a lasting reminder 
of the events culminating in the Boston 
Massacre. Attucks was a former slave 
who had supposedly run away from his 
master, one William Brown of Framing- 
ham, in 1750. He apparently was just 
passing through the street by the Cus- 
tom House when the rioting began and 
the shooting started, taking Attucks and 
four others to a common grave in the 
Old Granary Burying Ground. 

John Adams was designated as de- 
fender of the soldiers accused of the 
killings, pleading at their trial that they 
had been provoked by a mob that was 
"probably a motley rabble of saucy 
boys, Negroes and mulattoes, Irish 
teagues, and outlandish jack tarrs." 
Three years later, this Yankee gentle- 
man, who was to become second Presi- 
dent of the United States, obviously had 
a change of heart. In July, 1773, he 
penned a letter to Lt. Governor Thomas 
Hutchinson: "You will hear from Us 
with Astonishment . . . You are chargea- 
ble before God and Man, with our 
Blood . . . You will hear from Us here- 
after." And Adams signed the letter, 
"Chrispus Attacks (sic)." 

Another stop on the Black Heritage 
Trail, directly opposite the Massachu- 
setts State House, is the statue to 
Robert Gould Shaw and his 54th Mas- 
sachusetts Voluntary Regiment, known 
as the Brave Black Regiment. Fighting 
courageously for the Union in the Civil 
War, the soldiers of this company at 
first refused to accept pay because they 
were offered the wages of common 
laborers, and not the wages of front- 
line soldiers. Congress finally relented 
and ruled that the men deserved full 
pay. Sergeant William Carney of the 
54th was the first black soldier to re- 
ceive the Congressional Medal of Honor 
during the Civil War. In honor of him, 
the fallen leader Colonel Shaw (a white 
man), and the sacrifices of all among 
their number, Joshua B. Smith, a former 
slave and abolitionist, began the fund 
to erect the monument. It was designed 
by architect McKim, executed by sculp- 
tor Augustus St. Gaudens, and unveiled 
in 1897. 

Wandering on through the back 
streets of Beacon Hill, you will pass the 
brick federal home of Lewis Hayden, at 
66 Phillips Street, where the former slave 
helped others to freedom in Canada 
along the route of the underground rail- 
road. Another stop for escaping slaves 
was the Charles Street Meeting House, 



originally founded in 1807 as the Third 
Baptist Church of Boston. It was built 
by Asher Benjamin, noted architect who 
also designed many of the buildings in 
Deerfield. In mid-century, some of the 
white members of the church objected 
to attempts to seat black servants in 
the family pews. Their policies of 
segregation remained, however and 
those who continued to be opposed left 
the church and formed the Tremont 

Among the other places of interest on 
the trail is Smith Court, where the first 
public school for the education of black 
children was founded. At Number Eight 
Smith Court, in a small alley off Joy 
Street, is the African Meeting House 
where, in 1832, the Anti-Slavery Society 
was organized. As of June 1, 1975, 
there will be guided tours through the 
building by staff members of the Mu- 
seum of Afro-American History. (For 
information on days and hours, call 
(617) 723-8863.) 

Off the walking part of the Black 
Heritage Trail, but just a short ride 
by subway, is the National Center of 
Afro-American Artists, at 122 Elm Hill 
Avenue, in Roxbury. Founded and di- 
rected by Elma Lewis, the Center was 
honored recently by the American Revo- 
lutionary Bicentennial Administration in 
a film on the Bicentennial made for 
international distribution. The NCAAA 
represents the Festival America part 
of the nation's celebration, symbolizing 
"arts made meaningful in current his- 
tory." The Center was established 
25 years ago, and is now comprised of 
the Elma Lewis School and 11 or more 
performing companies. These include 
the Dance Company of the NCAAA, the 
Children's Dance Company, the Primi- 
tive Dance Company, the Wuhabi Mime 
Company, the National Center Theatre 
Company, Voices of Black Persuasion, 
Elma Lewis Playhouse in the Park, etc. 
These, and others, all will be perform- 
ing during the Bicentennial years. Many 
works have been specifically commis- 
sioned to commemorate Black Amer- 
ica's role in America's history. (Call 
(617) 442-8820 for more up-to-date in- 

A detailed description of the various 
geographic and theme trails can be ob- 
tained in the Boston 200 Guidebook, 
and brochures also will be available 
from any of the Tourist Information 
Centers. Easily recognizable by their 
use of the official Boston 200 logo, 
these Centers will have information on 
all the programs that are a part of the 
Bicentennial festivities. Major centers 
include the one at Boston City Hall at 
Government Center, another in Boston 

Common at the Freedom Trail Informa- 
tion Booth, and a third in the John Han- 
cock Building at Copley Square. Start 
off your tour of Boston by going to the 
top of the Hancock Building's Ob- 
servatory or to the Prudential Center's 
Skywalk to get a good look at the 
entire metropolitan area so you can 
plan where you want to go once you're 
back on the ground. 

For assistance in planning your itin- 
erary, stop by at any of the Centers 
in the daytime or call 338-1975 for 
around-the-clock information on per- 
formances by symphony, ballet, opera, 
or theatre companies. In addition, the 
Mayor's Office of Cultural Affairs main- 
tains an Arts Line at 261-1660. Call it 
for information on cultural events any- 
where in the city. 

Three major large-scale exhibits 
are being sponsored by Boston 200 
to show the role the city has played 
in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. 
Along the Freedom Trail one exhibit, 
The Revolution: Where It All Began — 
1760-1775 presents the issues and 
events leading to the Revolutionary War 
through films, documents, dioramas, 
puppet shows and the like. (Open daily 
as of summer, 1975, 10 a.m. to 7 p.m. 
Adults $1; children 500.) 

The Grand Exposition of Progress 
and Invention: Nineteenth Century Bos- 
ton is at the First Corps of Cadets 
Armory, Arlington Street and Colum- 
bus Avenue. Visitors can see and op- 
erate a variety of gadgets and inven- 
tions that were utilized in both the 
public and domestic life of the period. 
In addition, multi-media presentations 
on urban planning, technological 
change, the arrival of large waves of 
immigrants, the development of trans- 
portation, and the arts and entertain- 
ment of the time are featured in an 
effort to make you feel a true rapport 
with the Boston of a hundred years ago. 
(The exhibit opens in June, 1975, and 
runs daily. Adults $1.50; children 750.) 

The third major exhibit, known as 
Where's Boston: Visions of the City fea- 
tures 20th century Boston. Located at 
the Prudential Center Pavilion, the ex- 
hibit centers around an eight-sided 
movie screen projecting over 2,500 
images of Boston today. A sound track 
features conversations with Bostonians 
from every one of the city's many com- 
munities. (The program runs continu- 
ally, 10' a.m. to 8 p.m. starting in mid- 
April 1975. Adults $2.25; children $1.50.) 

Other exhibits and places of interest 
you'll want to put on your list of 
"musts" to see in Boston include the 
Boston Tea Party Ship and Museum, at 
Congress Street on the harbor. Opened 

in December, 1973, on the 200th anni- 
versary of the famous tea party raid, 
the museum helps you to re-enact the 
conditions that led to the long-ago inci- 
dent. If you're traveling with children, 
you'll especially want to visit the Chil- 
dren's Museum, the New England Aquar- 
ium, the Children's Zoo, and the Mu- 
seum of Science. Don't miss the Boston 
200 exhibits on Medicine and Health 
in Boston and on Yankee Ingenuity 
at the Museum of Science. Literary 
Boston will be at the Boston Public 
Library; Religion in Boston at the Pru- 
dential Skywalk. Boston Women is a 
traveling exhibit. A new film by the 
Museum of the American China Trade 
called Boston and the Sea — The Age 
of Sail, 1775-1870 will be shown daily 
at the Aquarium. 

The whole family will also want to 
see the many special shows being 
planned for the Bicentennial years by 
the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. High- 
lights of the museum's program include 
a six-month exhibition, from April to 
October, 1975, of Paul Revere's Bos- 
ton. Also on display will be a dio- 
rama sequence detailing the major 
confrontations in Boston's Revolution- 
ary history. Called They Nobly Dared, 
the show will be built and lent by the 
Military Collectors of New England. In 
1976, one of many shows planned in- 
cludes a panorama of American paint- 
ing at home and abroad, from 1740 to 
1840, featuring works by Copley, Stu- 
art, and West as well as by New Eng- 
land's less-known provincial painters. 
Write to the Museum of Fine Arts at 
465 Huntington Avenue for a complete 
schedule of exhibitions, demonstrations, 
and seminars. Also, be sure to visit 
the new Institute of Contemporary Art 
at 955 Boylston Street for a view of 
works by Boston's own artists on the 
current scene. 

Boston 200's calendar of events for 
the Bicentennial years is crammed full 
of activities spanning every month and 
every week. Of course, you'd expect 
there would be a special observance 
to mark the 200th anniversary of the 
Battle of Dorchester Heights, or Paul 
Revere's Ride, or Bunker Hill Day. And 
all these days will indeed be cele- 
brated. But there are other days to 
celebrate almost anything you can 
think of, and Boston 200 can give you 
the details. 

As you can see, whenever you plan 
your trip to Boston, you'll be in time 
for the birthday party. It's a gala occa- 
sion that runs all through 1975 and 
1976. And even after the candles are 
blown out, much of the cake will still 
be there to benefit Bostonians and fu- 
ture visitors for many years to come. 


Historic Spokes Around Boston's Hub 

You could take a geometric compass, 
spread it on the map around Metro- 
politan Boston, and find that at almost 
any point there is something of interest 
to see or do. The choices are abundant, 
even when the circumference is limited 

— as in this case — to a few towns 
west and south of the city. We list just 
a few places that have some particular 
relevance during the Bicentennial years, 
or else, simply a place or two that 
caught our eye as we wandered by. If 
you do decide to go to a specific spot 
we mention, and we hope you do, then 
branch out and see the rest of the town 

— and the rest of the area. 

West of Boston 

John F. Kennedy was born in Brookline 
in 1917 and his birthplace at 83 Beals 
Street is open to the public. (Daily, 9 
a.m. to 5 p.m. Adults 500; children 
under 16, free.) Other notable residents 
of the town have included Hannah 
Adams, acclaimed as America's first 
professional woman writer, poet Amy 
Lowell, former Boston Symphony direc- 
tor Serge Koussevitsky and tenor 
Roland Hayes. 

The Larz Anderson Museum of Trans- 
portation at 15 Newton Street, with its 
accompanying park, is a popular place 
with local citizens. The collection in 
the museum has recently been ex- 
panded to include carriages, bicycles 
and motorcycles, in addition to an ex- 
tensive display of automobiles. Other 
attractions include special exhibits, 
movies and outdoor rides for children, 
weather permitting. Allow at least an 
hour to see and enjoy all the museum 
and park have to offer. (Wednesday 
through Sunday, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; 
Tuesday until 9:30 p.m. Adults $1.50; 
children 750. Admission to park, free.) 

The Edward Devotion House at 347 
Harvard Street is home of the Brookline 
Historical Society and a good place to 
visit for people interested in local his- 
tory. Exhibits of furniture and portraits 
are contained in the historic house. 
(Tuesday and Thursday, 2:30 to 5 p.m.; 
other times by appointment.) 

And, the Mary Baker Eddy Museum 
at 120 Seaver Street houses exhibits in- 
cluding books, manuscripts and por- 
traits concerning the founder of the 
Christian Science faith. (Tuesday 
through Saturday, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; 
Sunday, 1 to 5 p.m. Closes 4 p.m. in 
winter. Adults 500.) 


A center for the manufacture of sophisti- 
cated electronic equipment, Waltham 
has chosen "Heartland of Industry and 
Electronics" as its town slogan. But, 
there is much to interest visitors who 
arrive for pleasure rather than business. 

Brandeis University, the country's 
first non-sectarian Jewish-founded uni- 
versity, was opened in 1948. On the 
270-acre campus overlooking the 
Charles River is the school's Rose Art 
Museum. It consists of five galleries 
showing late 19th and 20th century 
paintings, plus a collection of early 
ceramics and the Slosberg collection 
of oceanic art. (Tuesday through Sun- 
day, 1 to 5 p.m. Admission free.) 

The Lyman House built by Samuel 
Mclntire in 1793 stands at the corner 
of Lyman and Beaver Streets. Magnifi- 
cent rooms include the ballroom and 
parlor, plus some of the original fur- 
nishings. Early greenhouses still stand 
in the garden and the stable remains 
intact. (Open Thursday and Friday, 11 
a.m. to 2 p.m. Other hours to be an- 
nounced. Call (617) 227-3956. Admission 
to house $1.25; to greenhouse 500.) 

On the Waltham-Watertown line is 
the Gore Place, the former home of 
Christopher Gore who was appointed 
as the first U.S. District Attorney by 
George Washington and later served 
as governor of Massachusetts. His 
20-room mansion built in 1805 displays 

lavish period furnishings and is an ex- 
cellent example of Federal period ar- 
chitecture. (April 15 to November 15, 
Tuesday through Saturday, 10 a.m. to 
5 p.m.; Sunday 2 to 5 p.m. Adults $1; 
children 500.) 


In 1816, Watertown was chosen as the 
site for the United States Arsenal and 
during all major wars beginning with 
the Civil War, ammunition and gun 
parts were manufactured en masse. 
The arsenal has been abandoned by 
such industry today, but the tremen- 
dous complex of buildings can be seen 
from Arsenal Street. 

One of Watertown's oldest houses is 
the Abraham Browne House at 562 Main 
Street. Built in the 1690's, the house 
provides a good example of period fur- 
nishings and interiors. (June through 
October, Monday, Wednesday and Fri- 
day, 2 to 5 p.m. Adults 500.) 

Perkins School for the Blind is a 
well-known area institution, established 
in South Boston in 1832 and later 
moved to Watertown in 1912. Helen 
Keller spent some time at the school, 
and her teacher, Annie Sullivan was a 
graduate. The public is welcome to 
visit the school's historical museum 
and library. (September through May, 
Monday through Friday, 9 a.m. to 5 
p.m. By appointment at other times; 
call (617)924-3434.) 

The Larz Anderson Museum of Transportation in Brookline houses an extensive collection 
of antique automobiles, some of which feature tape recordings to simulate motor sounds. 




A wealthy landowner named Samuel 
Welles founded Wellesley in the 18th 
century and today the town is home for 
three educational institutions: Babson 
College, Wellesley College and Dana 
Hall, a private school for girls. 

Wellesley College was founded in 
1870 by Henry F. Durant, Visitors should 
plan enough time on a tour of the 
campus to see the Jewett Arts Center 
and the Margaret Ferguson Green- 
houses. (For information call (617) 235- 

Babson College is a business school 
which accepted its first students in 
1919. The Coleman Map Building on 
the campus houses the world's largest 
and most accurate relief map of the 
United States. The map is 65 feet long 
and 45 feet wide and when viewed 
from the balcony, the effect is the 
same as being 700 miles above the 
earth's surface. Behind the map build- 


Proud on a hillock overlooking the 
village of Hingham stands the Old 
Ship Church, the only example of 
medieval wooden craftsmanship on 
this continent, and the oldest church 
in the country to be in continous ser- 
vice. Every Sunday for the past 244 
years, praises to God have echoed 
through its high-vaulted rafters. 

Hingham, then called Bare Cove, 
was settled in 1632. By 1681 it was a 
flourishing settlement of 300 hardy 
souls, and the settlers turned their 
energies to building a fine church. 
Since the only ecclesiastical archi- 
tecture they knew was that of the 
great Gothic churches in the Old 
World, the church they built is pure 
medieval in wood. The church was 
built before the influence of famous 
British architect Sir Christopher 
Wren began to shape our own co- 
lonial architecture. 

Alterations over the years changed 
the appearance of the structure until 
a major restoration was undertaken 
in 1930. The wooden pews were re- 
placed with the original style box 
pews and a false ceiling was torn 
down to reveal the fascinating beam 

Today the Old Ship Church stands 
revealed, a living, active monument 
to the faith, courage, and skill of our 

(Courtesy of Maria Dabrowski) 

ing is a 25-ton globe measuring 28 
feet in diameter. (Both exhibits can 
be seen daily, April through October, 
10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; November through 
March, 2 to 5 p.m. To arrange special 
guided tours, call (617) 235-1200.) 


Weston is a quiet, countrified Boston 
suburb lacking most tourist facilities. 
But, the town does have several places 
to interest people passing through. 

The Case Estates of Arnold Arbore- 
tum at 135 Wellesley Street covers 110 
acres of natural woodland, cultivated 
trees, ground cover and woodland; test 
gardens, display areas and ornamental 
shrubs will delight horticulturists. (All 
year, sunrise to sunset. Admission 

Weston is also home of Regis Col- 
lege, a small Catholic school which 
runs the Cardinal Spellman Philatelic 
Museum. Facilities are available to 
study the postal history from many 
parts of the world and exhibits feature 
postage stamps classified according to 
country and topic. A philatelic li- 
brary is also part of the museum. 
(Tuesday and Thursday, 9:30 a.m. to 
1:30 p.m.; Sunday 2 to 5 p.m. By ap- 
pointment at other times; call (617) 
894-6735. Admission free.) 

Golden Ball Tavern in Weston was 
built in 1768 by Captain Isaac Jones 
and before and during the Revolution, 
it served as a Tory haunt. Today, the 
carefully-authenticated preservation 
shows 100 years of architectural and 
decorative changes initiated by the 
Jones family. The tavern is located off 
Route 20 west of the town center. 
(Visitors are welcome Wednesday and 
Sunday, 1 to 4 p.m. or by appointment. 
Call (617) 894-1751. Admission 500.) 

South of Boston 

In 1633, Jonathan Fayerbanke arrived 
in New England with his wife and chil- 
dren and, three years later, carrying 
a ship's beam with him that he'd 
brought from Yorkshire, the family 
moved to Dedham, then called Content- 
ment. This grant of wilderness land 
was comprised of 12 acres (and four 
more of swamp) upon which he used 
the beam to construct a sturdy low- 
ceilinged house. The hung roof was 
designed to protect it from storms. 
Though Beverlyites in northeastern 
Massachusetts lay claim to their Balch 
House, dating from 1636, as the oldest 

wooden house in America, most people 
recognize the Fairbanks House as being 
the earliest frame house in existence 
today. The home is furnished with 
heirlooms from eight generations of the 
Fairbanks family. (May 1 to November 
1, 9 a.m. to noon and 1 to 5 p.m. Adults 
$1.50; children under 12, 500.) 

While you're in Dedham, you'll prob- 
ably want to stop at several other places 
of historic interest. Among these is the 
Norfolk County Courthouse where the 
world-famous trial of Sacco and 
Vanzetti was held in 1921. Accused of 
robbing and murdering a paymaster 
and guard in Braintree a year before, 
the two immigrants' political views prob- 
ably figured into the trial as much as 
their supposed crime. The men were 
declared guilty and later executed, but 
still the storm of controversy as to 
their guilt or innocence raged on. Play- 
wright Maxwell Anderson based his 
Pulitzer Prize-winning drama Winterset 
on the case, and artist Ben Shawn 
produced a portfolio of drawings about 
the men and the events. Even today, 
the case is discussed by historians and 

In 1649, the first free public school in 
America was supported by the proceeds 
of general taxation in Dedham. A 
plaque commemorating the site of the 
school can be seen in front of the First 
Church of Dedham. The American- 
Georgian-designed Unitarian Church 
was built in 1768 and is remembered 
for the contribution of its parish mem- 
bers who went to court in the early 
1800's to establish the rights of mem- 
bership to elect its ministers. 

The Dedham Historical Society 
housed at 612 High Street contains 
photographs, objects relating to the 
town's history and a genealogical li- 
brary. The building itself was construc- 
ted in 1886. (Daily, 2 to 5 p.m.; closed 
Saturday during July and August. Ad- 
mission free.) 


In 1635, two years after the community 
was settled in Hingham on land once 
occupied by the Algonquin Indians, a 
congregation of Puritan worshippers was 
gathered by the Reverend Peter Ho- 
bart. In 1681, the present meetinghouse 
was erected under the direction of a 
ship's carpenter, and each member of 
the parish was assessed a share of 430 
pounds. The top of the church, built of 
massive oak beams in the shape of an 
inverted ship's hull, immediately caused 
the building to be called "The Ship 
Church." Still in existence today, as 
the First Parish in Hingham, the Old 


Ship Church is the oldest existing build- 
ing in continuous ecclesiastical use in 
the United States. 

Through the years, the Church had 
such distinguished members as Major 
General Benjamin Lincoln, Revolution- 
ary war hero who "received the sword 
of Lord Cornwallis at the surrender of 
Yorktown." General Lincoln, said to 
be a distant relative of President Abra- 
ham Lincoln, is buried in the old ceme- 
tery behind the large gray-shingled 
structure. His pew is marked inside, 
where the church interior resembles the 
traditional form of a Shakespearian 

Ever since Ebenezer Gay came to 
Hingham to serve as minister in the 
18th century, the church has had a tra- 
dition of liberal theology. The Reverend 
Henry Ware carried on Gay's liberalism 
and, in 1825, with the founding of the 
American Unitarian Association, the 
congregation adopted the principles of 
Unitarianism. The church is open to 
visitors who are invited to worship 
there, or simply to look around. On 
special occasions, there are English 
bell concerts performed next door at 
the Memorial Tower. (Tours are offered 
daily except Monday during July and 
August, noon to 5 p.m.; by appointment 
the rest of the year. Call (617) 749-1679 
for information.) 

The Old Ordinary, the Hingham His- 
torical Society museum, is an authen- 
tically-furnished house built in 1680. 
Visitors can see the small garden, tool 
collection and changing exhibits. (June 
15 to Labor Day, 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
Adults $1.50.) 


Followers of Roger Williams sought ref- 
uge in Braintree on their way to Rhode 
Island. Over 200 years later, it was the 
scene of the robbery and murder for 
which Sacco and Vanzetti were con- 

Among the buildings open to the 
public is the General Sylvanus Thayer 
Birthplace at 786 Washington Street. 
This salt-box house built in 1720 was 
the former home of the West Point 
superintendent who also gave Braintree 
its public library. Visitors can see mili- 
tary items and displays concerning 
local history. (Mid-April to mid-October, 
Tuesday through Friday and Sunday, 
1:30 to 4 p.m.; Saturday from 10:30; 
shorter hours rest of year. Adults 500; 
children 150.) 

People who prefer to explore Brain- 
tree's outdoors can stop at the 5,700- 
acre Blue Hill Reservation which the 
town shares with neighboring Canton, 

Milton, Quincy and Randolph. The park 
has nature trails, bridle paths, picnic 
facilities and in winter, ice skating. A 
good view of the area can be enjoyed 
atop the observation tower on Blue 


In Cohasset, stop to see the three 
museums at the junction of Elm and 
Main Streets, maintained by the Cohas- 

Hill. (Daily, sunrise to sunset; admis- set Historical Society. The Indepen- 

sion free.) 

dence Gown Museum, housed in the 


Almost a century after the nation 
gained its independence, Henry 
Fowle Durant, an impassioned be- 
liever in equality for women, found- 
ed Wellesley College as a place 
where women could prepare them- 
selves for the "great conflicts" and 
"vast reforms in social life" that 
would face them as the country grew 
and matured. From the beginning, 
he was convinced that women could 
teach in and administer a college, if 
only given the opportunity. True to 
his ideals, Wellesley has consistent- 
ly appointed women to top policy- 
making positions. All of the Col- 
lege's ten presidents have been 
women, and in 1973-74 women also 
made up more than half of the 
235-member faculty. In 1971, Wel- 
lesley reaffirmed its commitment to 
the education of women when it 
decided, in opposition to the grow- 
ing trend toward coeducation, to 
continue to grant degrees to women 


The College received its charter in 
the 1800s, an event that will be 
commemorated on the weekend of 
March 14 to 17, 1975. Commencihg 
an 18-month celebration in observ- 
ance of Wellesley's 100th birthday, 
the week's events will include con- 
certs, theatre productions, presenta- 
tions of Alumnae Achievement 
Awards, and will also mark the pub- 
lication of the official centennial 
history of the College. The public is 
invited to attend all these events — 
as well as many other special 
centennial programs. (For details 

regarding specific dates and times, 
contact the Office of the Coordinator 
of Special Events, Green Hall, 
Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mas- 
sachusetts 02181. Telephone (617) 
235-0320. ext. 688.) 

True to the Bicentennial spirit of 
historic re-enactment, Wellesley will 
stage its own historical remem- 
brance of the College's opening. 
Tentatively scheduled for September 
8, 1975, this day marks the 100th 
anniversary of the opening of the 
College to the first 314 women and 
the all-female administration and 
staff. Tentatively planned is a spe- 
cial train from Boston to Wellesley, 
bearing young women in period 
costume. The train will be met at the 
station, as in days past, by a 
horse-drawn cart known as the 
barge. From there the students will 
be transported to the College where 
a variety of festivities await them. 

Wellesley was the first women's 
college to establish chemistry and 
psychology laboratories for stu- 
dents, and second only to M.I.T. in 
establishing a physics laboratory. 
The curriculum of a hundred years 
ago also excelled, as it does today, 
in literature, languages, mathemat- 
ics and philosophy, social sciences, 
and the arts. The campus, west of 
Boston off Routes 9 and 16, com- 
prises over 500 acres, bordering on 
Lake Waban, and the College's 
Gothic-Style buildings are worthy of 



town's 1850 building which once served 
as a fire station, features antique gowns 
and elaborate wedding dresses worn by 
local ladies of long ago. The Historic 
House was built around 1810 and con- 
tains antique furnishings and the Mari- 
time Museum exhibits shipbuilding 
items, chests, part of the lens from 
Minot's Light (built in 1850 and still 
standing in town) and memorabilia from 
Cohasset's past. (All three museums 
open early June through Labor Day, 
Tuesday through Saturday, 1:30 to 4:30. 
Adults 750; combination ticket to all 
three, $1.50: reduced rates for children.) 
The Historical Society also maintains 
Moore's Rocks Reservation on Jeru- 
salem Road, where visitors can enjoy 
a magnificent view of the Atlantic Ocean 
and rocky ledges offshore. Several old 
churches might also highlight a trip to 
Cohasset. The First Parish Meeting- 
house built in 1745 in the center of the 
town common is reputed to be the 
fourth oldest Unitarian church in the 
country and St. Stephen's Episcopal 
Church delights summer visitors with its 
51-bell carillon. Keep your ear tuned 
for the 4 p.m. recitals. 


A lovely drive on the south shore ex- 
tends along Jerusalem Road from Co- 
hasset to Scituate. Each summer, you 
can visit the 18th century Cudworth 
House, home of the Scituate Historical 
Society or the Mann Farmhouse and 
Historical Museum, home to five gener- 
ations of the Mann family from the late 
1600's to 1968. (Mid-June to mid- 
September. For information on hours, 
call (617) 545-0474. 


In 1774, when Dedham and Milton were 
still a part of Suffolk County, delegates 
from all over the county met first in a 

tavern in Dedham and then in a home 
in Milton to determine what should be 
their response to the Intolerable Acts 
imposed by the British after the Boston 
"tea party." In September, 1774, those 
present in Milton, under the leadership 
of Dr. Joseph Warren, voted to encour- 
age a boycott of all British goods 
throughout the colonies. They also urged 
everyone to refuse to obey the detested 
Acts, and asked each community to hold 
weekly militia musters. On September 
8th, Paul Revere was dispatched by 
horseback to Philadelphia to present 
these "Suffolk Resolves" to the first 
meeting of the Continental Congress. 
A large majority of the delegates there 
endorsed the resolutions brought from 

The Suffolk Resolves House, now lo- 
cated at 1370 Canton Avenue in Milton, 
was the scene in September, 1974, of 
a re-enactment of the reading of the 
resolutions and their subsequent de- 
livery to Philadelphia. Carried through 
Massachusetts by a relay of riders from 
the Massachusetts Horsemen's Council, 
the papers were picked up in turn by 
riders all the way down to Pennsylvania. 
The house in Milton contains 17th and 
18th century furnishings, and can be 
visited by appointment. (For information 
call (617) 333-0644.) 

The Museum of the American China 
Trade, located in the old Forbes Mansion 
at 215 Adams Street, built by Captain 
Robert Bennett Forbes in 1832, was first 
founded in 1965 as a local house 
museum. By 1971, its collection had be- 
come so renowned that it was refounded 
as a major museum. The house itself 
has been designated as a National His- 
toric Landmark. 

Concerned with the art and history of 
America's trade relations with the Far 
East from the colonial period through 
the clipper ship era, the collection com- 
prises an archives of 75,000 documents 
and an impressive array of art objects 
made in the Orient primarily for export 
purposes. It is reported that the current 
government in China has made some 
inquiries as to whether there is anything 
in the museum's collection that was 
taken unlawfully from China, as was so 
often the case in earlier times. The mu- 
seum's staff can honestly reply that all 
of the items on display, from Japan and 
India as well as from China, were pur- 
chased by merchants who traveled to 
China regularly in pursuit of the lucra- 
tive tea and silk trade. (Tuesday through 
Saturday, 2 to 5 p.m. Adults $1.50; 
children under 12, 500.) 



Embossed on the bronze plaque 
across the street from the Battle 
Green in Lexington, you will find the 
name of a man who might be 
considered the first black American 
— Prince Estabrook. If we can 
assume that the British colonists 
became Americans when they took 
up arms against the mother country, 
then Prince Estabrook deserves this 

Although he was a slave and legal- 
ly the property of the Estabrook 
family, there is no evidence that Lex- 
ington treated Prince Estabrook as 
anything less than a member of the 
community. He was a favorite with 
children of the town as he told fas- 
cinating tales on the edge of the 
Green almost every summer after- 

In 1773, just after the Boston Tea 
Party, Prince Estabrook joined Capt. 
John Parker's Lexington Militia. A 
tall man, considered a giant by the 
local children, he stood in the 
second row when the militia mus- 
tered on the Lexington Green early 
on the morning of April 19, 1775. 

He stood his ground with his 
fellow militiamen as the Redcoats 
approached from the southern end 
of the Green, and Captain Porter 
gave the order that still rings: "Men 
of Lexington, stand your ground. Do 
not fire unless fired upon! But if they 
mean to have a war, let it begin 

There were many black men who 
served in the armies of the American 
Revolution. Of them all, only Prince 
Estabrook was on Lexington Green, 
in the haphazard uniform of the 
Minutemen with a musket resting in 
the crook of his arm, when the first 
shot was fired. For taking his stand 
with the others, he can be proudly 
remembered as the first black Amer- 
ican. (Courtesy of Valentine Bean) 


Charlestown to Lexington 
Lexington to Cambridge: 

Revere's Route and the 
Path of the British Retreat 

Everybody knows that Paul Revere's 
friend stood in the belfry of the Old 
North Church in Boston and lit two 
lanterns on that fateful night of April 18, 
1775. The lights were a pre-arranged 
sign that British troops were being 
taken in longboats across the Charles 
River to a landing site on the Cam- 
bridge shore from where they would 
march to Lexington and Concord. Re- 
vere, getting his cue from a spot across 
the river, immediately took off on his 
steed "flying fearless and fleet" and 
traveled the road he had traversed only 
two days before when he had first 
warned John Hancock and Samuel 
Adams that things were getting serious 
in Boston. Now his mission was to find 
them again, hiding out in Parson Jonas 
Clarke's home in Lexington, and alert 

them that the Redcoats were coming. 

The route that Revere followed has 
been the subject of good-natured town 
rivalry over the years, with everyone 
within a 20-mile radius wanting to claim 
that the daring horse and rider had 
passed that way. But historians who 
have been studying the matter feel it 
is fairly accurate to claim that Revere 
started off at Charlestown square, con- 
tinued through the part of that town 
which is now Somerville, "mounted the 
steep" above the Mystic River (as Long- 
fellow's poem reminds us), "crossed 
the bridge into Medford town," galloped 
through Arlington, and arrived in Lex- 
ington very early in the morning of 
April 19th. There, Revere joined up 
with William Dawes Jr., who had set 
out from Boston on the same mission. 

Paul Revere purists will want to follow 
his historic path sometime during the 
Bicentennial years, and discussions are 
now underway with the various cities 
and towns en route to supplement the 
existing landmarks with appropriate his- 
toric markers. (For a precise route, 
available in spring 1975, write to the 
Massachusetts Bicentennial Commis- 
sion, 10 Tremont Street, Boston 02108.) 
Sights worth visiting along the route, 
dating from Revere's time and after- 
ward, include many notable spots in 
Charlestown, such as the mooring of 
the U.S.S. Frigate Constitution ("Old 
Ironsides") and the Bunker Hill Battle 
Monument. (Boston 200 can provide 
you with a detailed walking tour of 
Charlestown.) Moving on to Somerville, 
which became a town on its own in 
1842, you can stop at Memorial Tower 
on Prospect Hill where, in 1777-78, 
British soldiers captured at the Battle 
of Saratoga were held as prisoners of 
war. It was on that same hill, on Janu- 
ary 1, 1776, that the Continental Great 
Union Flag (known as the Grand Union 
Flag) was first raised. 

A plaque on a tree at the corner of 
Grove and High Streets in Medford is 
said to mark the precise spot where 
Paul Revere sped by. 

Having received the signal that the British were preparing to move toward Concord, Paul Revere began his ride to warn the militiamen. 



Not too far away is the Royall House 
at 15 George Street. Owned by Sir 
Isaac Royall, who also held considera- 
ble land in the town named for him in 
Worcester County, the house sheltered 
his family as well as his 27 slaves. 
Somewhat reluctantly, so the story goes, 
Royall left the colony with the Loyalists 
who evacuated Boston in March, 1776. 
The large residence was then made 
headquarters for General John Stark of 

the Continental Army. The home was 
owned many years later by Francis 
Cabot Lowell, after whom the city of 
Lowell is named. (May 1 to October 
15, 2 to 5 p.m.; closed Monday and 
Friday. Adults $1; children 250.) 

Visitors to Medford can also tour 
the buildings and grounds of Tufts Uni- 
versity, founded in 1852 by Hosea Bal- 
lou II and endowed originally by Charles 
Tufts of Somerville. 

Lydia Pinkham 





(Courtesy of Patrice Smart) 

Lydia Pinkham is one of the most 
publicized names in the feminine 
world, but very few people know 
anything about her. Yet Lydia is re- 
sponsible for giving women more 
freedom than any other individual, 
including the great suffragette Su- 
san B. Anthony. For her Compound 
brought relief from the aches and 
discomforts of those female ail- 
ments which physicians of Lydia's 
day deemed normal and natural. 

Born in Lynn on February 9, 1819, 
Lydia Estes was the tenth of twelve 
children born to wealthy and socially 
prominent William and Rebecca 
Estes. Lydia's early life was happy 
and active. An inveterate club wom- 
an, she met and married Isaac 
Pinkham through her affiliation with 
a debating society. 

Her early married life was occu- 
pied with the care of her four sons 
and daughter, and with her interest 
in helping women. She was shocked 
at doctors' indifference to "feminine 
ills" and decided something should 
be done about it. 

She produced old-fashioned herb 
remedies, bottled them, and offered 
them freely to those in need. Some 
of the recipes she found in medical 
books; others had been handed 
down by her family. She gave advice 
willingly and unstintingly, even to 
strangers. Her Compound soon 
made a name for itself and by 1873 
everyone, that is everyone in and 

around Lynn, was talking about Lyd- 
ia's magic medicine. 

Oddly enough it was the financial 
panic of 1873 which brought Lydia 
Pinkham's Compound national at- 
tention. Isaac was ill and the family 
in severe financial difficulty, when 
Lydia's oldest son, Dan, suggested 
they might market the herbal remedy 
in order to pay the bills. Lydia re- 
fused adamantly, saying she gave it 
and would not sell it, but after re- 
peated urging she acquiesced. 

She wrote a handbill entitled 
Guide for Women which her sons 
distributed in surrounding towns, 
and the demand for her Compound 
began to rise. By 1876 they reached 
New York with their advertising 
campaign and the business contin- 
ued to flourish. 

Lydia Pinkham passed away in 
1883 but the Lydia Pinkham Vege- 
table Compound continued to be 
manufactured until 1974. Now, plans 
are underway in Lynn to erect a 
memorial to Lydia and her famous 
Compound. There is also discussion 
of the feasibility of converting the 
old Pinkham building into a restau- 
rant. Whatever fate awaits the struc- 
ture will have no effect on the 
reputation of Lydia and her remedy. 
She will be remembered for her 
contribution to the very real libera- 
tion of women from the ignorance of 
a predominantly male medical pro- 

Continuing along Revere's route to 
Arlington, known as Menotomy during 
the days of the Revolution, you can 
ride along Massachusetts Avenue where 
nearly half of the Americans who died 
on April 19, 1775, met their fate. Earlier 
on that day, some of the older residents 
of the town had succeeded in halting 
a convoy of British supplies on its way 
to Lexington. 

Following the battle at Concord, 
townspeople again tried to impede the 
movement of the Redcoats as they 
headed back towards their headquar- 
ters. Snipers fired from along the street 
and the troops responded with random 
volleys and precise bayonet attacks. 
At the day's end, 12 Americans were 
buried in the Ancient Burying Ground, 
found now behind the Unitarian Church 
at Massachusetts Avenue and Pleasant 

Bullet holes made by the British fire 
on that historic day can be seen at the 
Jason Russell House at 7 Jason Street. 
(April 1 to November 1, 2 to 5 p.m. 
Admission by donation.) 

Although Paul Revere rode directly 
into Lexington you might want to detour 
by leaving your car at nearby Hanscom 
Field and taking a special tour bus 
along the Lexington-Concord route. 
(Call the Minute Man National Historic 
Park at (617) 369-6993 for information 
on this program.) 

A visitors' center operated year 
round by the Lexington Chamber of 
Commerce is located on Bedford Street, 
directly opposite the Minuteman statue 
designed by Henry Hudson Kitson. From 
the center you can obtain pamphlets on 
the history and important sights of the 
town. During the summer months, you 
can also find a local high school or col- 
lege student especially trained as a 
guide to take you around. As an added 
bonus for foreign visitors during the 
Bicentennial years, tours will be offered 
in several foreign languages. (Call (617) 
862-1450 to arrange for an escort.) 

Many of the beautiful houses around 
the Lexington Green have stood there 
since 1775 when the British troops un- 
der Lt. Colonel Francis Smith and 
Major John Pitcairn met Captain John 
Parker and his Lexington militia com- 
pany. Most of the homes are now pri- 
vately owned and visitors should not 
request entry. Among Lexington's pub- 
lic buildings is Buckman Tavern, run 
by the Historical Society. At 1 a.m. in 
the morning on April 19, when Captain 
Parker had dismissed his recently- 
assembled troops, he and a group 
of militia members and Minutemen re- 
tired to the tavern to drink rum and 
wait out the night. The tavern has 


been restored to its original condition 
and contains numerous artifacts from 
the colonial period. (April 19 to Oc- 
tober 31, Monday through Saturday, 10 
a.m. to 5 p.m.; Sunday, 1 to 5 p.m. Ex- 
tended hours in summer. Adults 750; 
children 250; under 6, free.) 

Further up Hancock Street from the 
green is the Hancock-Clarke House, the 
parsonage where patriot leaders await- 
ed word from Paul Revere. (April 19 to 
October. 31, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Sunday, 
1 to 5 p.m.; Adults 600; children 250; 
under 6, free.) Munroe Tavern, located 
on Massachusetts Avenue on the other 
side of the town center, also operates 
on the same schedule. It was there 
that General Percy and his men, sent 
to relieve the retreating British troops, 
set up headquarters and a temporary 

The famous painting by Sandham of 
the Battle of Lexington can be seen 
year round at the Cary Memorial Build- 
ing at 1605 Massachusetts Avenue. Take 
a look at it before or after walking 
around the green where markers show 
the sites of the encounter. 

Lexington has planned a number of 
activities to celebrate the Bicentennial. 
As in every year, there are special 
programs arranged for April 19, with 
the 1975 celebration beginning with a 
midnight Friday ride from Charlestown, 
a ringing of the alarm at 5 a.m. and a 
re-enactment of the battle on the green 
a half hour later. For a schedule of 
happenings during this weekend as well 
as plans for 1975 and 1976, write to the 
Lexington Bicentennial, 1875 Massachu- 
setts Avenue, Lexington 02173. 


Hugh, Earl of Percy, had been instructed 
by General Gage, the colony's military 
governor, to go to the aid of British 
troops in Lexington and Concord. De- 
parting from Boston early in the morn- 
ing, he and a thousand soldiers marched 
via Roxbury and Cambridge. The bridge 
across the Charles (now near Harvard 
Stadium) had been dismantled, and 
they had to stop long enough to repair 
it sufficiently to allow a safe crossing. 
Aided by a Harvard College student 
who showed them the way, they moved 
on to the Lexington Road, connecting 
with the retreating Redcoats. Percy did 
his best to try to keep his men from 
destroying private property as they cov- 
ered the troops on the march back 
from Concord, to Lexington, and on 
towards Boston. But it was often im- 
possible. Sniper fire was returned, and 
several places were burned. 

The troops reached what is now Por- 
ter Square in Cambridge, and had to 

The above engraving shows Longfellow's Cambridge house as it was in 1875. 

force their way through in order to keep 
the Americans from pushing them 
towards the damaged bridge they had 
barely gotten over earlier that morning. 
With a total of 273 British casualties to 
show for the day's events, the demoral- 
ized troops arrived in Boston after night- 

Today, visitors to Cambridge can 
stand on the banks of the Charles River, 
at what is now called the Larz Anderson 
Bridge, and view the same waters that 
the British crossed at first exuberantly, 
and then dejectedly, 200 years ago. 

Cambridge is a city you'll want to 
visit often. As a cultural, educational, 
and historical center, it probably equals 
or excels any city of comparable size 
in the world. You could spend a whole 
day just touring the campus of the Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of Technology, lo- 
cated one mile down the Charles River 
from the Anderson Bridge. Founded in 
1865, the university moved to Cam- 
bridge in 1916. It is known everywhere 
as a leading school of science and en- 
gineering and, also as an important 
research center. M.I.T. maintains its 
own Information Center in the main 
building; arrange to see various build- 
ings and scientific facilities. 

Other sights in Cambridge could oc- 
cupy you for many more days. The area 
around Harvard College in itself is a 
treasure chest of America's history, art 
and architecture, and intellectual great- 
ness. In honor of the Bicentennial, the 
Cambridge Tourist Trail is being up- 
dated to include more than 25 specific 
stops within a short walk of Harvard 

Square. And the city is a place where 
you should walk, as traffic is heavy and 
parking is very limited. Besides, there's 
something to catch your eye at almost 
every step of the way. So if you're not 
staying over in Cambridge, leave your 
car behind and take the MBTA from 
Park Square in Boston to the Harvard 
Square stop. There you can pick up 
pamphlets and maps from the Cam- 
bridge Information Center right on the 

Harvard College was founded in 1636 
when the General Court voted 400 
pounds to establish an institution that 
would assure "that the light of learning 
might not go out nor the study of God's 
word perish." The Reverend John Har- 
vard died soon after, leaving his library 
and half his estate "to the Public school 
at Newton," called Cambridge soon 
after. The 17th-century regulations of 
the college offer a sharp and amusing 
contrast to the practices of the 10,000 
students that comprise the university 
today. For example, as the early rules 
set forth: "No student must be absent 
from his studies or stated exercise for 
any reason .... with the exception of 
the half-hour allowed for lunch, a half- 
hour for dinner and also for supper, un- 
til nine o'clock." In addition, "no stu- 
dent shall buy, sell, or exchange any 
thing without the approval of his par- 
ents, guardians, or tutors. . . ." And, "all 
students must refrain from wearing rich 
and showy clothing, nor must any one 
go out of the college yard, unless in 
his gown, coat or cloak." 

Although the requirements for admis- 



sion no longer demand that every candi- 
date be able "to read Cicero extempo- 
raneously" and "decline the Greek 
nouns and verbs," the standards tor ac- 
ceptance at Harvard, its female counter- 
part Radcliffe, and its many graduate 
schools are still extremely high and 
extremely competitive. 

Visit the campus to view architecture 
ranging from Bulfinch (University Hall) 
to Richardson (Sever Hall) to LeCor- 
busier (Carpenter Center for the Visual 
Arts); to see sculpture by Daniel Ches- 
ter French (John Harvard's statue); and 
to admire paintings in the Fogg Mu- 
seum, Bohemian glass flowers in the 
University Museum, and Germanic art 
in the Busch-Reisinger collection. And, 
also, take a look at the old dormitories 
in the Yard where a number of General 
Washington's troops were quartered 
during the early days of the Revolution. 

A short walk up to Cambridge Com- 
mon brings you to the place which 
served as the main camp of the Conti- 
nental Army in 1775-76. Washington, 
according to tradition, took command 
of the troops there on July 3, 1775. It 
was also at that spot that he received 
Henry Knox after the young artillery 
expert's daring trek across New York 
and Massachusetts. (See Knox Trail.) 

Many of the houses close by the Com- 
mon, on Brattle Street, were once the 
elegant residences of Tory families who 
fled the colony during the Revolution. 
One of these, belonging to John Vassall 
Jr., in the mid-18th century, became the 
residence of Henry Wadsworth Long- 
fellow in 1837. He purchased the home 
at 105 Brattle Street in 1843 and, after 
his death, it was maintained by his 
family first as a dwelling and then as a 
trust. In 1973, the house and grounds 
were taken over by the National Park 
Service as the Longfellow National His- 
toric Site. (Daily, 9 a.m. to 4:45 p.m. 
Closed Christmas and New Year's. 
Small admission fee.) 

Longfellow is buried in his beloved 
Cambridge at the beautifully landscaped 
Mt. Auburn Cemetery. Also interred 
there are Mary Baker Eddy, the only 
woman to found a major religion (Chris- 
tian Science), actor Edwin Booth, archi- 
tect Charles Bulfinch, artists Winslow 
Homer and Charles Dana Gibson, and 
authors Julia Ward Howe, Oliver Wen- 
dell Holmes, and James Russell Lowell. 

For detailed information of Cam- 
bridge's Bicentennial plans, write the 
Cambridge Bicentennial Office, 5 Story 
Street, Cambridge, MA. 02138 or call 


The only gold medal ever given to 
George Washington is the property 
of the Boston Public Library of 
Boston, Massachusetts. Authorized 
by Congress in 1776, the medal was 
presented to General George Wash- 
ington by Thomas Jefferson on 
March 17, 1790. 

The medal was struck in honor of 
the Evacuation of Boston by the 
British forces on March 17, 1776. It 
was designed in Paris by Pierre 
Simon Benjamin Duvivier. At the 
request of the Continental Con- 
gress, John Adams and two associ- 
ates made the arrangements with the 

On the obverse of the medal ap- 
pears a bust of Washington in pro- 
file, surrounded on the inner rim by 
the legend in Latin: "The American 
Congress to George Washington- 
Commander-in-Chief of its armies, 
Protector of Liberty." The reverse 
shows Washington and four aides, 
all mounted, and viewing from 
Dorchester Heights the City of 
Boston and the retreating British 
vessels. Between the figures and the 
harbor is a fortified part of the 
Heights with troops deploying on 
the level below. In the immediate 
foreground are two cannons. On the 
inner rim at the top are these words 
in Latin: "Immediately the enemy 

were routed" and below the design 
in horizontal lines: "Boston was 
regained on March 17, 1 776. " 

After General Washington's death, 
the medal passed through several 
branches of the Washington family 
tree. It survived the Civil War buried 
in the dry basement of a Virginia 
mansion, and at the end of that 
conflict it was the property of a 
widow, Mrs. Ann Bull Washington. 
She was financially pressed after the 
war, and as this happened to 
coincide with a group of Bostonians' 
interest in purchasing this medal to 
commemorate the 100th anniversary 
of this great historic event, the 
medal changed hands one last time. 
At the meeting of the Boston 
Board of Aldermen held March 20, 
1876, the following letter was re- 

To The Honorable The City Council: 
Gentlemen — It affords me much 
pleasure to inform you that the 
gold medal presented to General 
George Washington by the Ameri- 
can Congress in 1776 . . . was re- 
cently purchased by a few of our 
citizens, . . . and has been trans- 
ferred to the Trustees of the Public 
Library, in whose custody it is to 
remain, in accordance with the 
wishes of the donors. 

Samuel C. Cobb, Mayor 

(Courtesy of M. L. Murphy) 

Courtesy of Boston Public Library 


Quincy: Still Making Merry on Merry Mount 

In 1975, the city of Quincy celebrates its 
own 350th anniversary as well as the 
nation's Bicentennial. First settled in 
1625 by Captain Wollaston and Thomas 
Morton, the town then known as Merry 
Mount was infamous as a haven for off- 
beat characters and seemingly sacri- 
ligious festivities. With the reoccupa- 
tion of the area by more upstanding 
citizens who moved out from Boston in 
1634, the town, called Mt. Wollaston at 
the time, began to grow and flourish as 
a center for agriculture and, later, of 
trade and industry. 

But, even then, it still maintained a 
certain degree of unconventionality, 
though certainly not in the same way 
as under Morton's tutelage. For ex- 
ample, in 1636, the Reverend John 
Wheelwright established the "Chapel of 
Ease" for the families recently arrived 
in the community. Basically, it was a 
spin-off from the rigid doctrines of 
Puritanism, embracing the liberal no- 
tion of Wheelwright's sister-in-law, Anne 
Hutchinson, that divine grace came 
from direct, personal contact between 
an individual and God. Both Hutchin- 
son and Wheelwright were ultimately 
banned from the Massachusetts colony 
for their belief in free religious thought. 

After John Adams was elected Vice 
President of the United States in 1789, 
townspeople began to press for auton- 
omy in both name and activity. In 1792, 
five years before Adams was inaugu- 
rated as second President of the nation, 
the town became independently incor- 
porated. It was called Quincy in honor 
of Colonel Joseph Quincy, an eminent 
citizen of Mt. Wollaston. When John 
Quincy Adams became sixth President 
of the United States, in 1824, the town 
could boast, as it still does, of being the 
only municipality in the country to have 
sent two men to the White House. 

A full-fledged city since 1888, Quincy 
now comprises 90,000 people of many 
different ethnic and religious back- 
grounds. All are being asked to partici- 
pate together in celebration of the city's 
contributions to America's history of 
men, women, and ideas. Through a 
two-year-long program known as 
"Quincy Heritage," the festivities will 
go on almost continuously. 

Of special note for Bicentennial visi- 
tors is the setting up of a Tourist In- 
formation Center and bus service at the 
MBTA station in the heart of town, due 
to open in April, 1975. Whether you ar- 
rive by the MBTA red line service 
(just a short ride from Boston), or drive 
your own car or bicycle to the parking 

lot by the station, the Tourist Center 
should be the initial stop for all visitors. 
There you can obtain a schedule of spe- 
cial events and a brochure about all the 
historic and recreational sights in the 

From April 19th to November 15th, 
during the Bicentennial years, a special 
tour bus will leave from the Tourist 
Center every 20 minutes throughout the 
day. For approximately 500 per person, 
you can purchase a ticket that will en- 
able you to visit a number of major his- 
toric sights, getting on and off the buses 
which will stop continuously at certain 
designated spots. These include a visit 
to the Abigail Adams Cairn, atop Frank- 
lin Street, where Mrs. Adams and her 
young son John Quincy sat and watched 
the burning of Charlestown and heard 
the guns of the Battle of Bunker Hill. 
The bus continues down Franklin Street 
to the "cottages" at Numbers 133 and 
141 where President John Adams was 
born in 1735 and his son, President John 
Quincy Adams, was born in 1767. (April 
19th to October 1st, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; 
closed Monday. Check for expanded 
hours during 1975 and 1976. Admission 
to each house: adults 500; children 6 to 
16, 150. Combination ticket for both 
houses at reduced rate.) 

Probably the most famous stop on the 
tourist bus is the Adams National His- 
toric Site, at 135 Adams Street, where 
four generations of the distinguished 
family lived. (April 19 to November 10, 
daily, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Check for ex- 
panded hours during 1975-76. Adults 
500; children under 16, free.) 

The beautiful Santa Domingan ma- 
hogany in the Adams Mansion is 
echoed in the magnificent pulpit of 
the United First Parish Church, built 
in 1828 of local granite by architect 
Alexander Parris. The Unitarian Church, 
also known as the Church of the Presi- 
dents, was the fourth meeting house of 
the First Church established in Quincy 
in 1639. Said to fulfill the wish of John 
Adams that "someday a stone temple 
might be built in the town," the Greek 
Revival building houses the burial 
crypts of John and Abigail and John 
Quincy and Louisa Adams. The church 
is open year round, and is just a stone's 
throw from the MBTA station. 

Next to the Town Hall is the old 
Hancock Cemetery, dating from around 
1640. Named for the Reverend John- 
Hancock, father of patriot John Han- 
cock, the burial ground undergoing res- 
toration contains about 2000 stones, in- 
cluding those of 69 Revolutionary War 

veterans. Be sure to take a look at the 
many touching and amusing examples 
of tombstone poetry. 

During 1975 and 1976, "Quincy Heri- 
tage" will sponsor a number of pro- 
grams to which the public is invited. As 
of this writing, they include a produc- 
tion in the summer months of 1975 of 
William Gibson's play. American Primi- 
tive. Based on the letters written be- 
tween Abigail Adams in Quincy and 
John in Philadelphia, the drama will be 
enacted by the Curtain Call Players 
twice a week, in the afternoons and 
evenings. Musical events planned in- 
clude a program of "Music of the Ameri- 
can Revolution," tentatively scheduled 
for November, 1975, and "Patriotic 
Music throughout American History," to 
be performed sometime in spring, 1976. 
For information about dates, hours, and 
tickets for any of the Bicentennial plays 
and performances, write to Quincy 
Heritage, Quincy Center MBTA Station, 
Quincy, MA 02169. Help celebrate 
Quincy's 350th year of merry-making! 

The birthplace of John Quincy Adams on 
Franklin Street is open to the public and is 
accessible via the special tour bus. 





As every school child knows, it was an accident of 
weather that caused the history of settlement in New 
England to begin in what is now Southeastern Massa- 
chusetts. When the Pilgrims set sail from England in 
1620, in search of religious freedom, they carried 
with them a patent to settle along the James River in 
Virginia. But violent storms lashed the good ship May- 
flower as it plied its way across a hostile Atlantic Ocean. 
Far off its course, it finally landed in Provincetown 
Harbor on the tip of Cape Cod on a cold November 
day. Within a month, the Pilgrim leaders decided to 
set sail for a less exposed area. The weary group 
laid anchor again in December, 1620, and named the 
land Plymouth for the company that had chartered the 
voyage. English colonization of Massachusetts dates 
from that historic moment. 

Settling Plymouth County 

The Wampanoag Indians, whose leader was Chief 
Massasoit, controlled much of the territory that now 
embraces Plymouth and Bristol Counties. Gradually 
the original settlers of Plymouth County began to ex- 
pand their holdings throughout the area. With land 
grants awarded by the Council for New England, which 
had taken over the Plymouth Company's claims, or 
sometimes through barter with the local Indians, addi- 
tional parcels of land were acquired and settled. The 
earliest of these included Kingston (called Plymouth 
Town until 1'726), settled by passengers from the May- 

Of all the religious customs the Pilgrims observed, the day they set 
aside to give thanks has survived to become a national holiday. 
"The First Thanksgiving," a painting by Jennie Brownscombe, com- 
memorates the Pilgrims' first celebration in the New World. 

flower, the Fortune, and the Ann. Another was Duxbury, 
home of such notables as Captain Myles Standish and 
John and Priscilla Alden. 

A Woman Was Leader 

While settlements were being established along 
the coastline, other adventuresome souls began to look 
for parcels for agricultural use. One of these was a 
woman named Elizabeth Pole, daughter of Sir William 
Pole of Devonshire, England, who came to America with 
her younger brother when she was 45 years old. Set- 
tling first in Dorchester, she decided to look for more 
land, and set out by foot one day from Boston. The 
story goes that Elizabeth drove her cattle through the 
woods until she reached the area known as Tetiquet 
(now East Taunton). There, in 1637, she traded a jack- 
knife and a pack of beans with three Indians for a por- 
tion of their woodlands. A year later, 46 men and 
women, including her brother, bought from Chief Mas- 
sasoit, for two shillings per acre, a 64-square mile 
plantation west of Tetiquet called "Cohannet" by the 
Indians — "the land of quick running water." Though 
Elizabeth's name is not on the list of original purchas- 


Courtesy of Plymouth Chamber of Commerce 

ers of the acreage that became known as Taunton, she 
was still given a parcel of the land, subsequently laid 
out for her by Myles Standish. With characteristic chiv- 
alry, and perhaps a sense of history for the feminist 
movement that would someday come to Massachusetts 
and elsewhere, Standish and his company credited Ms. 
Pole as the founder of the town. Taunton, which be- 
came a city in 1864, is now known as the only city in 
America founded by a woman. Proudly displaying 
Elizabeth's initiative, the town seal shows the outline of 
a woman and an Indian, underlined by the words Dux 
Femina Facti. Latin scholars will recognize the phrase, 
meaning "a woman was leader," as coming from the 
Aenid's description of Dido as the founder of ancient 

Further Expansion 

Within a few years of the Taunton purchase, resi- 
dents of Plymouth began to acquire even more land, 
both inland and on the coast. The area known as the 
Freeman's Purchase was bought from the Pocasset 
Indians, a sub-tribe of the Wampanoags, and included 
the eastern shore of Mount Hope Bay, now the city of 
Fall River, first settled in 1656. Dartmouth Town, which 
included the present cities of New Bedford and Fair- 
haven, invited settlement from 1640 on. The first set- 
tlers came to Attleboro as early as 1634. In 1649, Myles 
Standish and John Alden bought the land, for $30, on 
which Brockton now stands. Even more of a bargain, 

Pembroke was purchased in 1650 by a trader who ac- 
quired his territory from the Indians for a jug of wine. 
The entire area of Plymouth and Bristol Counties, 
stretching out fan-shaped from the town of Plymouth, 
obviously is rich in historical significance and memor- 
abilia. To emphasize this wealth, the Bristol County 
Development Council has developed an "Americana 
Trail," designed to feature the region's part in Amer- 
ica's history since the Plymouth Colony was estab- 
lished over 350 years ago. Beginning in Mystic, Con- 
necticut and going through Newport, Rhode Island, the 
Trail directs its Massachusetts visitors to eight major 
sites and many side trips in and around Fall River, New 
Bedford, South Carver and Plymouth. 

Other Than History . . . 

Along with the southeastern region's exciting his- 
tory, the area also boasts many fine camping areas and 
state parks, as well as broad coastal beaches. It in- 
cludes miles and miles of cranberry bogs, and num- 
erous streams where alewives (herring) annually make 
their way back from the ocean to the fresh waters in 
which they were spawned. Every April and May hun- 
dreds of thousands of these herring can be seen as 
they swim up the narrow rain-swollen streams to re- 
produce their own eggs and start the cycle of life all 
over again. Herring runs recommended for public view- 
ing include those at Mattapoisett on the Mattapoisett 
River (access at Route 6, east of New Bedford), at West 
Bridgewater by the Town Brook at Bennett's Corner 
(Route 28, south of Brockton), and at Wareham on the 
Agawam River (access at the crossroads of Routes 6 
and 28). After viewing the alewives in the spring, take 
another ride in September or October along Routes 28 
or 58 near Carver. There you can watch the harvesting 
of more than 3000 acres of cranberries as they are 
corralled together to form a brilliant mass of red color. 

Certain places can be visited practically all year 
around. We feature them in the following pages to 
give you an idea of just a few of the areas you'll want 
to see in Southeastern Massachusetts. Once you get 
there, find out about others. Local visitor information 
services will be happy to help you. And, three offices 
maintained by the Massachusetts Tourist Council are 
open in Southeastern Massachusetts to aid visitors in 
their travels. For information on the area, call or write: 


Mrs. Mary Wahlrab 

154 No. Main Street., P.O. Box 831 

Fall River, Massachusetts 02722 

(617) 676-1026 


Mr. Alan W. Stapleton 

65 Main Street 

Plymouth, Massachusetts 02360 

(617) 746-3377 


Mr. Brooks Kelley 

Box 1620, 293-3551 

Pembroke, Massachusetts 02359 



Fall River: "Is there 

anybody wants to come ashore?" 

The old Fall River Boat Train, operated 
in conjunction with the New England 
Steamship Company, used to leave 
Boston at 5 p.m., arrive in Fall River 
at 6:20 p.m., and 10 minutes later send 
you off by steamboat to Newport or 
New York. Those elegant years of 
steamship travel across the Sound, 
from 1847 to 1937, eventually gave way 
to a world of super highways and shut- 
tle airplanes. But the memories of an 
all-night cruise, of dining on velvet 
chairs in rooms bedecked with crystal 
and mahogany, still live on in Fall River 
today, preserved in the Marine Muse- 
um's collection of memorabilia about 
the history of steam transportation. And 
fortunately for the traveler who comes 
to Fall River on his own time-table, 
it is possible to spend a lot longer than 
10 minutes exploring all the city and en- 
virons have to offer. 

A starting point for a tour should 
be the Marine Museum at 70 Water 
Street. A fascinating collection of 
model ships, photos, and slide presen- 
tations brings to life an era when mid- 
19th century travelers sped along in 
opulent splendor at 19 miles per hour. 
Most passengers booked a single berth 
for the night, but those considered 
more extravagant paid an additional 
dollar for a private stateroom. Articles 
preserved from later ships, ranging 
from calliope music boxes to the crock- 
ery and the evening menu, give ample 
testimony to the claim that these steam- 
boats were indeed the "floating pal- 
aces" of Long Island Sound. If you're 
lucky enough to be at the museum when 
a school tour is in progress, feel wel- 
come to join in and watch the enthusi- 
astic guide demonstrate everything from 
the technique of knot-tying to the proper 
way to ring a ship's bell. (Monday 
through Saturday, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; 
Sunday, noon to 5 p.m. Adults $1.75; 
children 750. Special Battleship Cove 
combination ticket available: adults $3; 
children $1.25. Follow signs to Battle- 
ship Cove off Routes 195 or 24.) 

A free ride in a gaily-colored surrey 
takes you from the museum to nearby 
Battleship Cove. In 1965 the U.S.S. 
Battleship Massachusetts was decom- 
missioned and set up as a non-profit 
educational facility to tell the story of 
Navy life on the sea in World War II. 
More than glorifying the heroic deeds 
of those who served aboard the ship, 
the battleship is primarily a memorial 
to the 13,000 men and women from 
Massachusetts from all branches of the 

armed forces, who died during the war. 
The roll call of names inscribed on the 
walls of the former berth area serves 
as a continuing reminder to young and 
old alike of the human suffering that 
accompanies the inability of people and 
nations to live together in peace. 

A new memorial is being set up in 
the adjacent ship, the U.S.S. Joseph P. 
Kennedy Jr., a destroyer named for 
the oldest of the four Kennedy brothers. 
Acquired by Battleship Cove in 1973, 
the destroyer will honor the 4,000 Mas- 
sachusetts citizens who died during 
the Korean and Vietnam conflicts. Also 
on display is the submarine Lionfish, a 
World War II attack sub. You're wel- 
come to explore every part of the 
vessel — from the torpedo and engine 
rooms to the eating and sleeping 
quarters — and re-create the undersea 
life of the "Silent Service." Earphones 
are provided as you enter all the ships, 
giving a running commentary of the 
exhibits. (The ships can be seen April 
1 to October 30, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; rest 
of year until 4:30 p.m. Adults $2.50; 
children under 14, $1; under 6, 500. 
Cafeteria service in former Officer's 

In honor of the Bicentennial celebra- 
tion, the city of Fall River has appro- 
priated funds to salvage a section of 
the bow of former heavy cruiser U.S.S. 
Fall River, scrapped by the U.S. Navy 
and brought to Battleship Cove in 1974. 
Aided by a state Bicentennial grant, 
the bow will become the focal part of 
a permanent display on the maritime 
heritage of Fall River. 

You'll want to spend a full day on 
Fall River's waterfront and at least an- 
other day or two exploring the city's 
historic past and current vitality. Visi- 
tors booths, located on Route 195 at 
the Swansea Rest Area and at Battle- 
ship Cove, can direct you to a variety 
of activities. For a look at modern Fall 
River, for instance, ask for the Bargain 
Hunter's Guide to 20 different Bristol 
County Mills, many of them in existence 
since the late 19th century. Housed 
within huge granite walls, under grace- 
ful bell towers and jutting smoke stacks, 
are factory outlet shops that feature 
reduced-price goods ranging from 
sweaters and dresses to bedspreads 
and silver. 

Follow a busy morning of shopping 
— or just looking — with a restful after- 
noon's drive to the state park at Horse- 
neck Beach (on Route 88) or to Fort 
Phoenix at nearby Fairhaven. Main- 

tained by the Fairhaven Historical So- 
ciety, the fort marks the spot where, 
on September 8, 1778, British troops 
landed after laying siege to New Bed- 
ford, across the harbor. Militiamen 
commanded by Major Israel Fearing 
fought the troops who still managed to 
burn the fort while beating a retreat. 
Rebuilt soon after as "a Phoenix aris- 
ing from its own ashes," the fort now 
recalls the battle with its collection of 
Revolutionary War cannon mounted on 
wooden pedestals looking out over the 
Acushnet River to the open sea. Now, 
however, the stone embankment is 
manned by the Army Corps of Engi- 
neers. Its job is to control the hur- 
ricane dike that pumps water back to 
the ocean during heavy storms and 
prevents flooding in the harbor. Pic- 
nic and swimming facilities operated 
by the state are adjacent to the fort. 
On Sunday evenings in the summer 
you're likely to find a demonstration of 
colonial musketry by the 4th Old Dart- 
mouth Militia. (Check local listings.) 

The Fall River area is proud of the 
contributions made by its ethnic com- 
munities, particularly the Portuguese 
and French-Canadians who comprise 
the largest percentage of the popula- 
tion. Portuguese-Americans can trace 
their history to the early 16th century. 
For a closer look, head for Dighton 
Rock State Park (Exit 35 off Route 24 
north), an attractive picnic site which 
displays an enormous 40-ton rock. It 
bears the signature of Portuguese 

Children are permitted to work knobs and wheels and 


sailor Miguel Corte Real, the date 1511, 
the coat of arms of Portugal, and the 
Cross of the Order of Christ. Said by 
scholars to mark the arrival of Miguel 
to the shores of Massachusetts, the 
"talking rock" is preserved under glass 
and its history is recounted in a nearby 
building. It is surmised that the sailor 
and his men probably lived and mar- 
ried with the local Indians, thus giving 
credence to Roger Williams' report in 
the 1640's that the Indians in the area 
looked very much like white men. 

The French-Canadian presence in 
Fall River is still very much alive in the 
imposing and inspiring edifice of St. 
Anne's Church and Shrine, a continua- 
tion of the first French parish founded 
in the city in 1869. The church was de- 
voted to St. Anne in gratitude for her 
healing powers following a serious 
accident in the building at the time of 
the original dedication. In 1891, Father 
Sauval, the first Dominican priest to 
come via Canada to Fall River, con- 
ceived the idea of a magnificent na- 
tional shrine that would attract thou- 
sands of faithful to the cult of St. Anne 
similar to the pilgrimages to the Church 
of St. Anne de Beaupre in Quebec. The 
first Mass was celebrated in 1895 in 
the basement of the church, erected of 
solid granite from local quarries. Nine 
years later the upper church was dedi- 
cated. Made of blue Vermont marble, 
it rises to a height of 155 feet, with 
pews of British Columbia red oak and 
windows of Italian stained glass. Today 

train the anti-aircraft guns on the ships at Battleship Cove. 

Dominican priests still conduct Mass in 
French and English, and confessions 
can be heard in Portuguese as well. 
Each July 26th, on St. Anne's Feast 
Day, over 10,000 pilgrims come to the 
shrine to give testimony to the curative 
powers of prayer. Stacks of crutches 
no longer needed are offered to the 
church, and a portion of these are dis- 
played by the main altar. Throughout 
the year, on Sundays and Tuesdays, 
special devotions are held, but people 
of all beliefs are welcomed to the 
church at any time. 

No discussion of Fall River would be 
complete without a mention of the in- 
famous case of Lizzie Borden. Daughter 
of a prominent local banker, Sunday 
school-teacher Lizzie was tried and ac- 
quitted of the ax murder of her parents 
on August 4, 1892. Decades later peo- 
ple still argued her guilt or innocence, 
and books and plays and popular ditties 
arose around the case. (A favorite is 
"You can't chop your mama up in Mas- 
sachusetts. . .") The Fall River Histori- 
cal Society fell heir to much of the 
Borden memorabilia which can be 
found at their headquarters at 451 Rock 
Street. The ax that supposedly did the 
foul deed is on display there, but mem- 
bers would much prefer if you focused 
your attention on their other collec- 
tions. These include some of the re- 
mains of "The Skeleton in Armor," 
found in a local sandbank in 1831 and 
immortalized in Longfellow's poem. 
(Longfellow claimed the skeleton was a 
Viking, waxing eloquently about wassail 
and Norsemen. Most historians, how- 
ever, feel it was an Indian.) The So- 
ciety's building itself is worth noting 
as an example of the type of mansion 
built by Fall River's affluent mill owners 
during the mid-19th century. It also 
contains a secret door to the wine 
cellar where escaping slaves were hid- 
den in the days of the Underground 
Railroad. (Tuesday through Friday, 9 
a.m. to 4:30 p.m.; Saturday, 9 a.m. to 
noon; Sunday, 2 to 4 p.m. Admission 

Thanks to the minute detail recalled 
in Colonel Joseph Durfee's application 
for a military pension, and the perse- 
verance of local history buffs who 
tracked down the document, there is 
a first-person scenario of the events 
"of a Sabbath morning on the 25th day 
of May, 1778," which has come to be 
known as the Battle of Fall River. 
Colonel Durfee, commissioned as a 
major during the Revolution, com- 
manded a guard of 20 men to pro- 
tect local inhabitants from continual 
British harassment. Though his mem- 
ory of dates may have been faulty — 

British diarists claim the battle was 
held on May 31 — his ability to de- 
scribe the military engagement was 
both precise and eloquent. 

"Never were soldiers more brave. . ." 
he wrote on his military forms, justify- 
ing his claim to a retirement pension. 
Along with Durfee's other reminis- 
cences, these papers provide the back- 
ground for a re-enactment of the battle 
to be staged on June 14, 1975 and 
again in June, 1976. (Check local 
listings.) The pageant, marking the last 
Revolutionary battle in Massachusetts, 
will be held in the harbor of Battleship 
Cove. Scheduled to begin after dark, 
spotlights will re-create the arrival of 
the Redcoats by longboat, their dis- 
covery by Corporal Samuel Reed, the 
neighborhood alert, the firing of can- 
non, and, finally, the retreat by British 
men "not a little annoyed by the mus- 
ketry of our soldiers." Come for the 
pageant and stay on for the next day's 
Parade of Patriots. 

The destroyer Joseph P. Kennedy is a new 
acquisition at Battleship Cove. It was first 
opened to the public in March, 1974. 



Art, Architecture, and Americana 

Although you can choose from a num- 
ber of towns in Southeastern Massachu- 
setts, the following three are good 
places to begin your tour. 


During the Revolutionary War, a Tory 
who resided in a vine-covered frame 
house at 96 French Street in Fall River 
used to climb up on his gambrel roof 
and signal to the British soldiers oc- 
cupying Taunton. Two hundred years 
later communications with the neigh- 
boring city have been made a lot 
easier by two modern highways (Routes 
24 or 138) and a 20-minute drive. Manu- 
facturing has existed in Taunton since 
the mid-17th century, and ship-building 
saw its heyday in that inland port city 
throughout the 18th and early 19th 
centuries. Although today a diversified 
industrial center, the city extends over 
such a large area that the downtown 
section still maintains a sense of quiet- 
ness and a deep respect for its his- 
torical past. 

Upon entering the city center (com- 
ing from Fall River), one of the first 
sites to catch your eye is a large stat- 
ue of Robert Treat Paine in the middle 
of Summer Street. Prosecutor of the 
British soldiers indicted for the "Boston 
Massacre" and one of five Massachu- 
setts citizens who signed the Declara- 
tion of Independence, Bostonian Paine 
moved to Taunton as a young man 
where he served from 1773 to 1778 as 
representative to the Massachusetts 
General Court. Further on into town, at 
the center of the green, a 112-foot 
Liberty Pole still stands that was 
erected by colonists in October, 1774, 
declaring their rights as free and inde- 
pendent- people. Colonial units, includ- 
ing the 4th Old Dartmouth Militia, per- 
form in front of the pole on Liberty 
and Union Day, usually celebrated in 

Also on the green, opposite the 
courthouse, is a large rock and plaque 
marking the spot where General David 
Cobb, in October, 1786, put down an 
attempt by Shays Rebellion insurgents 
to prevent the Supreme Judicial Court 
from sitting. The interpretation of that 
event all depends on what part of Mas- 
sachusetts you're visiting. The Western 
part of the state no doubt would see 
Cobb as the villain, but here in Taunton 
he is honored for his heroic response. 
Cobb's deed is also remembered with 
a display of his cannon at the Old 

Colony Historical Society, at 66 Green 
Street. The museum and genealogical 
library, first established in 1853, also 
contains a fascinating collection of 
other early Americana items. A British 
drummer boy's coat, taken after the 
Redcoats evacuated Newport, hangs in 
the military room along with a collec- 
tion of muskets and swords dating from 
1622 to the Spanish-American War. 
Other exhibits include a one-horse shay 
with a folding top, the oldest fire engine 
of its type in America (1803), and a 
large collection of silver pieces, rare 
pewter, and Britannia ware made in 
Taunton for over 150 years by more 
than 20 different local companies. (Oc- 
tober through June, Monday through 
Friday, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.; Saturday, 10 
a.m. to noon. July through September, 
Tuesday through Saturday, 10 a.m. to 
4 p.m.; closed Monday and holidays. 
Admission 500.) 


Just nine miles north of Taunton (Route 
138) is the town of Easton, first settled 
in 1694 and an important industrial 
town during the Civil War and the post- 
war expansion of the railroads. The 
Ames family, leaders in the manufac- 
turing of iron products in the town, were 
distinguished patrons of the arts as 
well. Starting in 1877, various members 
of the family began to finance the build- 
ing of impressive architectural struc- 
tures, of which several have been of 
continuous use to the whole com- 
munity. Thanks to the friendship of 
Frederick Lothrop Ames and his sister 
Helen Angier Ames with noted 19th cen- 
tury architect Henry Hobson Richard- 
son, Easton has benefited from a 
number of these handsome, distinctive, 
and useful buildings. 

The first Richardson structure, 
opened in 1883, was built by Frederick 
and Helen as a memorial to their father, 
and is known as the Oliver Ames Free 
Library. Designed in English Gothic 
style with a low, cavernous arch over 
the doorway, it became one of the most 
prominent and widely imitated exam- 
ples of Richardson's style. His col- 
league, Stanford White, provided the 
picturesque carvings and corner gar- 
goyles on the outside of the library. He 
also designed the detailed wooden 
barrel-vaulted ceiling and balustrade of 
the stack wing and the ornately carved 
mantlepiece in the reading room. Au- 
gustus St. Gaudens sculptured the man- 

tle's bronze bas relief of Oliver Ames II. 
In 1879, the children of Oakes Ames, 
Oliver's brother, commissioned Rich- 
ardson to design a memorial hall in 
honor of their father. Dedicated two 
years later, the area around the hall 
was landscaped by Frederick Law Olm- 
sted who also created the nearby 
"Rockery." Both the library and the 
hall are still open to the public, and 
the surroundings have been designated 
a National Historic District. Other 
Richardson buildings in Easton include 
the Old Colony Railroad Station, com- 
pleted in 1882, which the local histori- 
cal society intends to make into an 
historical museum. The Gate Lodge, 
built for $25,000 in 1881 as both a 
residence for the caretaker and a week- 
end retreat for the college-age Ames 
sons, is now a private home. Its ex- 
terior can be viewed from the road 
that passes the Easton town offices. 
Also seen from the road is the Gard- 
ner's Cottage (private), built by Rich- 
ardson in 1884. The architectural as- 
semblage attracts numerous students 
and admirers to the town. 


After you've completed your own tour 
of Easton, continue your day devoted 
to the aesthetics of the region by driv- 
ing a few miles east to Brockton. 
Though perhaps most famous as the 
city whose shoe industry shod half the 
Union Army during the Civil War, 
Brockton can also boast one of the 
finest small art museums in the coun- 
try. The Brockton Art Center is located 
just a few miles from the center of the 
city, off Route 27 on Oak Street, and 
is well worth the stop. Presented to 
the city in 1969 by geologist Myron 
Fuller as a memorial to his father, the 
modern building housing the art col- 
lection and school is located amidst the 
lovely ponds and woods of the 700 
acre D.W. Field Park. (Picnic, swim- 
ming, fishing, and golf facilities are 
available in the park.) 

The Art Center regularly changes its 
exhibits, and features subjects of both 
contemporary and historical interest. 
During the first Bicentennial summer 
(June 11 to September 7, 1975), there 
will be a major exhibition of "Boston 
Painting Now." Call (617) 588-6000 for 
information on other shows and special 
events at the Center. (Tuesday through 
Sunday, 1 to 5 p.m.; Thursday, 1 to 10 
p.m. Adults $1; under 16, free.) 



Taunton, Massachusetts, was a 
hotbed of patriots surrounded by 
equally rabid Tories in Revolutionary 
days. An extract from the Boston 
Evening Post, Monday, October 24, 
1774, now in the Archives of the 
Boston Athenaeum follows: "We 
have just received the following from 
Taunton that on Friday last a Liberty 
Pole and a Union flag were raised 
there, on which is a Torie and a 
Union flag flying with the words 
Liberty and Union thereon. " 

This flag, the handwork of the 
patriot women of Taunton, had a red 
background with an upper corner 
field of blue where the crosses of St. 
Andrew of Scotland and St. George 
of England were superimposed 

Ralph Davol in his book, "Two 
Men of Taunton" (Daniel Leonard 
and Robert Treat Paine), describes 
the scene on Taunton Green when 
David Leonard, a rabid Tory, had fled 
after an attack on his house, leaving 
his womenfolk behind. Taunton's 
women patriots escorted to the 
Green Mrs. McKinstry (a Leonard 
relation) who had taken no pains to 
conceal her feeling of contempt 
toward the patriots. There she was 
marched around the Liberty Pole in 
humiliating token allegiance to the 
new flag. 

A Boston paper of this same era 
commented, "It is more dangerous 
to be a Tory in Taunton than in 

Even earlier, a convention of men 
in Bristol County started to prepare a 
Declaration of Independence declar- 
ing that they were "determined at the 
risk of their fortunes and their lives, 
to defend their natural and compact- 
ed rights and to oppose to the 
utmost all illegal and unconstitu- 
tional measures, which have been, 
or may be, hereafter adopted by a 
British Parliament or ministry." 

(Courtesy of Ruth Howland) 

Take a Ride on the Cranberry Line 

The "Americana Trail" from Fall River 
and New Bedford heads east on Route 
6 (or Route 195) to Route 28 north, 
picks up Route 58, and takes you di- 
rectly to the Edaville Railroad in South 

Located in the heart of cranberry 
country, the railroad offers rides on a 
real steam train (or occasionally on a 
diesel) on narrow gauge track through 
five-and-one-half miles of cranberry 
bogs. Originally the train was used to 
pick up the berries and haul them to a 
central location. Now it serves to carry 
sightseers who are offered a view of 
tiny one-half scale villages along the 
way as well as woodland scenes and 
the ever-present cranberry in some 
stage of growth or harvesting. 

A combination ticket admits you to 
both the train ride and the museum. 
Edaville's display includes the Loco- 
motive Historical Society's collection 
of rolling stock. There is also an im- 

pressive exhibit of antique fire engines 
and fire equipment, an antique car col- 
lection, and an antique gun display. 
After you've toured the museum, take a 
ride on the carousel or the horse-drawn 
trolley car, visit the animal farm, and 
browse through a 19th century shop- 
per's mall. If you come during the 
Christmas season, Edaville features a 
special Christmas lighting display, 
viewed from steamheated coaches. 
(April and May, Sunday only, noon to 
5 p.m.; June 8 to Labor Day, daily, 10 
a.m. to 5:30 p.m.; Wednesday until 9 
p.m.; Sunday noon to 5:30 p.m. Labor 
Day to mid-October, daily, 10:30 to 3 
p.m.; weekends noon to 5 p.m. Christ- 
mas season, daily 4 to 9 p.m.; weekends 
2 to 9 p.m.; closed Thanksgiving and 
Christmas Days and January through 
March. For further information, call 
(617) 866-4526. Combination tickets for 
train ride and museum: adults $2.40; 
children $1.20.) 

Located on Route 58 between Routes 25 and 44, Edaville Railroad winds its way through 
cranberry bogs in a five-mile loop. Passengers are welcome throughout the year. 



Plymouth: Where It All Began 

No student of American history should 
miss his or her own special pilgrimage 
to the town of Plymouth. The place 
where the Pilgrims of 1620 finally found 
their safe harbor, the town is rich with 
historic buildings and modern re-crea- 
tions of what life was like more than 350 
years ago. Plan to spend a day, if not 
two, visiting the many landmarks in the 
area. (A combination ticket for nine 
historic sites and museums may be 
purchased between May 25 and Sep- 
tember 15 for $5.25 for adults and $1.95 
for children. It can be used on any day 
during the season.) The Plymouth Town 
Information Booth, on Route 44 at North 
Park Avenue, can provide you with 
tickets, maps, and pamphlets. It also 
has a lodging placement service to 
help you secure overnight accommoda- 

Start your tour of Plymouth the way 
the Pilgrims did with a visit to May- 
flower II, an exact replica of the ship 
which brought 102 passengers and 25 
crewmen on a 66-day voyage to the 
rugged shores of New England. The 
vessel was reproduced in England with 
the help of references from Governor 
William Bradford's account of the first 
voyage. A costumed crew sailed it 
across the Atlantic in 1957 to its per- 
manent resting place at Plymouth's 
State Pier. (April 1 to December 1, 
9 a.m. to sunset. Adults $1.25; chil- 
dren 600; under five, free.) 

Step down from the ship and head 
for Plymouth Rock; the date 1620 
carved upon it indicates the spot where 
the first group of 17 men supposedly 
waded ashore on December 21. The 
rock is under a huge granite portico 
surrounded by an iron fence to protect 
it both from the weather and from eager 
souvenir hunters. For a more vivid 
idea of- what the area and the people 
might have looked like on that historic 
day, wander across the street to the 
Plymouth National Wax Museum. 
(March to December, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
Adults $1.50; children 750.) Then go 
to Pilgrim Hall, at 75 Court Street, and 
view Henry Sargent's famous painting 
The Landing of the Pilgrims. The Hall, 
dating from 1824, is built in Greek Re- 
vival style and contains the most com- 
plete collection anywhere of Pilgrim 
possessions and lore. Maintained by 
the Pilgrim Society for the purpose of 
studying and interpreting the history of 
the earliest New England settlers, the 
Hall contains a comprehensive collec- 
tion of Pilgrim household possessions, 
the only known portrait of a Pilgrim 

actually done at the time, and a library 
full of 17th century manuscripts and 
subsequent writings relating to the 
Plymouth Colony. (Daily, 9 a.m. to 4:30 
p.m. Adults 750; children 500.) 

In addition to maintaining the mu- 
seum, the Pilgrim Society, in existence 
since 1820, has been responsible for 
the preservation of Cole's Hill, the 
burial place of settlers who died during 
the first desperate year and were bur- 
ied secretly at night to avoid panic. 
The hill, now a National Landmark, 
contains a statue of Sachem Massasoit, 
the legendary Indian chief who taught 
the colonists to live off the land. In 
1889, the Society dedicated the Pil- 
grim Monument (on Allerton Street), 
an immense statue representing Faith 
at the center and flanked by Morality, 
Law, Education, and Liberty. Carved 
marble slabs portray the story of the 
Pilgrims' coming to America, including 
the signing of the Mayflower Compact, 
a set of principles which broadly paved 
the way for community participation in 

There are two ways to continue ex- 
periencing the history of Old Plymouth, 
and you will probably want to do both. 
Plimoth Plantation is located about 
two-and-one-half miles south of Plym- 
outh Center, on Route 3A. A non- 
profit, educational organization, the 
Plantation re-creates the early fortified 
village from 1620 to 1627 as it appeared 
from old records, diaries, and archaeo- 
logical research. Costumed interpreters 
perform the actual tasks of the 17th 

century farming community, stopping 
frequently to discuss the day-to-day life 
of the Pilgrim settlers. (April, May and 
November, 10 a.m. to sunset; June 
through October, 9 a.m. to sunset. 
Adults $1.75; children 5 to 13, 600.) 

From May 15 to October 15, you can 
visit the Indian Summer Camp, set up 
by the Native American Studies Pro- 
gram of Plimoth Plantation. Replicat- 
ing the site and the activities of a 
coastal Algonquin summer camp typi- 
cal of the early 17th century, the ex- 
hibit is researched and staffed by de- 
scendants of the people who inhabited 
New England long before recorded 

A second way to view historic Plym- 
outh is through a tour of six old 
houses of the town dating from the 
17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. (May 25 
to September 15, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
Combination tickets are available.) The 
Richard Sparrow House (closed Sun- 
days) is said to be the oldest house in 
Plymouth and is the current home of 
the Plymouth Pottery Guild. 

The Harlow Old Fort House, dating 
from 1677, is built with framing timbers 
from the original fort. Plymouth women 
in period costumes demonstrate the 
17th century arts of weaving, butter- 
churning, candle-dipping and spinning. 
Admirers of antique furnishings and 
heirlooms will want to visit the How- 
land House (17th century), the Spooner 
House and the Mayflower Society House 
(18th century), and the Antiquarian 
House (early 19th century). 


If you visit Plymouth on a Friday in 
August, be sure to stay around until 
5 p.m. to watch the local townspeople 
re-enact the church procession of the 
Pilgrim founders. Marchers, assembling 
to the beat of a drum, dress in Pilgrim 
clothing. Together they walk up Ley- 
den Street to the site of the fort on 
Burial Hill where psalms are sung and 
texts are read, just as they were in 

Thanksgiving Day, of course, is al- 
ways a very special time to come to 
Plymouth. Each year a special ecu- 
menical Union Thanksgiving Day Serv- 
ice is held at 10 a.m. at the First 
Church in the Town Square. People of 
all faiths are invited to worship to- 
gether. Later in the day, between 
noon and 5 p.m., a traditional Thanks- 
giving Day dinner is served buffet-style 
to the public at Memorial Hall on Court 
and Plymouth Streets. (The cost should 
be about $5.25 for adults, less for chil- 
dren, depending on the current price 
of turkey.) Many of the main attractions 
of the town are still open in late Novem- 
ber and, in addition, the Jenny Grist 
Mill Village (at Spring Lane and Town 
Brook Park) has a crafts demonstra- 
tion daily throughout the week. 

Information on other special events 
during the Bicentennial years can be 
obtained by writing the Plymouth Cham- 
ber of Commerce, 85 Samoset Street, 
Plymouth 02360, or by calling (617) 

Thanksgiving is a special time of year to 
visit Plymouth. A traditional meal to cele- 
brate the day is served at Memorial Hall. 


(Courtesy of Gordon Greenwood Sampson) 

Plympton can boast of many 
things, but often foremost on the list 
is the fact that America's first WAC 
was born there December 17, 1760. 
Deborah Sampson was a great-great- 
granddaughter of William Bradford, 
but was bound out in service at a 
young age when her mother was 
unable to support her family be- 
cause her husband was lost at sea. 

Deborah grew up on a farm and 
developed into a husky woman as a 
result of her daily chores. She edu- 
cated herself well enough so that 
she was able to obtain a teaching 
position in neighboring Middleboro. 

News of the Boston Tea Party and 
the Battles of Lexington and Con- 
cord stimulated Deborah's vigorous 
nature. By the time she was 20 in 
1781 she was tired of the drudgery of 
farm life, so she made herself a set 
of men's clothes and enlisted in the 
Continental Army for three years on 
May 23, 1 782, in Uxbridge. 

She was attached to Colonel 
Shepard's 4th Massachusetts Reg- 
iment and marched to West Point, 
where she became "Private Robert 
Shirtliff" — completely outfitted in 
full army uniform. Her service in the 

army was distinguished by her 
courage, and, despite two wounds, 
it was not until she fell seriously ill 
in Philadelphia that her secret was 

On October 25, 1783, her regiment 
was mustered out, with Deborah 
then clad in women's clothes, and 
she arrived home about November 1, 
1783. She was married two years 
later and embarked on a career as a 
lecturer, sounding what was prob- 
ably the "first call to American 
womanhood to take its place in the 
new liberty. " 

It is reported that General Wash- 
ington stopped to visit the then 
well-known female soldier during his 
tour of New England in 1797. Deborah 
continued her lecture tours and 
finally even obtained a soldier's 
pension from Congress in 1803. Her 
memory is honored by a monument 
on the Plympton Common and one 
at the Rock Ridge Cemetery in 
Sharon, where she and her husband 
are buried. The back of her grave- 
stone bears the inscription: "Robert 
Shirtliff — The Female Soldier — 
Service — 1781-1783. She Died — 
1827. " 




The Pilgrims hailed Cape Cod with joy, explored it 
with desperate haste and later returned there from 
Plymouth to live with a satisfaction that can be shared 
by Cape Cod visitors more than 300 years later. 

Not all of the Plymouth Pilgrims emigrated to 
Cape Cod. But so many folk left Plymouth for Eastham 
one fine morning in 1644 that Governor William Brad- 
ford saw his beloved village as a mother left forlorn 
by her children. 

Signs of Plymouth's Rule 

The Pilgrims left their mark on Cape Cod in two 
ways. The first, most literal impress began when Eng- 
lish boots left strangely alien footprints on the sands 
of what is today the beachfront of Provincetown. That 
literal impress has long vanished, although modern 
visitors can retrace the paths and routes — to some 
extent — followed by the initial Pilgrim shore parties 
long ago. 

The more subtle mark left upon the Narrow Land 
by the Pilgrims stems from the fact that, for nearly 
50 years, the Cape was the legal territory of Plymouth 
Colony, her towns and people satellites orbiting the 
Plymouth sun. From Plymouth came the grants of 
land, the codes of law, the rules and regulations, the 
customs and the point of view that made Cape Cod. 

The Cape has not been ruled by Plymouth for 
more than 200 years, but even today, her towns, her 
courts, her government, her customs still reflect to 
some extent the days when Plymouth governed the 
Narrow Land. These reminders of Plymouth rule are 
not obvious today; you would not notice them on a 
flying weekend visit. But if you stay to savor the Cape, 
to explore it and study it and read about it, you will 
notice Pilgrim traces, subtle, worn by time, but still as 
distinct as the broadaxe marks in a cottage beam, 
made by a Cape craftsman dead these 200 years and 

A Desperate Search for Settlement 

The Pilgrims' initial exploration of Cape Cod was 
rather more desperate than the modern visitor's voy- 
ages of discovery. For the Pilgrims, time was running 
out on that chill November 19, 1620. They had to find 
a habitable site ashore before winter closed in, and get 
houses and a meeting place built almost at once. To 
stay on board the overcrowded little Mayflower was 
to court disaster. Already, many of the band were 
sick from the damp, the confinement, the inadequate 
food. The gray November skies and icy winds re- 
minded them daily of the need for haste. Everything 
but their courage was in short supply. Theirs was the 
heroic task of somehow hacking out a livable settle- 
ment in the face of a steel-cold New England winter 
on the edge of a bitter wilderness. 

The Cape Cod the Pilgrims saw from Mayflower's 
deck was not too different from today's Cape in terms 

of bays and headlands if allowance is made for ero- 
sion and man-made changes. But on shore, the forest 
came to the water's edge. 

Myles Standish led an armed shore patrol that 
roamed about what are today Provincetown and Truro, 
acquiring that famous basket of Indian Corn on what 
is still known as Corn Hill. A second trip used the 
shallop to back up marchers in a tour of the Pamet 
River area. Back from that second journey, Pilgrim 
leaders faced an agonizing reappraisal: Neither water, 
supplies nor good farmland appeared adequate. 

With the determination of the desperate, May- 
flower crewmen, led by Master Robert Coppin, sailed 
around the edge of Cape Cod Bay. Spray froze on their 
jackets as they coasted past what are today Eastham, 
Brewster, Barnstable, Sandwich, Bourne and Plymouth. 
Coppin remembered a good harbor at Plymouth. The 
shallop nearly capsized in the breakers off the harbor, 
but made it safely to quieter waters. A hasty explora- 
tion convinced the Pilgrims this was the place. They 
returned to summon Mayflower to sail across the bay 
and anchor. Saints and strangers would build here 
a new town and a new life in a new world. 

Four Towns Established 

By 1627, the Pilgrims had established a trading 
post at Aptuxcet, in what is today Bourne, to make 
trading with the Dutch of New Amsterdam easier. Pil- 
grims would sail down from Plymouth, up the Scusset 
River, portage across some low-lying land and then 
sail down the Monument River to the post. Myles 
Standish early urged the digging of a canal. (His fore- 
sight was belatedly vindicated in 1914 when the Cape 
Cod Canal opened.) 

In 1630, the Council for New England annexed 
Cape Cod to Plymouth, paving the way for legal set- 
tlement of the Narrow Land. By 1639, Sandwich was 
incorporated after Standish and John Alden saw to 
it the land was fairly divided. Three more Cape towns 
were also settled under Plymouth rule: Yarmouth, Barn- 
stable and Eastham. In Yarmouth, land division proved 
vexing, the more so as Plymouth ordered the available 
acreage allotted on the basis of each man's "quality." 
Debate on that item ignited a red-hot argument in old 
Yarmouth and it took the terrible-tempered Captain 
Standish to settle matters all by himself. (He did.) Be- 
hind him, Plymouth Colony's own Henry Kissinger left 
sullen, but not mutinous Cape Codders. 

Plymouth kept far tighter reins on her four Cape 
satellite towns than any modern government would 
dare. Townspeople were directed to cut their hair off 
level with their ears (today's youth would spend most of 
their time in the stocks). Young men who sought the 
company of a girl without her parents' consent were 
fined five pounds and profanity cost 10 shillings. On 
Sundays, smoking was not permitted within two miles 
of the meeting house. 




by John Ackerman 

Cape towns sent two deputies each to Plymouth. 
This was less democratic than it appears; Plymouth 
had four deputies plus the governor and he did not 
hesitate to dismiss deputies who made the error of de- 
fending their towns in differences of opinion with 
Plymouth, which also kept a sharp eye on the settlers. 
Folks of small means who lived loosely were ordered 
to be watched by the grand jurors. Undesirables were 
expelled from town and Captain Standish was dis- 
patched if the expulsion seemed unduly prolonged. 
The religiously unorthodox were asked to move on. 

Growth of Cape Cod 

Sandwich, in particular, harbored many Quakers 
and often clashed with Plymouth as a result. But the 
Pilgrims were far less savage in their persecution of 
Quakers than the Puritans of Boston who did not 
hesitate to hang them. In an early example of sitting 
down and reasoning together, Plymouth authorities 
sent two men to attend a Quaker meeting to try to 
persuade the errants to return to the fold of orthodoxy. 
The bid failed — but it speaks volumes for the funda- 
mental compassion, breadth and humanity of the Plym- 
outh government. In contrast, Puritan Boston regarded 
the end of the hangman's rope as one solution to the 
Quaker problem. Ultimately, royal mandates eased the 
colonial persecution of the Quakers. 

Plymouth lost control of its Cape territory in 1692 
when the colony lost its independent charter and was 
merged with Massachusetts Bay (Boston). But the 
beginning of the end came, perhaps, in 1657 when 
Thomas Prence of Eastham was elected governor and 
decided to stay and live in Eastham during his term 
of office rather than move to Plymouth where the gov- 
ernor was expected to live. Prence's election reflected 
the growing prosperity and population of Cape Cod, 
the slow ebbing of the agricultural and economic for- 
tunes of Plymouth. 

A Sense of Unity 

In the Massachusetts of 1975, direct links between 
Cape Cod and Plymouth, with the exception of high- 
ways, are almost nonexistent. Both town and penin- 
sula send delegates to the Great and General Court 
of Massachusetts, the State Legislature. The Pilgrim 
Monument at Provincetown; carefully placed historic 
markers; traditional sites; exhibitions and displays at 
the Cape Cod National Seashore and elsewhere on the 
Cape; the carefully re-created Pilgrim village at Plim- 
outh Plantation in Plymouth — these are the tangible 
signs that link the Pilgrims to the Narrow Land. 

But the Cape is linked by less-tangible signs and 
by a rather heavy debt of gratitude as well — gratitude 
because any assessment of Pilgrim influence on Cape 
Cod must find many more credits than debits. It could 
be argued that Plymouth authorities governed Cape 
Cod towns with harshness, severity and petty tyranny. 

A replica of the Mayflower is docked on the Plymouth waterfront. 

On paper and, sometimes, in fact, they did. 

Yet the evidence suggests the four original Cape 
Cod towns did not find Plymouth rule burdensome. 
For one thing, the men who ruled from Plymouth were 
honorable, humane, compassionate and just. If they 
were stern in their religious orthodoxy, they were not 
fanatic about it. If they seem to us to have meddled 
too often in rather personal concerns, theirs was a 
personal age. Their concern for a man's personal 
morals and his personal behavior rose from their con- 
cern for him as an individual and for his immortal 
soul, not because of any morbid love of prying. 

And the Pilgrims of Plymouth did give the four 
Cape towns a workable government. They bound 
them to Plymouth in a system of defense against hov- 
ering Indians to the west and England's enemies over 
the ocean horizon to the east. If they enforced religious 
conformity, it was because they had seen a lack of 
such conformity tear Europe apart in blood and fire. 
Plymouth had to induce among the Cape towns a 
unity in law, in faith, in government, in outlook — else 
there was no Plymouth colony, but a mere collection 
of hapless little houses strung along the sandy trails 
of the New England wilderness. 

What Plymouth Colony gave Cape Cod was that 
sense of unity, of a shared outlook, of a common pur- 
pose, a mutual goal. This goal has long since spread 
from old Plymouth and Cape Cod to a United States 
whose size and scope should never blind its 
220,000,000 citizens to the debt they owe to the Pil- 
grim settlers and the roads they opened that all Amer- 
icans have followed since. 



Cape Towns 


Barnstable was settled around 1637 and 
its early residents, under the leader- 
ship of John Hull, were cattle farmers 
who brought their stock to the Cape to 
feed upon the rich marsh hay. Since 
that time, the town has retained much 
of historical interest. 

The Sturgis Library on Main Street 
was built in 1644 and contains a good 
collection of material relating to the 
Cape's maritime history. Visitors trac- 
ing their family ancestry can look into 
the genealogical records kept there. (For 
information concerning hours, call (617) 
362-6636. Admission free.) 

Also on Main Street is the Crocker 
House, established and operated as a 
tavern until 1784. Although the two- 
story house is privately owned and not 
open to the public, it is a point of inter- 
est on a walking tour of Barnstable. 

The Donald G. Trayser Memorial Mu- 
seum, named after a historian promi- 
nent in the Barnstable Historical Soci- 
ety, has been established in the Old 
Customs House, also on Main Street. 
Housed in the eighteenth-century build- 
ing are Victorian furnishings, antique 
crafts, dolls and tools. A horse-drawn 
hearse and farm implements are ex- 
hibited in the carriage house behind 
the museum. (July 1 to September 15, 
Tuesday through Saturday, 1 to 5 p.m.; 
September 15 to October 31, Friday and 
Saturday, 1 to 5 p.m. Adults 500; chil- 
dren 250.) 

In West Barnstable, the West Parish 
Congregational Church, acclaimed to 
be the oldest congregational meeting- 
house in the United States, still holds 
regular services. (Daily, 9 a.m. to 5 
p.m. Admission free.) 

On hot summer days, Barnstable's 
Sandy Neck Beach is a popular spot. 
There are no lifeguards on duty, but 
the swimming is great. (Daily, mid- 
June to Labor Day, 9 a.m. to 9 p.m.; 
weekends only rest of year. Parking 
$2 per car.) Other nice places to cool 
off include Hamblin Pond (114 acres) 
in the Marston's Mills area, Mystic 
Lake and Middle Pond (249 acres) and 
Lovell's Pond (56 acres). 

From late June through early August, 
Barnstable's Village Hall is the scene 
of the Ethnic Dance Festival, featuring 
performances by well-known ethnic 
dance companies. (For information, 
write to Ethnic Dance Arts, P.O. Box 94, 
Barnstable, 02630.) 


A good many of Brewster's early resi- 
dents were involved in the Cape's mari- 
time history and if you visit the ceme- 
tery behind the First Parish Church, 
you'll discover the gravestones of many 
ship captains, as well as some of the 
other colorful individuals who have 
played a part in the town's history. 

Brewster has many attractions for 
visitors, some of genuine historical in- 
terest, and some geared to less serious 
pursuits. The Stony Brook Mill was 
constructed as a grist mill in 1873, on 
the site where several other mills had 
existed. In summer, a staff member 
shows visitors the old-fashioned meth- 
od of grinding corn, and a small mu- 
seum exhibits objects relating to the 
mill's history. 

The Cape Cod Museum on Route 6A 
shows collections of birds, mammals, 
seashore life and aquaria. Marked na- 
ture trails are accessible for walks and 
a library on the premises contains 
many volumes pertinent to Cape flora 
and fauna. (Monday to Saturday, 10 
a.m. to 5 p.m.; Sunday, noon to 5 p.m. 
Adults 750; children 250.) 

Also in the Brewster area are several 
lakes, offering a pleasant change to 
people who are tired of crowded 
beaches. Long Pond, between Harwich 
and Brewster lies between Routes 124 
and 137 and covers 716 acres. 

Drummer Boy Museum, also on Route 
6A, is devoted to telling the story of the 
American Revolution. Twenty-one life- 
size scenes on canvas make up an area 
as large as a football field. Educated 
guides take visitors on a tour, explain- 
ing the significance of the scenes. The 
museum is open from mid-May to mid- 
October, daily, 9:30 a.m. to 6 p.m. 
Adults $1.75; high school students $1; 
elementary 750; pre-school free. 


Originally a place referred to as Mono- 
moy, Chatham was a farming com- 
munity in its early days, and the 10-mile 
Monomoy Island reaching south was a 
place where beach pirates gathered to 
send out false beacons and mislead 
passing boats aground. 

If you drive down South Road, you'll 
come to the more legitimate Chatham 
Light at a location which has supported 
lighthouses since 1808, and has seen a 
great deal of action, including the 

wreck of the Pendleton, a tanker that 
fell victim to a Cape storm. 

Historic sites in town include the 
Old Atwood House on Stage Harbor 
Road, built in 1752 and presently the 
headquarters of the Chatham Historic 
Society. (Late June to mid-September, 
Monday, Wednesday and Friday, 2 to 
5 p.m. Adults 500; children 250.) An 
old windmill built in 1797, standing on 
the shore of Mill Pond in Chase Park, 
still grinds products that are for sale 
nearby. (July to Labor Day, daily ex- 
cept Thursday, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Ad- 
mission free.) 

The lovely Monomoy Wildlife Refuge 
in Chatham includes two islands, Morris 
Island accessible by car and Monomoy 
Island, which is much larger but can 
be reached only by boat. Salt marsh, 
sand dunes, salt and fresh water ponds 
and dune vegetation provide an ideal 
environment for shore birds. A leaflet 
listing the birds which have been iden- 
tified at the refuge is available. (For 
information about special guided trips, 
call (617) 369-5518.) 

Among the summer activities in 
Chatham are the performances of com- 
edies, classical works and dramas, 
staged at the Monomoy Theater on 
Route 28. (For schedule and ticket in- 
formation, call (617) 945-1589.) 


The Dennis Historical Society has esti- 
mated that some 100 antique homes 
remain standing in the area surround- 
ing "The Dennises." Although most of 
the homes are not open to the public, 
they represent various periods of Cape 
architecture and a tour of them proves 
to be an interesting way to spend an 
afternoon. (For specific information, 
stop at the Dennis Historical Center on 
Old Main Road in West Dennis, or call 
(617) 398-6736.) 

Jericho House at Main Street and 
Trotting Park Road was built in 1801 
and its nearby barn currently functions 
as a museum. Visitors can see period 
furnishings and objects relevant to the 
history of Dennis and its early indus- 
tries. (July to Labor Day, 2 to 4 p.m. 
Admission free; donations welcome.) 

For an excellent view of Dennis and 
the neighboring towns, visit Scargo Hill 
Tower (about 180 feet high) south of 
town. Or stop between East Dennis 
and Dennis to see Scargo Lake, a 530- 
acre pond which bans motorboats and 
thus is a haven for fishermen and ca- 
noeists. A white sandy beach leads to 
the water, making the lake especially 
popular in the summer. 

One of the best known seasonal 
theaters in the country is the Cape 


Playhouse, on Route 6A. Performances 
are generally scheduled during July and 
August. (For schedule and ticket in- 
formation, call (617) 385-3911.) 


Explorers from the Mayflower encoun- 
tered their first Indians in the vicinity 
of what today is Eastham. This lovely 
part of Cape Cod shouldn't be missed 
by visitors who are interested in the 
area's magnificent scenery. 

Coast Guard Beach in Eastham is the 
most popular beach within the Cape 
Cod National Seashore. (Cape Cod 
boasts 300 miles of beach, 40 of which 
are within the bounds of the National 
Seashore.) The beach is the first as 
you enter the Seashore area and also 
one of the easiest to climb onto. The 
parking lot accommodates only 350 
cars, so it is essential to arrive early 
on a hot summer day. Surfing is per- 
missible on a restricted section. 

Another Eastham beach, Nauset 
Light has a smaller lot with spaces for 
only 100 cars. Although the beach is 
popular with local residents, it is sel- 
dom crowded, since it entails a long 
scramble to reach. This is the only 
Seashore beach without a bath house. 

People interested in learning more 
about the facilities at the Seashore 
should stop at the Visitor's Center at 
Salt Pond, just off Route 6. Literature 
available here includes bike routes and 
suggestions for nature walks. 

Of historical interest in Eastham is 
the Old Grist Mill, built in 1793 and the 
oldest windmill on Cape Cod. (Late 
June to mid-September, daily except 
Sunday, 1 to 5 p.m. Admission free.) 
And, the Eastham Historical Society 
located off Route 6 maintains exhibits 
concerning early Eastham history. (July 
and August, Monday, Wednesday and 
Friday, 2 to 5 p.m. Adults 250.) 


Falmouth played an important part in 
the naval battles of the Revolution and 
the War of 1812, and the town has 
since seen prosperous days of whaling 
and trade. 

Visitors will have no problem keeping 
themselves occupied during a visit. 
The typical Cape town is well kept, 
and there are many sights to see in the 
immediate area. Begin your search for 
some history at the Falmouth Historical 
Museum in the Julia Wood House, built 
in 1790 and located on the town green. 
In addition to a collection of whaling 
memorabilia, the museum houses an- 
tique woodwork and wallpaper, por- 
traits and items relevant to Falmouth's 

early history. (June 15 to September 
15, daily, 2 to 5 p.m. Adults 500; chil- 
dren 250. The Society also operates a 
Thrift Shop, open Saturdays from 10 
a.m. to noon.) 

Another place to stop in Falmouth 
is the Saconesset Homestead and 
Ship's Bottom Roof House. Built in 
1678, the house is one of the few bow- 
roofed buildings still standing in the 
country. Exhibits on the 15-acre Home- 
stead include livestock, books, docu- 
ments and furniture. Picnicking is per- 
mitted on the grounds. (Mid-June to 
early October, daily, 10 a.m. to 6 p.m.; 
through December 24, Saturday and 
Sunday only. An antiques and crafts 
flea market is held on Sunday, June to 
October, 10 a.m. to 6 p.m.) 

A good place to get some exercise 
is the Ashumet Holly Reservation in 
East Falmouth, a 42-acre sanctuary 
where more than 2,000 varieties of 
holly grow. The reservation has a two- 
mile walking trail and exhibition build- 
ing. (Daily, Tuesday to Saturday, 8 a.m. 
to 4:30 p.m. Admission free.) 

Each summer, the Falmouth Play- 
house with its performances of Broad- 
way shows, art galleries and cafe, at- 
tracts hundreds of theater-goers. (For 
schedule information, call (617) 563- 


Harwich leads the Cape in cranberry 
production and the fall is an ideal time 
for a visit, since you're almost certain 
to happen upon a bog being harvested 
in the area. Drive along Route 124, or 
other roads leading away from town; 
it's fun to watch! 

If you walk around town, you'll en- 
counter some buildings of historic inter- 
est, such as the John Long House, 
built in 1765 and the oldest house 
standing in Harwich. Although it is not 
open to the public, a plaque laentifies 
its location, at the corner of Route 28 
and Chatham Road in South Harwich. 

The Brooks Free Library on Main 
Street contains a collection of senti- 
mental figurines, made by John Rogers, 
a man born in Salem in 1829. Known 
as the "People's Sculptor", Rogers made 
more than 200 of the miniature statues 
(most about two feet high). (Monday 
through Friday, 1 to 4 p.m.; Saturday 
from 10 a.m.; Tuesday and Thursday, 
7 to 9 p.m. Admission free.) 

The Harwich Junior Theater at Wil- 
low and Division Streets produces chil- 
dren's dramas and musicals during the 
summer season. And, beginning in the 
fall, the Harwich Winter Theater enter- 
tains local audiences. (For schedule 
information, call (617) 432-2002.) 


In the days when Provincetown was 
considered a "frontier" it flourished as 
an art colony, attracting many well- 
known fine artists. But, in the past 
decade, the artists seem to have be- 
come more scarce and the street peo- 
ple more abundant. The departure of 
the Chrysler Art Museum, moved to a 
location in the southern United States 
several years ago, where the owner felt 
it would be more appreciated, was 
thought by some local residents to be 
a tragic indication of Provincetown's 

But, there is much to see and do, and 
you should plan to go and decide for 
yourself what Provincetown is all about. 
Climb the stairs of the Pilgrim Memorial 
Monument and take a good look at the 
spectacular view. (Mid-June to mid- 
September, 9 a.m. to 9 p.m.; rest of 
year until 5 p.m. Adults 750; children 

Keeping alive the art tradition which 
made Provincetown famous is the 
Provincetown Art Association at 460 
Commercial Street. Exhibits by local 
artists and special concerts are sched- 
uled throughout the year. Ask at the 
association for information on local 
galleries and current shows. (Late June 
to early September, Monday through 
Saturday, 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. and 8 to 
11 p.m.; Sunday, 2 to 6 p.m.; rest of 
year as advertised. Adults 500; children 

Perhaps the most fun is just wander- 
ing around through town, looking at 
the shops (a great penny candy store 
is a real find) and the sights. At the 
junction of Commercial Street and 
Beach Highway a bronze marker shows 
the place of the Pilgrim's Landing, and 
Town Wharf, also called Macmillan 
Wharf, is a good place to watch boats 
unload their catches. 


Perhaps best known for the pressed 
glass it produced in enormous quanti- 
ties between 1825 and 1888, Sandwich 
is another Cape town with many at- 
tractions for visitors. 

The Sandwich Glass Museum at Town 
Hall Square shows more than 3,000 
samples of the famous Sandwich glass. 
(July and August, daily, 9 a.m. to 6 
p.m.; April through June and September 
to mid-November, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
Adults $1.25; children 250.) Not far 
away at the intersection of Main and 
River Streets, the First Parish House is 
the location of the Yesteryears Museum, 
housing an extensive collection of an- 
tique dolls. (Memorial Day to mid- 
October, Monday through Saturday, 10 



a.m. to 5 p.m.; Sunday from 1 p.m. 
By appointment at other times; call 
(617) 563-6673. Adults $1; children 

The Hoxie House and Dexter Grist 
Mill are two 17th century buildings 
which have been restored and opened 
to the public. (Mid-June to September, 
daily, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Combination 
ticket 750 for adults; 400 for children.) 
One of the most popular historical 
replicas in Sandwich is the Heritage 
Plantation, a 76-acre estate featuring 
an automobile collection, antique fur- 
nishings in many buildings, a military 
museum, picnic facilities and much, 
much more. (Mid-May to mid-October, 
10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Adults $2; children 

People who like to vacation out-doors 
should plan to visit the Shawme-Crowell 
State Forest, with areas for camping 
and hiking. (Call (617) 888-0351.) 


One of the Cape's major fishing towns, 
Wellfleet once contributed an enormous 
amount of oysters to the area's catch, 
and oyster shacks can still be seen 
along the water. 

To inquire about local history, stop 
at the Historical Society Museum on 
Main Street, where antique farm im- 
plements, firearms, period clothing and 
information are housed. (Mid-June to 
mid-September, Wednesday, Friday and 
Saturday, 2 to 5 p.m. Adults 500.) 

Or, to get away from history, visit 
the spectacular Wellfleet Bay Wildlife 
Sanctuary in South Wellfleet. Self- 
guiding nature trails cross the area and 
beachbuggy wildlife tours are offered 
in season. (Daily, 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. Ad- 
mission $2 per car. For information on 
the tours, call (617) 349-2615.) You can 
also visit Marconi Beach in South Well- 
fleet, open for just a few years but 
rarely filled with people. The access 
road is somewhat long, but the walk is 
pleasant; parking spaces are available 
for 500 cars. 


Yarmouth's architecture alone is worth 
a trip to town, if you do nothing more 
than wander up and down the streets, 
looking at the variety of buildings. 

Of historical interest is the Winslow 
Crocker House, built in 1780 and cur- 
rently housing period furnishings. (June 
to September, Tuesday through Satur- 
day, 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. Admission 750.) 
The Captain Bangs Hallet House on 
Strawberry Lane was an early 18th-cen- 
tury ship captain's home and contains 
original furnishings brought to the Cape 

from abroad. (June 15 to Labor Day, 
daily except Sunday, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.; 
other times by appointment; call (617) 
362-3021. Adults 500; children 250; 
Botanic Trails on the premises open 
May 15 to September 15, 10 a.m. to 5 
p.m. Admission 500.) 

Yarmouth is also home of the Aquari- 
um of Cape Cod, on Route 28 at 
Parkers River. In addition to displays 
of aquatic life, the management has 
added animal shows and a petting zoo. 
(April 1 to May 15, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; in 
summer, daily, 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. Adults 
$3; children $1.50). 



Once a lively whaling community, the 
island of Martha's Vineyard has be- 
come one of Massachusetts' fashiona- 
ble vacation retreats. But, since any 
popular place is sure to be crowded in 
the summer, the best time to plan a 
visit is during the off-season. 

For the most part, off-season visitors 
are able to enjoy the same attractions 
as the summer crowd, but with lower 
prices and less crowding. The Vine- 
yard has several excellent beaches and 
swimming is often possible through Oc- 
tober. Golf courses are open 10 
months of the year (weather permit- 
ting!) and scenic bicycle paths criss- 
cross the island. 

To reach the island via public trans- 
portation, make arrangements with the 
Woods Hole, Martha's Vineyard and 
Nantucket Steamship Authority for a 
place on the ferry from Woods Hole 
(617) 548-5011, which can also carry 
your car, or with the Hy-Line Ferry 
Service from Hyannis (617) 775-1885 
which carries only passengers. Air 
New England, offers regular service to 
the island airport. (In Boston, call (617) 

If your first stop is Vineyard Haven, 
go to the Chamber of Commerce office 
at Beach Road and Water Street and 
pick up the various brochures and 
literature available on the island. 

However you travel, you may want to 
explore Gay Head, the Indian settle- 
ment which Bartholomew Gosnold dis- 
covered when he led the first expedi- 
tion to the island in 1602. 

Up-lsland is Vineyard Haven, where 
the ferry unloads. It is the commercial 
center of the Vineyard, its harbor pro- 
tected by West Chop and East Chop. 
Oak Bluffs, beyond East Chop, started 
as a Methodist meeting camp and grew 
from tent grounds to a colony of Vic- 
torian homes noted for their elaborate 

On the east shore are Edgartown and 

Chappaquiddick, a high-priced resort 
area. If you are traveling to the Vine- 
yard to uncover things you didn't know 
about its history, stop at the Dukes 
County Historical Society at the corner 
of Cooke and School streets. Here you 
can tour the Thomas Cooke House, 
built in 1765 and see its authentic fur- 
nishings, whaling memorabilia and 
other antique items. (June to October, 
Tuesday through Saturday, 10 a.m. to 
4:30 p.m.; Sunday from 2 p.m. Adults 
$1; children 500.) The society's library, 
a historic boat shed and a tower with 
an operable Fresnel lens remain open 
after the Cooke House has closed for 
the season. (Tuesday, and Wednesday, 
1 to 4 p.m.; Saturday, 10 a.m. to noon 
and 1 to 4 p.m.) 


Nantucket, "The Little Gray Lady of the 
Sea," is 30 miles at sea. In recent years, 
the town of Nantucket has received a 
facelift, criticized by some people as 
imposing too manicured an appearance 
on the once weathered whaling com- 

Whatever you believe, the island is 
a great place to visit. Cobblestone 
streets and old buildings can be seen 
at every turn and the pace is a lei- 
surely one, ideal for a vacation. But, 
as with Martha's Vineyard and a good 
deal of Cape Cod, the advice is to go 
during the off-season. 

You can reach Nantucket via two 
ferry lines: Woods Hole, Martha's Vine- 
yard and Nantucket Steamship Authority 
offers passage to people as well as to 
their cars from Woods Hole (617) 548- 
5011 and Hy-Line Ferry Service carries 
passengers only from Hyannis (617) 
775-1885. Air New England also serv- 
ices the Nantucket airport. (In Boston, 
call (617)569-5510.) 

To see some places of historic in- 
terest, stop at the Nantucket Historical 
Association where 12 buildings plus a 
whaling museum are open. (Mid-June 
to mid-October, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Sea- 
son pass $3.) On Vestal Street is the 
Maria Mitchell Birthplace, built in 1790, 
home of the noted woman astronomer 
and teacher. Exhibits include a roof walk 
and various items relating to her life 
on the island. (Mid-June to mid-Sep- 
tember, 10 a.m. to noon and 2 to 5 p.m. 
Admission 500.) 

If you arrive on the island without a 
place to stay, go to the Nantucket In- 
formation Bureau at 25 Federal Street. 
The people there know what vacancies 
are available and can direct you to 
other places of interest. (In season, 9 
a.m. to 6 p.m.; mornings only in late 
fall and winter. Call (617) 228-0925.) 




There are lots of ways to get around 
Boston. The Massachusetts Bay Transit 
Authority (MBTA), the Boston and 
Maine, and Penn Central railroads offer 
several alternatives for reaching down- 
town Boston quickly. And the nice 
thing about public transportation in 
Boston is that practically every historic, 
scenic or recreational site is connected 
by at least one of six train lines, four 
subway lines and numerous bus routes. 

Boston train lines drop visitors off 
downtown at either North, South or 
Back Bay stations. Where the train 
drops you off, a bus or subway can 
pick you up. 

The MBTA, or "T" as it is popularly 
called, runs between 6 a.m. and 1 a.m. 
daily. Fares vary, usually depending on 
how far you're going, and range from a 
high of 500 on the Riverside line to 250 
on most of the in-town lines. As an 
added incentive, the "T" offers "Dime 
Time" from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. on most 
in-town trips. 


Park and Ride locations at Boston and 
Maine Railroad stations, offering service 
to Boston's North Station. Stations 
listed are only those not normally filled 
to capacity. 

South Acton Station 

In Acton, on Route 27 at junction of 
Railroad Avenue. From Route 2 take 
Route 27, south to station. 
West Concord Station 

In Concord at junction of Laws Brook 
Road and Route 62. From Route 2 take 
Route 62, south to station. 
Concord Station 

In Concord near center of town on 
Thoreau Street. From Route 2 take 
Route 62 north to Thoreau Street and 
Lincoln Station 

In South Lincoln on Lincoln Road. 
From Route 2 take Lincoln Road to 
Waltham Station 

Located in Waltham Center, junc- 
tion of Main and Moody Streets. From 
Route 128 take Exit 49 (Route 20) to 
Waltham Center. 
Lexington Station 

Located in Lexington Center on Mas- 

sachusetts Avenue. From Route 128 
take Exit 445 (Route 4) to station. 
Woburn Station 

Located in Woburn Center at the 
junction of Route 38 and Montvale 
Avenue. From I-93 take Exit 24 west to 
Woburn Center and station. 
Lowell Station 

In Lowell, on Thorndike Street. From 
I-495 take Exit 24 north to Thorndike 
Street and station. 
North Billerica Station 

In North Billerica adjacent to Route 
3A. From I-495 take Route 3A, south 
to station. 
Bradford Station 

In Haverhill, at the junction of Pleas- 
ant and Laurel Streets. From I-495 take 
Route 125 south to Pleasant Street and 
North Andover Station 

In North Andover, on Merrimack 
Street. From I-495, north, (Exit 30) take 
Route 114 to Merrimack Street and 
Lawrence Station 

In Lawrence, on Parker Street. From 
i-495 take Route 114, Exit 30, to 
Winthrop Street, right on Parker Street 
to station. 
Andover Station 

In Andover, on Route 133. From I-93, 
Exit 31 take Route 133, across Route 28 
to station. 
Melrose Highlands Station 

In Melrose, on Franklin Street, take 
Exit 34 from Route 128 to Route 129 
South (Main Street) to Franklin Street, 
right to station. 
Melrose Station 

In Melrose, on Emerson Street. Take 
Route 128, Exit 34S (Main Street) to 
Emerson Street, right to station. 
Ipswich Station 

In Ipswich, on Topsfield Road adja- 
cent to Ipswich Center. Route 1 North, 
right on Topsfield Road to station and 
adjacent municipal parking area. 
Hamilton & Wenham Station 

On Route 1A in Hamilton. From Route 
128, Exit 20N (Route 1A Dodge Street) 
north to station parking area. 
Beverly Station 

On Route 1A (Rantoul Street) in 
Beverly. From Route 128, Exit 20S take 
Route 1A (Dodge Street), to Broadway 
and station. 

Salem Station 

In Salem, adjacent to Salem Center 
on Route 114. From Route 128, Exit 
25S (Route 114) to municipal parking 
lot and station. 
Rockport Station 

On Granite Street near the junction 
of Route 127. From Route 128 take 
Exit 9 to Route 127. 
Manchester Station 

Located in Manchester by The Sea, 
on Beach Street. From Route 128 take 
Exit 15 to School Street and Man- 
chester station. 
Wonderland Station 

Off of C1 and North Shore Road in 
Suffolk Downs Station 

In Revere. From C1 take Windemar 
Avenue to station. 
Beachmont (Revere) Station 

In Revere on C1. Take Revere Beach 
Street to station. 
Orient Heights (East Boston) 

From C1, take Broadman Street to 
Wood Island Park (East Boston) 

In East Boston just off Route 1 near 
the airport. 
Wellington Circle Station 

In Medford, on Route 16 — Revere 
Beach Parkway and Route 28 — Fells- 


Park and Ride locations at Penn Cen- 
tral Railroad stations, offering service 
to Boston's Back Bay and South Sta- 
tions. Stations listed are only those not 
normally filled to capacity. 

Wellesley Station 

Located at the junction of Route 135 
in Wellesley. From Route 128 take Exit 
55 west to station. 
Wellesley Hills Station 

Located at the junction of Routes 9, 
16 and 135 in Wellesley. From Route 
128 take Exit 55 west to station. 
Wellesley Farms Station 

Located at Glen Road in Wellesley. 
From Route 128 take Exit 55 west to 
Route 16 to Glen Road. Right on Glen 
Road to station. 
Riverside Station 

Located in Newton adjacent to Mass. 
Pike and Route 128. From Route 128 
take Exit 52 to station. 
Needham Junction Station 

Located in Needham on Depot Road 
and Chestnut Street. From Route 128 
take Exit 56 west to station. 
West Roxbury Station 

Located in Boston at La Grange 
Street in the West Roxbury section. 
From Route 1 take La Grange Street to 
Highland Station 

Located in the West Roxbury section 
of Boston on Carey Street adjacent to 
Centre Street and the West Roxbury 
Parkway. From Route 1 take West 
Roxbury Parkway to station. 


Park and Ride continued 
Bellevue Station 

Located in the West Roxbury section 
of Boston on Roberts Street adjacent to 
Centre Street and the West Roxbury 
Parkway. From Route 1 take West Rox- 
bury Parkway to station. 
Roslindale Station 

Located on Belgrade Avenue in the 
Roslindale section of Boston. From 
Route 1 take West Roxbury Parkway to 
Belgrade Avenue. Left on Belgrade 
Avenue to station. 
Franklin Station 

Located in Franklin on Route 140 
(Central Street). From 1-495 take Exit 
5 to Route 140 east to station. 
Walpole Station 

Located on Route 27 in Walpole. 
From I-95 take Exit 10 west to Route 
27 and station. 
Norwood Central Station 

Located on Broadway adjacent to 
Route 1A and Norwood Center in Nor- 
wood. From Route 128 take Exit 63 
south, Route 95 to Exit 11W, Neponset 
Street to Norwood Center, left on 
Broadway to station. 
Islington Station 

Located in Westwood on Carrol Street 
adjacent to Route 1. From Route 128 
take Exit 60 north to Carrol Street, right 
to station. 
Mansfield Station 

Located in Mansfield adjacent to 
Route 140. From I-495 take Route 140 
Exit east to station. 
Sharon Station 

Located in Sharon on Route 27. From 
I-95 take Route 27 Exit 10 east to sta- 
Canton Junction Station 

Located in Canton on Sherman Street. 
From I-95 take Exit 11E, then a left on 
Chapman Street to station. 
Stoughton Station 

Located in Stoughton at the junction 
of Routes 27, 138, 139. From Route 128 
take Exit 64 south, Route 138, to station. 
Route 128 Station 

Located on Route 128 in Dedham. 
Take Route 128 exit 62 to station. 
Readvilie Station 

Located on Sprague Street in the 
Hyde Park area of Boston. From Route 
128 take Exit 61 to Sprague Street. 


Forest Hills Station 

From Route 1 follow Jamaica Way to 
Forest Hills subway located at the 
boundary of Jamaica Plain and Forest 
Hills. Located on Washington Street 
near the Arborway. 
Riverside Station 

Subway located in Newton adjacent 
to Mass. Pike and Route 128. From 
Route 128, take Exit 52 to station. 
Woodland Station 

Subway located in Newton on Wash- 
ington Street. From Route 128 take 
Exit 54 Newton to station. 
Eliot Station 

Subway located in Newton off of 
Route 9 at Lincoln Street. From Route 
128, take Exit 55 Newton-Brookline. 


To keep pace with the country's cur- 
rent biking boom, the Massachusetts 
Bicentennial Commission is working 
toward the development of bikeways 
throughout the Commonwealth. But, 
since funding is scarce and the plan- 
ning of such routes requires extensive 
research, at present there are more 
bikeways on the drawing board than 
there are in use. 

The commission is developing an 
18-mile historic route tracing Paul 
Revere's ride from Charlestown to 
Concord, and a 150-mile route follow- 
ing the line trekked by Colonel Henry 
Knox. Until these routes are ready 
for cyclists, go to any of the follow- 
ing places already set up in the state. 
In addition to the locations listed be- 
low, the Department of Natural Re- 
sources has mapped 10 selected routes, 
as the first phase in preparing a bi- 
cycle atlas; additional routes should 
be ready soon. For copies of their 
maps and suggested routes with points 
of interest along the way, write to the 
Department of Natural Resources, 
100 Cambridge Street, Boston 02202. 


Boston has a few miles of signed bike 
routes: along the median on Com- 
monwealth Avenue; the Fenway; and 
along the Charles River, which is 
maintained by the Metropolitan Dis- 
trict Commission. These are signed 
in places and curb-cuts have been 
made. However, the city's urban char- 
acter contributes to the routes' un-at- 
tractiveness since heavy traffic and 
congested intersections should be ex- 
pected. Weekends, particularly Sun- 
days, are the best time to bicycle 
through the city. 


Cambridge, a highly urbanized city, 
has established bike routes in various 
locations. Fresh Pond, in the western 
part, has a two-mile, unsigned but 
paved bicycle path around it. There 
are also bike routes that are partially 
signed along sections of main roads 

such as Broadway, Cambridge Street, 
Huron Avenue, and Concord Avenue. 
The Metropolitan District Commis- 
sion has also established a bike path 
on the Cambridge side of the Charles 
River between Eliot Bridge and Long- 
fellow Bridge. Sundays are the best 
time to use these routes. 


The town of Wellesley, about 15 miles 
west of Boston, has a two-mile, ex- 
clusive right-of-way bike path. The 
route parallels Fuller Brook Parkway. 
A marked, gravel path, its location is 
rural in character and covers some 
gently wooded rolling landscape. 
There are no maps of the route, but 
it is well known and traveled by local 


The town of Lincoln has a series of 
bike routes on separate paths that fol- 
low existing roadways. The terrain is 
primarily wooded, with some hills, and 
curving roads. In all, they total about 
eight miles. From Route 2 along Bed- 
ford Road to Lincoln Center and out 
Lincoln Road to Route 1 17 is one such 
path. Also, there are bike paths along 
Trapelo Road to Silver Hill Road, and 
from the junction of Routes 126 and 
117 to Tower Road. 


Wompatuk State Park is located about 
20 miles southeast of Boston. The 
bikeway covers 12 miles along its own 
right-of-way. It goes over some small 
hills, and is situated in a primarily 
wooded setting. Although lakes in the 
park are easily accessible, the bikeway 
itself does not lead directly to them. 
There are no intersections with any of 
the park roads and thus the bikeway 
is uninterrupted for its entire length. 
Trail maps are available at the park 
entrance. The park itself is open year 


Millis, about 10 miles north of the 
Rhode Island state line, has a 2.5 mile 
marked bike route. It begins at the 


rrrs bikeways 

junction of Curve Street and Route 
115, near Millis Center. From there, 
it swings past Richardson's Pond onto 
Ridge Street and then down Cause- 
way Street to the Medway line. The 
route is rural in character and passes 
some older homes on quiet, secondary 
roads. Traffic is minimal and the road 


The city of Brockton has four miles 
of bike lanes located at D. W. Field 
Park. The route is marked with bike 
lanes that share the right-of-way with 
motor vehicles. 


The town of Norton utilizes an aban- 
doned railroad bed for a bikeway. It 
consists of hard packed gravel for a 
length of four-and-a-half miles and 
can be reached where roads such as 
Route 140, Woodward Street and 
South Dean Street intersect the aban- 
doned rail bed. 

Fall River 

There are about 1 1 miles of class III 
(shared right-of-way) bike paths in 
Fall River. The route in the north 
end of town on busy urban roads com- 
pletes a circuit with a good starting 
point at North Eastern Avenue. There 
is one steep hill at Wilson Road but 
otherwise the topography is moderate 
to level. 

New Bedford 

The city of New Bedford has a nine- 
and-a-half-mile bike route. The route 
follows downtown streets with bikes 
sharing the right of way. It begins at 
Buttonwood Park, follows Rockdale 
Avenue to Cove Road and then to 
Fort Rodman. It retraces this route 
to Orchard Street, it then goes right 
on Orchard and back to Buttonwood 

South Carver 

Myles Standish State Forest is located 
just off Route 3. The bike routes in 
the forest are on paved, separate 
rights-of-way and total 16 miles in 

length. The terrain includes some hills 
through a primarily wooded land- 
scape, and the bike route intersects 
some park roads: caution is advised 
at these locations. A trail map and 
parking for automobiles are available 
at the beginning of the bike route. The 
state forest is open from April 15th 
to October 15th, offering camping and 
picnic facilities. 


One of Cape Cod's more attractive 
bicycling areas is along the Cape Cod 
Canal in Bourne. Although not 
signed, bikes are allowed to use service 
roads that parallel the length of the 
canal on both sides. Access to the 
bike paths is along dirt paths that 
come down from Route 6, or at the 
two bridges. The view is panoramic 
as rolling hills slope up and away from 
the well-traveled canal. The route 
length on each side of the canal is 
about three miles. 


A four-mile bike path on an aban- 
doned rail bed connects Falmouth to 
Woods Hole on Cape Cod. It begins 
just off Route 28 in downtown Fal- 
mouth and goes through beautiful ter- 
rain with occasional glimpses of the 
Vineyard Sound. There are few inter- 
sections with motor vehicles, a fact 
which heightens the enjoyment of the 
path. The surface is packed gravel 
and requires a bit more effort than a 
smooth, paved surface. Access to the 
bike path is located where the aban- 
doned track crosses Beach Street. 


A two-mile, signed bike path fol- 
lows Route 130 in Mashpee on Cape 
Cod. The route begins at Great Neck 
Road and ends at the Barnstable/ 
Mashpee line at Route 28. Route 130 
is a feeder from Route 6 with a speed 
limit of 45 miles per hour. Bicyclists 
should exercise caution when using 
this route. 


Nickerson State Park is located on 

Cape Cod and is easily accessible from 
either Route 6A or Route 6. It is open 
from April 15th to October 15th and 
camping facilities are available. The 
bikeway, with car parking available, 
covers about eight miles of scenic, 
wooded terrain. The path circumvents 
a pond, passes through a cedar swamp, 
and intersects at three places with 
park roads. No maps of the trail are 
yet available. 

Cape Cod National Seashore 

The outer arm of Cape Cod has a 
series of bike paths constructed and 
operated by the National Park Serv- 
ice. The paths are useable all year, 
and the mild climate of Cape Cod 
makes them particularly worthwhile 
during all but the coldest months. 

There are eight miles of bike paths 
at the northern tip in Provincetown. 
The route is circular in design and 
has several spurs. Some access points, 
with car parking available are at Race 
Point Beach, Herring Cove Beach, and 
the Province Lands Visitor Center. 

About five miles south in Truro, 
there is another bike path relatively 
level and two miles in length. Ac- 
cess to this bike path is from Route 6 
onto High-Head Road and the route 
goes from High-Head parking lot to 
the Head of the Meadow Beach. 

Further south, in Eastham, is an- 
other two-mile bike path, this one 
moderately flat with easy curves. It 
begins at the Salt Pond Visitor Center 
and ends at Coast Guard Beach. 

All of these paths are paved, and 
on their own right-of-way. A map 
outlining all three areas can be ob- 
tained by stopping in person at the 
National Seashore's Visitor Centers. 

Martha's Vineyard 

Martha's Vineyard State Forest is cen- 
trally located on the island of Martha's 
Vineyard, serviced by ferry boats from 
Woods Hole all year round and from 
Falmouth and Hyannis during the 
summer. Bicycles are allowed on the 
ferrys at a charge of about $2.00. 

The state forest is roughly three 
miles from the ferry landings at Vine- 


Bikeways continued 

yard Haven and Oak Bluffs. There 
are 14 miles of signed bike routes 
that wind their way through scrub pine 
covered terrain. In some parts, the 
route shares the right-of-way with 
motor vehicles on County Road, West 
Tisbury Road, and Old County Road, 
but the island also has exclusive bike 
paths. In the near future, the Massa- 
chusetts Department of Public Works 
plans to establish its own route. 

The forest is open year round and 
picnic and camping facilities are avail- 
able. Be advised, however, that the 
island, and especially its camping fa- 
cilities are very crowded during the 
summer. Arrangements should be 
made in advance. 


Nantucket has a bike path separated 
from the road by a grass strip. It 
parallels Milestone Road between 
Nantucket town and Siasconset for 
about a length of four miles. Nan- 
tucket is serviced by ferry from Hy- 
annis in the summer and Woods Hole 
all year round. Bicycles are permitted 
on the boats for an added charge. 

West Chicopee 

Chicopee State Park is located in West 
Chicopee along the periphery of West- 
over Air Base. It is open during day- 
light hours all year long. The bike 
path has its own right-of-way and 
does not intersect at all with any roads. 
The route is wooded and hilly and 
passes by a lake and a reservoir. There 
is also parking at the beginning of 
the two mile path. A trail map is 
available at the park entrance. 


Stockbridge has an extensive system 
of marked, class III bikeways (routes 
where bicycles share the road with 
cars). They are circuitous routes that 
can be picked up in Stockbridge Cen- 
ter, followed through scenic back 
roads and for the most part, returned 
to the center. Depending on the road, 
the bike routes are either paved or 
dirt covered. The flat, wooded ter- 
rain of the area provides a wonderful 
locale for bicyclists in a typically New 
England setting with many points of 
historic interest. A map of the bike 
routes can be found in the Library and 
the Kiwanis Information booth in the 
center of town. 

The above logo is taken from a leaf form suggested by the Liberty Tree which 200 years 
ago stood on Boston Common and rallied Americans to critical events of their time. 
This star-like configuration serves as a symbol to mark the specific events in the 1970's 
that will occur during the celebration of America's Bicentennial in Massachusetts. 


Roadside rest areas and information centers, natural stops for tourists, will 
feature Bicentennial and tourist information panels similar to bulletin boards 
which tell you how to get to and from scenic, historic, and recreational spots 
throughout Massachusetts. 

Each panel will have two maps: one of the entire state (with emphasis 
on major highways and with an insert of park-and-ride facilities in the Metro 
Boston area), and one of the region in which the panel is located. A series 
of appropriate symbols indicate attractions in each community such as 
buildings of architectural or historic interest, tourist services, and recreation 
facilities. Auto routes and hiking trails that are of historic and/or scenic 
interest will also be marked. Specifically, the Appalachian Trail (and other 
state-wide hiking routes) will be indicated on the panel, as will hiking 
routes in state parks. 

So, you know this much in advance of your trip: you'll be able to guide 
yourself from site to site via well-marked, attractive Bicentennial and tourist 
information panels, complete with maps, complete with symbols. And, just 
to be sure you don't miss the panels, "approach" signs, with the state 
Bicentennial symbol will let you know when you're nearing one. 

The panels, which should be up by June of 1975 at 50 selected sites, 
are a public service from the Bicentennial Commission, Department of 
Public Works, Department of Commerce and Development, and Historical 
Commission. They were completed with the assistance of regional and local 
planning agencies and development and tourist councils. 


The above number will ring at the Central Tourist Information Center for 
Massachusetts. Call it between 8 a.m. and 10 p.m. (after April 15, 1975) 
from any place within the state to receive information on lodging, accommo- 
dations, events, and admission information concerning specific places. Who- 
ever answers the phone should also be able to give you suggestions on what 
routes to follow to get where you're going, and some hints about crowds. 




1975 Edition 

Massachusetts Bicentennial Commission 

Published for the Massachusetts Bicentennial 

10 Tremont Street 

Commission by Yankee Press, a Massachusetts 

Boston, Mass. 02108 

corporation. 143 Newbury Street, Boston, Mass. 

02116. Yankee Press is a subsidiary of Yankee, 

Governor Michael S. Dukakis, ex officio 

Inc., Dublin, N.H. 03444, publishers of YANKEE 


Executive Director 


Edward A. McColgan 



Secretary of State (or his designee) 

' Dr. Richard W. Hale, State Archivist 

The Commissioner of Education 

Gregory Anrig 


Brigadier General William Molla 


(representing The Adjutant General) 

Richard D. Heckman 


Appointed by the President of the Senate 

Georgia E. Orcutt 

Senator Chester G. Atkins of Middlesex, Senate Chairman 

Art Director 

Senator Alan D. Sisitsky of Hampden-Berkshire 

Michael C. Fender 

Senator Ronald C. MacKenzie of Middlesex 

Contributing Editor 
Marcia Burick Goldstein 

Senator William L. Saltonstall of Essex 

Senator Arthur J. Lewis Jr. of Suffolk 

Managing Editor 

Appointed by the Speaker of the House 

Jacqueline B. Jordan 

Rep. Vincent J. Piro of Somerville, House Chairman 

Editorial Assistants 

Rep. Joseph E. Brett of Quincy 

Ellen P. Keir, John Pierce 

Rep. Lincoln Cole of Lexington 

Photo Research 

Rep. Michael J. Daly of Boston 

Sandy Taylor 

Rep. Edward M. Dickson of Weston 

Ann Novotny, Research Reports 

Rep. Robert E. Ficco of Franklin 

Editorial Consultant 

Rep. George R. Sprague of Sherborn 

Robert Gross 

Rep. Carlton M. Viveiros of Fall River 

Rep. Robert D. Wetmore of Barre 

Appointed by the Governor 

Professor Douglas P. Adams 

Mrs. Marjorie Anderson 

Printed by Spencer Press, Hingham, Mass. Bound 

Mr. Thomas E. Andrews 

by Star Bindery, Boston, Mass. Paper supplied by 

Mr. Luis Aponte 

Colonial Paper Co., Boston and International 

Professor Bernard Bailyn 

Paper Co., Boston Division, Composition by 

Mr. Richard A. Berenson 

Wrightson Typographers, Boston, Mass. 

Mrs. Amelia G. Bingham 

Mrs. Harriet Ropes Cabot 

Mr. John A. Callahan 

Mrs. Howard Edmonds 

Additional copies can be ordered by writing to 

Dr. Jordan D. Fiore 

Massachusetts Bicentennial Guide, P.O. Box 5134, 

Mrs. Virginia C. Gamage 

State Street Bank and Trust Co., Boston, Mass. 

Mrs. C. Chauncey Gray 

02107. Please enclose check for $2.95 per copy. 

Mr. Francis W. Hatch 


Mr. V. Leslie Hebert 

Mr. Charles J. Laubenstein 

Mr. James A. Lynch Jr. 

The Commemorative Guide to the Massachusetts 

Professor Robert E. Moody 

Mr. Daniel Needham Jr. 

Mr. Robert F. Needham 

Mr. Asa Phillips Jr. 

Dr. Stephen T. Riley 

Bicentennial copyright © 1975 by Yankee, Inc. 
All rights reserved. Reproduction or use in whole 
or any part of the contents, without permission of 
the copyright owners is prohibited. 

Mr. Ralph P. Rudnick 

Yankee, Inc. 

Mr. Byron Rushing 

Mrs. Dorothy W. C. Tracy 

Mr. George A. Wells, Vice Chairman 

C. Robertson Trowbridge 

Mr. Gerrold A. Wishnow 

Vice President 

Judson D. Hale 

Counsel for the Bicentennial 


Herrick, Smith, Donald, Farley & Ketchum 

Robert N. Nielsen